Bio 2A Biodiesel Fuel quality and BQ9000
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Bio 2A Biodiesel Fuel quality and BQ9000 Bio 2A Biodiesel Fuel quality and BQ9000 Presentation Transcript

  • Biodiesel  Technical   Training  Course     BIO  2A  Biodiesel  Fuel  Quality   &  BQ-­‐9000   Presented   by the National Biodiesel Board
  • Learning  Objec.ves  •  Provide  instruc.on  on  diesel  fuel  proper.es  •  Provide  instruc.on  on  biodiesel  fuel  proper.es  •  Provide  instruc.on  on  how  these  proper.es  affect  fuel   quality  and  fuel  filtra.on  •  Provide  informa.on  on  the  BQ-­‐9000  program  •  Provide  background  on  biodiesel  fuel  aBributes
  • Learning  Outcomes  •  Be  able  to  iden.fy  key  ASTM  diesel  fuel  quality  parameters  •  Be  able  to  iden.fy  key  ASTM  biodiesel  fuel  quality   parameters    •  Be  able  to  describe  how  these  proper.es  affect  fuel  quality   and  fuel  filtra.on  •  Be  able  to  explain  the  importance  of  biodiesel  fuel  quality   and  the  BQ-­‐9000  program    •  Be  able  to  discern  issues  between  normal  diesel  problems   and  poor  quality  biodiesel  imposters  or  out-­‐of-­‐spec   biodiesel  when  they  hit  the  shop
  • Biodiesel Defined•  Biodiesel,  n.  -­‐-­‐  a  fuel  comprised  of  mono-­‐alkyl   esters  of  long  chain  faBy  acids  derived  from   vegetable  oils  or  animal  fats,  mee?ng  ASTM  D   6751,  designated  B100.    •  Biodiesel  Blend,  n.  -­‐-­‐  a  blend  of  biodiesel  fuel   with  petroleum-­‐based  diesel  fuel  designated   BXX,  where  XX  is  the  volume  percent  of   biodiesel.   •  This  .ght  defini.on  was  needed  in  order  to  secure  vehicle,   engine  and  fuel  injec.on  equipment  company  support  for   biodiesel,  as  well  as  to  secure  ASTM  specs  
  • Biodiesel  Specifica.ons   ASTM  Standards  for  Biodiesel  •  ASTM  D6751  is  the  approved  standard  for  B100  for   blending  up  to  B20,  in  effect  since  2001   –  Performance-­‐based  standard:  Feedstock  and  Process  Neutral   –  48  states  have  now  legisla.vely  adopted  the  ASTM  D6751   specifica.ons  for  biodiesel    •  D975  –  Covers  petrodiesel  and  blends  up  to  5%  biodiesel   maximum  for  on/off  road  engines    •  D7467  –  Covers  blends  containing  6%  to  20%  biodiesel   for  on/off  road  engines    •  D396  -­‐  Covers  Bioheat  /  Hea.ng  oil  applica.ons   5  
  • ASTM  D6751  Specifica.on    
  •          ASTM  D7467  Specifica.on    
  • Cri.cal  Quality  Specifica.ons   Test  Criteria   Specifica.on   Why  it’s  important   Max  0.020%  mass  Free  Glycerin     Injector  coking     Max  0.240%  mass  Total  Glycerin     Injector  coking,  filter  plugging   Min  130  °C    [Max  0.2%  Flash  Point    [Methanol]   methanol]   Shipping/handling  safety,  injector  life   Max  0.50  mg  KOH/g  Acid  Number     Long  term  storage,  fuel  system  fouling   Max  0.050%  volume  Water  &  Sediment     Fuel  system  contamina.on   Max  2  Visual  Appearance   Indicates  moisture  or  impuri.es   Min  3.0  hr  Oxida.ve  Stability   Long  term  storage,  fuel  filter  clogging   Max  15  ppm  Sulfur   EPA  regulated  specifica.on   Max  200/360  sec    (summer/Cold  Soak  Filtra.on   winter)   Filter  plugging,  control  minor   components   Report  °C    Cloud  Point     Cold  weather  storage  /handling   8  
  • Cer.ficate  of  Analysis  
  • BQ-­‐9000  Status    Biodiesel  Industry’s  equivalent  to  an  ISO  9000  program  for  biodiesel  produc.on  &  distribu.on   companies  as  well  as  tes.ng  labs    NBB  implemented  BQ-­‐9000  as  a  means  to  help  ins.ll  confidence  in  biodiesel  with  users  and   equipment  companies      There  are  three  BQ-­‐9000  designa.ons:   –  Producer  (make  it  to  spec)   –  Marketer  (buy  spec,  keep  it  in  spec,  blend  it  right)   –  Cer.fied  Laboratories  (test  it  to  ensure  it  is  in  spec)        Over 81% of biodiesel produced in the US is by BQ-9000 accredited companies.      Many  OEMs  are  now  either  requiring  or  strongly  encouraging  BQ-­‐9000  
  • Fuel  Proper.es  
  • Energy  Content  •  Hea.ng  value  of  the          No.  2  D       fuel        130,000  BTUs/gallon  •  Not  specified  by  ASTM  •  Typically  expressed  as   BTUs/gallon        Gasoline      •  B20  1.8%  less  BTU      114,200  BTUs/gallon  •  B100  7.7%              Biodiesel  (B100)    120,000  BTUs/gallon  
  • Enhanced  Lubricity   Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel •  Equipment  benefits   800 –  Superior  lubricity  HFRR WSD (micron) 700 600 500 –  B2  has  up  to  66%  more   400 lubricity  than  #2  Diesel   300 200 •  EPA  required  sulfur  reduc.on   100 0 in  diesel   0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 •  No  overdosing  concerns   Biodiesel Blend (%)
  • Low  temperature  Opera.on  •  Cloud  Point,  Low  Temperature  Flow  Test,  and   Pour  Point  are  used  to  monitor  a  fuels  operability   in  cold  condi.ons.      •  Cloud  Point  is  the  measurement  of  the   temperature  in  which  wax  crystals  begin  to  form.  •  Cold  Filter  Plug  Point,  gives  and  indica.on  of  the   temperature  a  fuel  will  plug  a  filter.  •  Pour  Point,  the  temperature  when  a  fuel  will  s.ll   flow,  but  will  not  be  operable  in  an  engine.      
