Biodiesel Technical Training Course BIO 2A Biodiesel Fuel Quality & BQ-‐9000 Presented by the National Biodiesel Board
Learning Objec.ves • Provide instruc.on on diesel fuel proper.es • Provide instruc.on on biodiesel fuel proper.es • Provide instruc.on on how these proper.es aﬀect fuel quality and fuel ﬁltra.on • Provide informa.on on the BQ-‐9000 program • Provide background on biodiesel fuel aBributes
Learning Outcomes • Be able to iden.fy key ASTM diesel fuel quality parameters • Be able to iden.fy key ASTM biodiesel fuel quality parameters • Be able to describe how these proper.es aﬀect fuel quality and fuel ﬁltra.on • Be able to explain the importance of biodiesel fuel quality and the BQ-‐9000 program • Be able to discern issues between normal diesel problems and poor quality biodiesel imposters or out-‐of-‐spec biodiesel when they hit the shop
Biodiesel Defined• Biodiesel, n. -‐-‐ a fuel comprised of mono-‐alkyl esters of long chain faBy acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, mee?ng ASTM D 6751, designated B100. • Biodiesel Blend, n. -‐-‐ a blend of biodiesel fuel with petroleum-‐based diesel fuel designated BXX, where XX is the volume percent of biodiesel. • This .ght deﬁni.on was needed in order to secure vehicle, engine and fuel injec.on equipment company support for biodiesel, as well as to secure ASTM specs
Biodiesel Speciﬁca.ons ASTM Standards for Biodiesel • ASTM D6751 is the approved standard for B100 for blending up to B20, in eﬀect since 2001 – Performance-‐based standard: Feedstock and Process Neutral – 48 states have now legisla.vely adopted the ASTM D6751 speciﬁca.ons for biodiesel • D975 – Covers petrodiesel and blends up to 5% biodiesel maximum for on/oﬀ road engines • D7467 – Covers blends containing 6% to 20% biodiesel for on/oﬀ road engines • D396 -‐ Covers Bioheat / Hea.ng oil applica.ons 5
Cri.cal Quality Speciﬁca.ons Test Criteria Speciﬁca.on Why it’s important Max 0.020% mass Free Glycerin Injector coking Max 0.240% mass Total Glycerin Injector coking, ﬁlter plugging Min 130 °C [Max 0.2% Flash Point [Methanol] methanol] Shipping/handling safety, injector life Max 0.50 mg KOH/g Acid Number Long term storage, fuel system fouling Max 0.050% volume Water & Sediment Fuel system contamina.on Max 2 Visual Appearance Indicates moisture or impuri.es Min 3.0 hr Oxida.ve Stability Long term storage, fuel ﬁlter clogging Max 15 ppm Sulfur EPA regulated speciﬁca.on Max 200/360 sec (summer/Cold Soak Filtra.on winter) Filter plugging, control minor components Report °C Cloud Point Cold weather storage /handling 8
BQ-‐9000 Status Biodiesel Industry’s equivalent to an ISO 9000 program for biodiesel produc.on & distribu.on companies as well as tes.ng labs NBB implemented BQ-‐9000 as a means to help ins.ll conﬁdence in biodiesel with users and equipment companies There are three BQ-‐9000 designa.ons: – Producer (make it to spec) – Marketer (buy spec, keep it in spec, blend it right) – Cer.ﬁed Laboratories (test it to ensure it is in spec) Over 81% of biodiesel produced in the US is by BQ-9000 accredited companies. Many OEMs are now either requiring or strongly encouraging BQ-‐9000
Energy Content • Hea.ng value of the No. 2 D fuel 130,000 BTUs/gallon • Not speciﬁed by ASTM • Typically expressed as BTUs/gallon Gasoline • B20 1.8% less BTU 114,200 BTUs/gallon • B100 7.7% Biodiesel (B100) 120,000 BTUs/gallon
Enhanced Lubricity Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel • Equipment beneﬁts 800 – Superior lubricity HFRR WSD (micron) 700 600 500 – B2 has up to 66% more 400 lubricity than #2 Diesel 300 200 • EPA required sulfur reduc.on 100 0 in diesel 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 • No overdosing concerns Biodiesel Blend (%)
Low temperature Opera.on • Cloud Point, Low Temperature Flow Test, and Pour Point are used to monitor a fuels operability in cold condi.ons. • Cloud Point is the measurement of the temperature in which wax crystals begin to form. • Cold Filter Plug Point, gives and indica.on of the temperature a fuel will plug a ﬁlter. • Pour Point, the temperature when a fuel will s.ll ﬂow, but will not be operable in an engine.
