Biodiesel Technical Training Course BIO 3A: Biodiesel Engine and Fleet Performance Presented by the National Biodiesel Board
Learning Objec-ves • Provide access to industry experts for more detailed ques-ons and answers about biodiesel • Introduce the Na-onal Biodiesel Board’s Diesel Technician Training program and the program resources to the audience • Provide informa-on regarding engine performance and ﬂeets using biodiesel and biodiesel blends across the US 2
Learning Outcomes • Be able to iden-fy which public and private ﬂeets use biodiesel and why • Be able to explain the key changes made to a ﬂeet preventa-ve maintenance program when switching to biodiesel. • Be able to properly diagnose and make recommenda-ons regarding biodiesel use and vehicle performance 3
Key Resources • Department of Energy (DOE)• B100 & Blends• Material Compatibility• Engine Performance• Diesel and Biodiesel Emissions
Fuel proper-es eﬀects on Common Rail FIE Specified Fuel properties: chemical, contamination, physical Density Aromatics Flash Pt Viscosity Cetane # Sulfur & Volatility • Leakage control • Startability • Corrosion • Fire Hazard • Pressure • Accurate SOI control • Elastomeric • Acid oxidation • Spill • Pressure control compatibility Hazard • Controlled HR • Quantity • Catalyst poisoning • Durability/Fatigue control • Cavitation • Spark damage • Smoke & Particulates Hazard • Filter pluggingHard Particle and ash Water Oxidation Fatty Acid Lubricity contamination contamination Stability Methyl Esters • Wear • Abrasive Wear • Rough running • Gumming, sticking • Gumming, sticking (misfire) • Scuffing • Deposits • Deposits • Filter plugging • Corrosion • Seizure • Filter plugging • Filter pluggingOTC and Refiner Additives • Wear • Corrosion & Wear • Corrosion / Wear• Anticorrosion• Cetane improvers Refining process Distribution and storage process contaminants contaminants• Cold flow improvers • Catalysts • tank bottoms * pumps, pipes• Lubricity improvers • Desulfurization agents • microbial * corrosion• Conductivity improvers • Cross contamination • algae *varnish/sludge
Biodiesel Delivers Important Diesel Proper-es • Auto-‐igni-on = Cetane Number over 50 • BTU Content = Similar to #1, less than #2 • Viscosity = Values in diesel fuel range • Cloud Point = Current biodiesel higher than #2 • Lubricity = Naturally high in lubricity • Sulfur = Naturally less than 15 ppm • Cleanliness = ASTM specs same as petrodiesel • Stability = Spec set for 6 month min. shelf life • Emissions signiﬁcantly less for PM, HC, CO
Biodiesel and Engine Manufacturers • A]er the ﬁrst passage of ASTM D6751 in 2001, even though engine manufacturers voted posi-ve at ASTM most were not yet willing to put their name behind B20 • Na-onal Biodiesel Board set forth on intensive eﬀort to work with OEM’s to address any issues and concerns • B20 Fleet Evalua-on Team Formed: Internaonal, John Deere, Naonal Biodiesel Board, Naonal Renewable Energy Lab, Parker – Racor, Siemens Diesel Systems, Stanadyne Corp, Volkswagen AG, Volvo Truck, Fleetguard, Bosch, Case New Holland, Caterpillar, Cummins, DaimlerChrysler, Delphi Diesel Systems, Department of Defense, Engine Manufacturers Associaon, Ford Motor Co, General Motors • Develop fact based informed posi-on on B20 • B20 Failure Mode and Eﬀects Analysis (FMEA) • Detailed iden-ﬁca-on of everything that can go wrong when using B20 • Rank: Severity, Occurrence, Detec-on modes • Develop RIN: Risk Iden-ﬁca-on Number • Develop plan to address high RIN areas
B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations• Ensure the B20 blend meets proper-es for ASTM D 975, Standard Speciﬁca-on for Diesel Fuel Oils or the ASTM speciﬁca-on for B20 once it is approved. • Ensure your B20 supplier provides a homogenous product. Avoid long term storage of B20 to prevent degrada-on. Biodiesel should be used within six months. • Prior to transi-oning to B20, it is recommended that tanks be cleaned and free from sediment and water. Check for water and drain regularly if needed. Monitor for microbial growth and treat with biocides as recommended by the biocide manufacturer. See the NREL Biodiesel Storage and Handling Guidelines for further informa-on.
