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Bio 2B: biodiesel maintenance


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  • 1. Biodiesel  Technical   Training  Course     BIO  2B:  Biodiesel  Vehicle  Maintenance   Presented by the National Biodiesel Board
  • 2. Learning  Objec-ves    •  Provide  access  to  industry  experts  for  more   detailed  ques-ons  and  answers  about  biodiesel  •  Introduce  the  Na-onal  Biodiesel  Board’s  Diesel   Technician  Training  program  and  the  program   resources  to  the  audience  •  Provide  technical  instruc-on  on  biodiesel’s  impact   towards  engine  and  vehicle  maintenance  &   troubleshoo-ng  •  Provide  instruc-on  on  diesel,  biodiesel  fuel  and  fuel   filtra-on   2  
  • 3. Learning  Outcomes     •  Be  able  to  discern  issues  between  normal   diesel  problems  and  poor  quality  biodiesel   imposters  or  out-­‐of-­‐spec  biodiesel  when  they   hit  the  shop  •  Be  able  to  properly  diagnose  and  make   recommenda-ons  regarding  biodiesel  use  and   vehicle  maintenance  •  Be  able  to  describe  how  fuel  proper-es  affect   fuel  quality  and  fuel  filtra-on   3  
  • 4. Today’s  Topics  •  Vehicle  maintenance   •  Troubleshoo-ng   Fuel  System      Out-­‐of-­‐spec  fuel     Air  Intake    Handling  &  Use   Lubrica-on  Oil      Performance     Star-ng  &  Charging,    Fuel  filter  contaminants   Computer  controls   Cooling,  &  Vacuum   systems   Exhaust  &  Emissions   Controls  
  • 5.  Key  Resources  
  • 6. Biodiesel  Delivers  Important  Diesel  Proper-es  •  Auto-­‐igni-on  =  Cetane  Number  over  50  •  BTU  Content  =  Similar  to  #1,  less  than  #2  •  Viscosity  =  Values  in  diesel  fuel  range  •  Cloud  Point  =  Current  biodiesel  higher  than  #2  •  Lubricity  =  Naturally  high  in  lubricity  •  Sulfur  =  Naturally  less  than  15  ppm  •  Cleanliness  =  ASTM  specs  same  as  petrodiesel    •  Stability  =  Spec  set  for  6  month  min.  shelf  life    •  Emissions  significantly  less  for  PM,  HC,  CO  
  • 7. Engine  to  Fuel   Biodiesel  only  contacts  the  fuel  system  so  use  should   not  affect  bearings,  turbo,  oil/water  pumps,  and  other   wear-­‐related  parts.   Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel •  Equipment  benefits   800 –  Superior  lubricity  HFRR WSD (micron) 700 600 500 –  B2  has  up  to  66%   400 300 more  lubricity  than  #2   200 100 Diesel   0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 •  No  overdosing  concerns   Biodiesel Blend (%)
  • 8. Fuel  System  •  Material  compa-bility  is  key  for  blends  above  B20  •  Repair  Fuel  leaks  to  prevent  impact  to  other  systems!    From  the  fuel  sending  unit  in  tank  to  injectors    primary  &  secondary  fuel  filters    Fuel  lines  (sending  &  return)    High  pressure  or      low  pressure  injectors    O-­‐rings    Transfer  &  injec-on  pumps    
  • 9.  Solvency  &  Stability    B20  &  Under  •  Monitor  filters,  less  than  2%  need  to  be  changed  •  Mild  cleaning  effect  •  Storage  tanks  may  need  to  be  cleaned,  or  keep  extra  filters  on   hand  at  start  up  •  Housekeeping  protocols  for  generic  diesel  equally  important   prior  to  blending  •  The  biodiesel  specifica-on  contains  parameters  for  insuring   adequate  fuel  stability  for  normal  applica-ons  •  The  shelf  life  of  biodiesel  blends  is  recommended  by  NBB  as  6   months    
  • 10.  Fuel  Filter:Service  Intervals  •  Ford:  Special  Opera-ng  Condi-ons  •  Cummins  and  John  Deere:  “half the standard interval for the next two fuel filter changes… Afterwards, revert to the intervals specified in O & M manual.”•  Refer to OEM recommendations
  • 11. Lubrica-on  System  •  Change  oil  as  recommended  by  Engine   manufacturer  •  Use  OEM  recommended  engine  oil  •  API,  CI  ra-ng  •  Regular  oil  analysis  maintenance  program  •  Inspect  dips-ck  for  biodiesel  smell  
  • 12. Lube  Oil  Contamina-on  •  Current  ongoing  research,  SAE  CI  Engine  Performance  with   Alterna-ve  Fuels,  2008  •  A  concern  of  engine  manufacturers.  •  Same  mechanism  for  the  oil  dilu-on  for  heavier  frac-ons  of   diesel  fuel  as  for  biodiesel.  •  Due  to  high  boiling  point  of  biodiesel,  the  fuel  is  slower  to   vaporize  ager  injec-on  into  the  cylinder.  •  Remaining  compounds  will  be  deposited  on  the  cylinder  wall   where  they  can  be  pulled  into  the  crankcase  by  the  normal   scraping  ac-on  of  the  pistons  oil  control  rings.    •  Light  Duty  issue,  2009+  