Biodiesel Pump Labeling No Label Required: Fuel blends containing no more than ﬁve percent biodiesel and no more than 5 percent biomass-‐based diesel and that meet ASTM D975. Labels Required: Fuel blends containing more than ﬁve but no more than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-‐based diesel. Fuel blends containing more than 20 percent biodiesel or biomass-‐based diesel. Separate Labels for Biodiesel (Blue Labels) and Biomass-‐Based Diesel (Orange Labels)
Exposure to Air • Enters through vent pipes and contains large amounts of moisture. • Generally displaces the fuel as tank is emp.ed. • It is not prac.cal to keep air from entering the tank. • Will increase the oxida.on of fuel. • Do not store fuels for long periods of .me • Consider desiccant dryers.
Microbial Growth • Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel at the fuel/water interface. • Water needed to live—no water, no bugs. • Hydrocarbons in petrodiesel or biodiesel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen. • This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction. • The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.
Biodiesel Fuel Stability • The biodiesel speciﬁca.on contains parameters for insuring adequate fuel stability for normal applica.ons • The shelf life of biodiesel blends is recommended by NBB as 6 months • Stability addi.ves available on the open market
Thermal & Oxida.ve Stability • Chemical degrada.on occurs with contact with oxygen for long periods or at high temperatures. • Oxida.on of diesel fuel can form insolubles and peroxides • Peroxides increase deposits and gumming on fuel pumps and injec.on systems • Filter plugging will also occur • ASTM D975 now speciﬁes a stability parameter
Steps to Maintaining Fuel • Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment • Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space • Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks • Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months. • Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination
In Summary • Purchase fuel from known quality producer • On-‐site and in-‐process analysis is essen.al • Watch for residual contamina.on • Correct product handling and storage procedures is essen.al • Final product must meet the current revision of ASTM D 6751
Op.mized Biodiesel • Tradi.onally, biodiesel is made from fats a nd oils that are a minor by-‐product of producing food • The ﬁnished proper.es are largely based o n the beginning fat or oil that is available, none of which has been op.mized for fuel use • There are promising technologies that can increase oils/fats without u.lizing any addi.onal farmland • It is possible to select faBy acid proﬁle for op.mized biodiesel: – B100 with -‐20F cloud points or lower – B100 with superior stability vs. most petrodiesel 22
Fuel Quality Informa.on • The Na.onal Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Biodiesel Use & Handling Guidelines at: hBp://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/43672.pdf • www.biodiesel.org • hBp://www.bq-‐9000.org/ 23
Biodiesel Resources www.biodiesel.org • Biodiesel Training Toolkit • News Releases & Informa.on Resources • Technical Library, Spec Sheets & Videos • OEM Warranty Posi.ons on Biodiesel • U.S. Diesel Vehicle List www.BQ-‐9000.org • Lis.ng of BQ-‐9000 Cer.ﬁed Companies www.biotrucker.com • Lis.ng of BioTrucker retail sites www.biodieselautomo?ve.org 24 • Dedicated to information exchange for biodiesel & diesel technicians
Thank You! Questions…? Rachel Burton Call NBB at 1-‐800-‐841-‐5849 OEM Diesel Technician Training Visit www.biodiesel.org Program firstname.lastname@example.org Tel: 919-‐444-‐3495 25
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