B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations• Fuel ﬁlters on the vehicles and in the delivery system may need to be changed more frequently upon ini-al B20 use. Biodiesel and biodiesel blends have excellent cleaning proper-es. The use of B20 can dissolve sediments in the fuel system and result in the need to change ﬁlters more frequently when ﬁrst using biodiesel un-l the whole system has been cleaned of the deposits le] by the petrodiesel. • Be aware of B20’s cold weather proper-es and take appropriate precau-ons. When opera-ng in winter climates, use winter blended diesel fuel. If B20 is to be used in winter months, make sure the B20 cloud point is adequate for the geographical region and -me of year the fuel will be used.
B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations• Perform regularly scheduled maintenance as dictated by the engine opera-on and maintenance manual. If using B20 in seasonal opera-ons where fuel is not used within 6 months, consider storage enhancing addi-ves or ﬂushing with diesel fuel prior to storage. • These recommenda-ons on use of B20 are preliminary and are not provided to extend or supplant warranty limita-on provided by an individual engine or equipment supplier. Use of B20 blends is solely at the discre-on and risk of the customer and any harm eﬀect caused by the use of B20 are not the responsibility of the engine or equipment maker.
B20 FET - Technical Guidance and Recommendations• Biodiesel is the pure, or 100 percent, biodiesel fuel. It is referred to as B100 or “neat” biodiesel. • A biodiesel blend is pure biodiesel blended with petrodiesel. Biodiesel blends are referred to as BXX. The XX indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend (i.e., a B20 blend is 20 percent by volume biodiesel and 80 percent by volume petrodiesel ). • Ensure the biodiesel meets the ASTM speciﬁca-on for pure biodiesel (ASTM D 6751) before blending with petrodiesel. Purchase biodiesel and biodiesel blends only from companies that have been registered under the BQ-‐9000 fuel quality program.
Today’s Fleet examples B20 Fleet Evalua-on Team NREL/NBB B20 Bus Fleet Evalua-on B20 Cummins 1000 hr. Durability Test US Postal Service, St. Louis Bus System Denver Regional Transit Bus System Las Vegas Valley Water District Clark County, NV School District Connec-cut DOT; Keene, NH; NC DOT; Cedar Rapids, IA Buses, etc. etc. etc.
Cummins 1000 Hour Durability B20 Study The objec-ve was to operate the engine for 1000 hr using B20 biodiesel fuel, and do a compara-ve analysis with engines that have operated under the same type of condi-ons using #2D diesel fuel. Accelerated, high-load durability cyclehr 0 25 50 125 1000
Test Engine Cummins prototype 2007 ISL Six cylinder 8.9 liter Rated power of 330 BHP Peak torque of 1150 ]•lb at 1300 rpm Diesel Oxida-on Catalyst (DOC) Diesel Par-culate Filter (DPF) Post injec-on (in-‐cylinder) for ac-ve regenera-on Variable geometry turbocharger Exhaust gas recircula-on (EGR) with cooler Cummins fuel injec-on system
Test Cycles Durability Tes-ng Accelerated High Idle High-‐load Peak Low Idle Power Transient cycle Varying load and speed Peak Torque Cycle repeated for 1000 hr >70% of durability cycle at full load Emissions Tes-ng Federal Test Procedure (FTP) One cold start transient FTP test Three hot start transient FTP test One SET Ramped Modal Cycle
Durability & Emission Results Approximately 17,000 gallons of B20 biodiesel fuel was used during the durability test. Test went well and was successful. There were no biodiesel related failures during the test, and no reported signiﬁcant changes in performance of the engine. Engine performance was essen-ally the same when tested at 125 & 1000 hr of accumulated durability opera-on. Emission results indicate that THC, CO, and PM levels were not signiﬁcantly diﬀerent between the B20 and ULSD. ~The emission-‐grade B20 test resulted in ≈6% higher NOx (within expected range) Fuel consump-on was observed to be ≈3% higher than the 2007 cer-ﬁed ULSD test (within expected range).
Overhead Components Top of cylinder head No Bottom of cylinder head sludge deposits Deposits comparable to #2D Results are typical for this type of test with #2D diesel fuelIntake Valves Exhaust Valves
Power Transfer Components Component Comments Crancksha] Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Gear Meets rebuild spec Cam Bushing Meets rebuild spec Fuel Pump Gear Meets rebuild spec Crancksha] Meets rebuild spec During teardown, the crankshaft was foundLower & Upper Normal wear to be in very good condition, and resultsBearings were comparable to #2D diesel fuel test.Connec-ng Rod Meets rebuild spec Connec-ng Rod Meets rebuild spec Bushing
Power Cylinder Components Crosshatch visible in all six cylinders.Component Comments Minor stainingPiston Normal light wear and deposits. Cylinder Liners Normal light wear. Ring Grooves Anti-Thrust SideTop rings Normal uniform face wear. Cylinder 1 Top and booom side look typical. Middle rings Normal face wear. Top and booom sides OK, and light Top Piston carboning. Piston Bowl Front Cylinder 1Oil rings Looked good. Very liole wear. Results comparable to #2D diesel fuel test.