  • 13. Cold  Weather  Performance        B20  has  been  used       Cold weather can cloud and even gel anysuccessfully  in  climates         diesel fuel, including biodiesel.below  -­‐20ºF   Users of a B20 with #2 diesel will usually experience an increase of the cold flow properties (cold filter plugging point, cloud point, pour point) approximately 2 to 10° Fahrenheit. Similar precautions employed for petroleum diesel are needed for fueling with 20 percent blends. •  blending with #1 diesel (kerosene) •  using fuel heaters and parking indoors •  and using a cold-flow improvement additive
  • 14. Lower  Emissions    U.S.  biodiesel  reduces  lifecycle  carbon  emissions  by  over  50%   compared  to  petrodiesel,  qualifying  it  as  an  Advanced  Biofuel   under  RFS-­‐2  and  making  it  the  best  carbon  reduc-on  tool  of  any   liquid  fuel  commercially  available.     Emission  Type   B20   B2    Total  Unburned  Hydrocarbons   -­‐20%   -­‐2.2%    Carbon  Monoxide   -­‐12%   -­‐1.3%    ParHculate  MaIer   -­‐12%   -­‐1.3%    Oxides  of  Nitrogen  (NOX)   +/-­‐2%   +/-­‐.2%  
  • 15. Diesel  Emission  Reduc-ons  
  • 16. Technology PathwayFuel system Better understandingtechnology of combustion EGR technologyRate controlHigh pressure Others CombustionMulti-injection technology Control technology PM trap Aftertreatment Fuel technology technology DOC Alternate Fuels De-Nox Low sulfur (Biodiesel) SCR
  • 17. DPF:    Balance  Point  Temp  -­‐    Regenera-on  Rate   Results  • BPT is 40ºC lower for B20 •  Regeneration rate increases• Soot is more easily burned off of filter with increasing biodiesel• B20: lower temperature duty cycle OK content •  Even at 5%, biodiesel PM measurably oxidizes more quickly BPT ULSD 360ºC B20 320ºC B100 250ºC
  • 18. Biodiesel  and  Agertreatment  Systems     Regenera-on  mode  is  important    Biodiesel  is  compa-ble  with  Diesel   •  Most  US  heavy  duty   Par-culate  Filters,  and  has  some   applica-ons  use  exhaust   dis-nct  advantages:   stream  fuel  injec-on  which  is   •  Lowers  regenera-on   compa-ble  with  B20,  perhaps   temperatures   higher  blends   •  Less  engine  out  par-culate   •  Some  light  duty  OEMs   mamer   recommend  max  B5  at   present   •  May  provide  increased   performance  and  decreased   maintenance  vs.  ULSD  alone   •  May  provide  increased  fuel   economy     18  
  • 19. Are  you  Smoking?  •  Black  smoke:  injectors,  air  inlet  restric-on,  engine   -ming,  internal  engine  -ming,  injec-on  pump  failure  •  Blue  Smoke:    insufficient  fuel,  contaminated  fuel,    High  or  low  oil  consump-on,  air  in  the  fuel  •  White  smoke:  bad  glow  plugs,  plugged  return  fuel   line,  insufficient  fuel  supply,  low  compression,  air  in   fuel,  injector  or  pump  problem,  engine  -ming  •  White  smoke  can  be  normal  in  cold  weather  before   engine  warms    
  • 20. SCR  Performance  
  • 21. B20  vs.  Diesel:    In  the  shop  •  With  in-­‐spec  B20  and  lower,  the  issues  you  can   expect  to  see  in  your  shop  are  the  same  as  you  will   see  with  petrodiesel  •  Except:   –  Expect  to  see  fewer  lubricity  related  issues   –  Expect  to  see  fewer  problems  with  ager-­‐treatment   –  Filter  related  issues  may  be  related  to  cleaning  effect  upon   first  use,  or  are  likely  normal  diesel  issues  or  out  of  spec  or   imposter  biodiesel   –  Less  black  smoke  from  exhaust!     21  
  • 22. Fuel  Filter  TroubleshooHng:   Petrodiesel  &  Biodiesel    
  • 23. What  does  a  Fuel  Filter  catch?     Paraffin WaxOff-spec fuel Rust
  • 24. Exposure  to  Air:  Fuel   Storage  •  Enters  through  vent  pipes  and   contains  large  amounts  of   moisture.  •  Generally  displaces  the  fuel  as   tank  is  emp-ed.  •  It  is  not  prac-cal  to  keep  air   from  entering  the  tank.  •  Will  increase  the  oxida-on  of   fuel.  •  Do  not  store  fuels  for  long   periods  of  -me  in  par-ally   empty  tanks  without  stabilizers.  •  Consider  desiccant  dryers.  