  • Biodiesel  Pump  Labeling  No  Label  Required:    Fuel  blends  containing  no  more  than  five  percent  biodiesel   and  no  more  than  5  percent  biomass-­‐based  diesel  and  that   meet  ASTM  D975.    Labels  Required:    Fuel  blends  containing  more  than  five  but  no  more  than  20   percent  biodiesel  or  biomass-­‐based  diesel.    Fuel  blends  containing  more  than  20  percent  biodiesel  or   biomass-­‐based  diesel.      Separate  Labels  for  Biodiesel  (Blue  Labels)  and      Biomass-­‐Based  Diesel  (Orange  Labels)  
  • Exposure  to  Air  •  Enters  through  vent  pipes  and   contains  large  amounts  of   moisture.  •  Generally  displaces  the  fuel  as   tank  is  emp.ed.  •  It  is  not  prac.cal  to  keep  air   from  entering  the  tank.  •  Will  increase  the  oxida.on  of   fuel.  •  Do  not  store  fuels  for  long   periods  of  .me  •  Consider  desiccant  dryers.  
  • Microbial  Growth  •  Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel at the fuel/water interface.  •  Water needed to live—no water, no bugs.  •  Hydrocarbons in petrodiesel or biodiesel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen.  •  This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction.  •  The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.
  • Biodiesel  Fuel  Stability  •  The  biodiesel  specifica.on  contains   parameters  for  insuring  adequate  fuel  stability   for  normal  applica.ons  •  The  shelf  life  of  biodiesel  blends  is   recommended  by  NBB  as  6  months    •  Stability  addi.ves  available  on  the  open   market  
  • Thermal  &  Oxida.ve   Stability  •  Chemical  degrada.on  occurs  with   contact  with  oxygen  for  long   periods  or  at  high  temperatures.  •  Oxida.on  of  diesel  fuel  can  form   insolubles  and  peroxides    •  Peroxides  increase  deposits  and   gumming  on  fuel  pumps  and   injec.on  systems  •  Filter  plugging  will  also  occur  •  ASTM  D975  now  specifies  a   stability  parameter  
  • Steps  to  Maintaining  Fuel  •  Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment  •  Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space  •  Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks  •  Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months.  •  Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination
  • In  Summary    •  Purchase  fuel  from  known  quality  producer  •  On-­‐site  and  in-­‐process  analysis  is  essen.al  •  Watch  for  residual  contamina.on  •  Correct  product  handling  and  storage  procedures  is   essen.al  •  Final  product  must  meet  the  current  revision  of  ASTM   D  6751      
  •     Op.mized  Biodiesel          •  Tradi.onally,  biodiesel  is  made  from  fats  a  nd  oils  that  are  a   minor  by-­‐product  of  producing  food    •  The  finished  proper.es  are  largely  based  o  n  the  beginning  fat     or  oil  that  is  available,  none  of  which  has  been  op.mized  for   fuel  use  •  There  are  promising  technologies  that  can  increase  oils/fats   without  u.lizing  any  addi.onal  farmland    •  It  is  possible  to  select  faBy  acid  profile  for  op.mized  biodiesel:   –  B100  with  -­‐20F  cloud  points  or  lower   –  B100  with  superior  stability  vs.  most  petrodiesel     22  
  • Fuel  Quality  Informa.on  •  The  Na.onal  Renewable  Energy  Laboratory   (NREL)  Biodiesel  Use  &  Handling  Guidelines  at:   hBp://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/pdfs/43672.pdf      •  www.biodiesel.org  •  hBp://www.bq-­‐9000.org/     23  
  • Biodiesel  Resources   www.biodiesel.org   • Biodiesel  Training  Toolkit     • News  Releases  &  Informa.on  Resources   • Technical  Library,  Spec  Sheets  &  Videos   • OEM  Warranty  Posi.ons  on  Biodiesel   •   U.S.  Diesel  Vehicle  List   www.BQ-­‐9000.org     • Lis.ng  of  BQ-­‐9000  Cer.fied  Companies   www.biotrucker.com   • Lis.ng  of  BioTrucker  retail  sites     www.biodieselautomo?ve.org   24   • Dedicated to information exchange for biodiesel & diesel technicians
  • Thank You! Questions…?                  Rachel  Burton   Call  NBB  at  1-­‐800-­‐841-­‐5849    OEM  Diesel  Technician  Training     Visit  www.biodiesel.org   Program    wrenchwench@blast.com    Tel:  919-­‐444-­‐3495           25