Cooling and Lube Components Cylinder 1 TopComponent Comments Cylinder 6 BottomOil pump No issues Oil cooler head No issues Oil cooler cover No issues Bottom (Oil) Piston RingsOil pressure No issues regulator/bypass There were no failures found on thePiston cooling No problems due to cooling and lube components. Thenozzles B20. wear and deposits found on the parts were normal and consistent withOil Pan Normal findings found on parts that ran with #2Oil suc-on tube Gasket showed good diesel fuel in similar tests. imprint of seal Turbo coolant/oil Normal lines
Air Handling Components Component Comments Exhaust Manifold No issues. EGR Cooler No cracks, light coa-ng of soot on inlet and outlet tubes. No soot in inlet diﬀuser. Findings good overall. EGR Valve Looked good. Normal soot accumula-on. EGR gaskets, hoses, No issues found due to Carbon deposit layer was generated on thetubes, shield, moun-ng running with B20. passage and inside parts of the EGR valve, butplate, crossover thickness was very thin and condition was dry which is normal for this durability test.
A]ertreatment Components Component Comments Diesel Oxida-on Looked good. No face plugging. Catalyst (DOC) Blockages found appeared like debris and substrate material. Debris was analyzed under Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and all debris found is expected in a typical DOC a]er 1000 hr of opera-on, whether fueled with ULSD or biodiesel. Diesel Par-culate Inlet face showed signs of ash build up, but similar to diesel fuel for Filter (DPF) this type of test. Outlet looked good with no signs of soot. No failure found. Inlet and outlet Looked good. sec-on Gaskets Looked good.
Fuel System Pictures Stage 1 Plunger Needle Plunger Needle – Top View No marks on needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining. Plunger Orificenot clogged with oilsludge or deposits Stage 2 Plunger Needle has some wear, but normal for this type of aggressive test.
Fuel System Components Rail and fuel lines Rail – No abnormal wear. End Fi?ng – No unusual wear. HP Fuel Lines – No visible structural deteriora-on or cracks observed. Mechanical Dump No unusual wear, deteriora-on or sludge buildup observed on plungers, Valve (MDV) plunger seats or oriﬁce. 1) Stage One Plunger – No wear visible on the needle surface or the edge. Some slight staining seen on plunger base. 2) Stage Two Plunger – Some wear, but normal. Plunger oriﬁce not clogged with oil sludge or deposits. Injectors Injector performance test and photos indicate that the injectors were consistent with injectors that ran with #2D diesel fuel. So] Lines No visible damage to any sec-on of the internal wall of the used fuel tubes indica-ng that the tubing liner material is resistant to the B20 temperatures and pressures during the engine performance test. Overall There were no signs of severe or aggressive corrosion pirng damage on any of the surfaces.
Summary A Cummins 2007 prototype 8.9 liter ISL diesel engine equipped with DOC, DPF, VGT, and EGR with cooler was operated successfully at SwRI using a high-‐load accelerated durability cycle for 1000 hr with a B20 blend of soy-‐based biodiesel and ULSD. During the durability tes-ng, no biodiesel related failures occurred. Engine performance was essen-ally the same when tested at 125 and 1000 hr of accumulated durability opera-on. Emissions measurements indicate the HC, CO, and PM were not signiﬁcantly diﬀerent between the B20 and ULSD tests, and NOx increased with B20 fuel. Fuel consump-on also increased with B20 fuel. A thorough engine teardown evalua-on of the overhead, power transfer, cylinder, cooling, lube, air handling, gaskets, a]ertreatment, and fuel system parts was performed. There were no failures found on the engine components that were directly aoributable to running biodiesel B20. The wear and deposits found were normal and consistent with ﬁndings from parts that ran with #2 diesel fuel in similar tests.
Biodiesel Resources www.biodiesel.org • Biodiesel Training Toolkit • News Releases & Informa-on Resources • Technical Library, Spec Sheets & Videos • OEM Warranty Posi-ons on Biodiesel • U.S. Diesel Vehicle List www.BQ-‐9000.org Rachel Burton NBB Diesel Technician Training Prog • Lis-ng of BQ-‐9000 Cer-ﬁed Companies firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 919-‐444-‐3495 www.biotrucker.com Call NBB at 1-‐800-‐841-‐5849 • Lis-ng of BioTrucker retail sites Visit www.biodiesel.org www.biodieselautomoNve.org 36 • Dedicated to information exchange for biodiesel & diesel technicians