  • 25. Microbial  Growth  •  Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel at the fuel/water interface.  •  Water needed to live—no water, no bugs.  •  Hydrocarbons in petrodiesel or biodiesel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen.  •  This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction.  •  The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.
  • 26. Water  Contamina-on  •  ULSD reaches water saturation at approximately 200-300 ppm. More settles to the bottom.  •  NREL B20 survey data: same water saturation level as petrodiesel. More settle to the bottom  •  B100 can hold more water, up to 1200 ppm  •  Still very small—0.12%, on the same order as gasoline can hold water. Un-dissolved water settles to the bottom like it does in petrodiesel tanks.  •  While higher than petrodiesel, biodiesel is not water loving (i.e. hygroscopic) like ethanol is. Most people do not understand this fact.
  • 27. Water  in  Fuel  is  a  Problem  All  non-­‐dissolved  water  can  cause  problems:  •  Serves  as  growth  medium  for  organisms  that   Effect of Water on Injector Life plug  filters  •  Concentrates  acids  and  ionic  species  that   300 cause  corrosion  and  deposits   Injector Life 250•  Freezes  at  cold  temperatures  and  reduces  fuel   200 flow     (%) 150•  Reacts  with  some  addiHves  to  form   100 precipitates  and  deposits   50•  Plugs  injector  nozzles  at  extreme  condiHons   0 25 100 200 400 500 750 1000 5000 10000•  Reduces  fuel  lubricity  when  in  emulsified  form   Amount of Water in Fuel (ppm)
  • 28. Fuel-­‐Water  Removal  More  Difficult  in  Future  •  ULSD  addiHve  package  lowers  interfacial   120 original or tension  making  removal  more  difficult   clay treated 100 additized fuel•  Biodiesels  have  lower  interfacial  tension   time weighted efficiency, % and  hold  more  water,  again  adversely   80 impacHng  removal   more –  FWS  more  challenging  as  biodiesel   60 additized percentage  in  blends  increase   ULSD 40•  Solvency  of  biodiesel  blends  makes   Biodiesel coated  cellulose  media  opHon  less   20 B20 50 effecHve   0 0 10 20 30 40 interfacial surface tension, dynes/cm
  • 29. Sediment/Rust  build-­‐up    •  Some of the filters had solid sediment within the folds and solid particles in the filter casing.  •  Sediment present in the fuel or rust particles from within the engine can collect over time and plug the filter even when there are not necessarily problems with the fuel.  
  • 30. Paraffin  Wax    •  High level of paraffin material could be from the way ULSD is processed.  •  When the temperature of the fuel is at or below its cloud point, paraffin material will precipitate out and collect on the bottom of the tank.  •  When warmed to room temperature the paraffin wax will turn back into liquid.  •  Paraffin build-up does not come from biodiesel fuel.
  • 31. Fuel  Stability  •  Chemical  degrada-on  occurs  with   contact  with  oxygen  for  long  periods  or   at  high  temperatures.  •  Oxida-on  of  fuel  can  form  insolubles   and  peroxides    •  Peroxides  increase  deposits  and   gumming  on  fuel  pumps  and  injec-on   systems  •  Filter  plugging  will  also  occur  •  Filters with a black and shiny surface but no microbial growth odor or gel or sediment indicate they may be plugged by oxidation build-up.  •  This may be a black “asphaltene” petrodiesel type material collecting on the filter.  •  ASTM  D975  now  specifies  a  stability   parameter  
  • 32. Monoglyceride  Build-­‐up  •  The next filter tested positive for high concentrations of saturated monoglyceride material—an out of spec or ‘imposter’ biodiesel.  •  Monoglyceride is one substance that can precipitate out of fuel if not within spec  •  Monoglycerides do not turn back into a liquid at room temperature  •  Can be distinguished from diesel by its brownish, butterscotch pudding type of appearance
  • 33. Troubleshoo-ng    &  Maintenance   Checklist    Microbial Growth – Exposure to   Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark air and water   Environment    Icing of Filter – Excess water in   Keep Tank Topped off to tank   eliminate head space    Oxidation – Hot fuel return to   Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, fuel tank   gaskets for leaks    Monoglyceride Build Up – Off   Storage in on-site tanks should specification   be limited to less than 6  Paraffin Wax – Temperature at months.   or below cloud point   Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination
  • 34. Biodiesel  Resources     • Biodiesel  Training  Toolkit     • News  Releases  &  Informa-on  Resources   • Technical  Library,  Spec  Sheets  &  Videos   • OEM  Warranty  Posi-ons  on  Biodiesel   •   U.S.  Diesel  Vehicle  List   www.BQ-­‐     Rachel  Burton   NBB  Diesel  Technician  Training    Program   • Lis-ng  of  BQ-­‐9000  Cer-fied  Companies   Tel:  919-­‐444-­‐3495       Call  NBB  at  1-­‐800-­‐841-­‐5849   • Lis-ng  of  BioTrucker  retail  sites     Visit       • Dedicated to information exchange for biodiesel & diesel     34   technicians