Biodiesel	  Technical	     Training	  Course	                  	           BIO	  2A	  Biodiesel	  Fuel	  Quality	        &...
Learning	  Objec.ves                                                             	  •  Provide	  instruc.on	  on	  diesel	...
Learning	  Outcomes                                                                	  •  Be	  able	  to	  iden.fy	  key	  ...
Biodiesel Defined•  Biodiesel,	  n.	  -­‐-­‐	  a	  fuel	  comprised	  of	  mono-­‐alkyl	     esters	  of	  long	  chain	  ...
Biodiesel	  Specifica.ons	                  ASTM	  Standards	  for	  Biodiesel	  •  ASTM	  D6751	  is	  the	  approved	  st...
ASTM	  D6751	  Specifica.on	  	  
 	  	  	  	  ASTM	  D7467	  Specifica.on	  Quality	  Specifica.ons	                 Test	  Criteria	                Specifica.on	                            ...
Cer.ficate	  of	  Analysis                          	  
BQ-­‐9000	  Status	            Biodiesel	  Industry’s	  equivalent	  to	  an	  ISO	  9000	  program	  for	  biodiesel	  p...
Energy	  Content                                                       	  •	  value	  of	  the	        	  	  	  N...
Enhanced	  Lubricity	                                  Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel                                            ...
Low	  temperature	  Opera.on	  •  Cloud	  Point,	  Low	  Temperature	  Flow	  Test,	  and	       Pour	  Point	  are	  used...
Biodiesel	  Pump	  Labeling	  No	  Label	  Required:	    Fuel	  blends	  containing	  no	  more	  than	  five	  percent	  ...
Exposure	  to	  Air                                                                                	  •    Enters	  throug...
Microbial	  Growth	  •  Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in   fuel at the fuel/water interface.	  •...
Biodiesel	  Fuel	  Stability	  •  The	  biodiesel	  specifica.on	  contains	     parameters	  for	  insuring	  adequate	  f...
Thermal	  &	                                                            Stability    	  •    Chemical	  degrada...
Steps	  to	  Maintaining	  Fuel                                                       	  •  Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark ...
In	  Summary	  	  •  Purchase	  fuel	  from	  known	  quality	  producer	  •  On-­‐site	  and	  in-­‐process	  analysis	  ...
Fuel	  Quality	  Informa.on	  •  The	  Na.onal	  Renewable	  Energy	  Laboratory	       (NREL)	  Biodiesel	  Use	  &	  Han...
Biodiesel	  Resources	  	     • Biodiesel	  Training	  Toolkit	  	     • News	  Releases	  &	  Informa....
Thank You!                                     Questions…? 	  	          	                                                ...
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Bio 2A Biodiesel Fuel quality and BQ9000


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Bio 2A Biodiesel Fuel quality and BQ9000

  1. 1. Biodiesel  Technical   Training  Course     BIO  2A  Biodiesel  Fuel  Quality   &  BQ-­‐9000   Presented   by the National Biodiesel Board
  2. 2. Learning  Objec.ves  •  Provide  instruc.on  on  diesel  fuel  •  Provide  instruc.on  on  biodiesel  fuel  •  Provide  instruc.on  on  how  these  affect  fuel   quality  and  fuel  filtra.on  •  Provide  informa.on  on  the  BQ-­‐9000  program  •  Provide  background  on  biodiesel  fuel  aBributes
  3. 3. Learning  Outcomes  •  Be  able  to  iden.fy  key  ASTM  diesel  fuel  quality  parameters  •  Be  able  to  iden.fy  key  ASTM  biodiesel  fuel  quality   parameters    •  Be  able  to  describe  how  these  affect  fuel  quality   and  fuel  filtra.on  •  Be  able  to  explain  the  importance  of  biodiesel  fuel  quality   and  the  BQ-­‐9000  program    •  Be  able  to  discern  issues  between  normal  diesel  problems   and  poor  quality  biodiesel  imposters  or  out-­‐of-­‐spec   biodiesel  when  they  hit  the  shop
  4. 4. Biodiesel Defined•  Biodiesel,  n.  -­‐-­‐  a  fuel  comprised  of  mono-­‐alkyl   esters  of  long  chain  faBy  acids  derived  from   vegetable  oils  or  animal  fats,  mee?ng  ASTM  D   6751,  designated  B100.    •  Biodiesel  Blend,  n.  -­‐-­‐  a  blend  of  biodiesel  fuel   with  petroleum-­‐based  diesel  fuel  designated   BXX,  where  XX  is  the  volume  percent  of   biodiesel.   •  This  .ght  defini.on  was  needed  in  order  to  secure  vehicle,   engine  and  fuel  injec.on  equipment  company  support  for   biodiesel,  as  well  as  to  secure  ASTM  specs  
  5. 5. Biodiesel  Specifica.ons   ASTM  Standards  for  Biodiesel  •  ASTM  D6751  is  the  approved  standard  for  B100  for   blending  up  to  B20,  in  effect  since  2001   –  Performance-­‐based  standard:  Feedstock  and  Process  Neutral   –  48  states  have  now  legisla.vely  adopted  the  ASTM  D6751   specifica.ons  for  biodiesel    •  D975  –  Covers  petrodiesel  and  blends  up  to  5%  biodiesel   maximum  for  on/off  road  engines    •  D7467  –  Covers  blends  containing  6%  to  20%  biodiesel   for  on/off  road  engines    •  D396  -­‐  Covers  Bioheat  /  oil  applica.ons   5  
  6. 6. ASTM  D6751  Specifica.on    
  7. 7.          ASTM  D7467  Specifica.on    
  8. 8.  Quality  Specifica.ons   Test  Criteria   Specifica.on   Why  it’s  important   Max  0.020%  mass  Free  Glycerin     Injector  coking     Max  0.240%  mass  Total  Glycerin     Injector  coking,  filter  plugging   Min  130  °C    [Max  0.2%  Flash  Point    [Methanol]   methanol]   Shipping/handling  safety,  injector  life   Max  0.50  mg  KOH/g  Acid  Number     Long  term  storage,  fuel  system  fouling   Max  0.050%  volume  Water  &  Sediment     Fuel  system  contamina.on   Max  2  Visual  Appearance   Indicates  moisture  or   Min  3.0  hr  Stability   Long  term  storage,  fuel  filter  clogging   Max  15  ppm  Sulfur   EPA  regulated  specifica.on   Max  200/360  sec    (summer/Cold  Soak  Filtra.on   winter)   Filter  plugging,  control  minor   components   Report  °C    Cloud  Point     Cold  weather  storage  /handling   8  
  9. 9. Cer.ficate  of  Analysis  
  10. 10. BQ-­‐9000  Status    Biodiesel  Industry’s  equivalent  to  an  ISO  9000  program  for  biodiesel  produc.on  &  distribu.on   companies  as  well  as  labs    NBB  implemented  BQ-­‐9000  as  a  means  to  help  ins.ll  confidence  in  biodiesel  with  users  and   equipment  companies      There  are  three  BQ-­‐9000  designa.ons:   –  Producer  (make  it  to  spec)   –  Marketer  (buy  spec,  keep  it  in  spec,  blend  it  right)   –  Cer.fied  Laboratories  (test  it  to  ensure  it  is  in  spec)        Over 81% of biodiesel produced in the US is by BQ-9000 accredited companies.      Many  OEMs  are  now  either  requiring  or  strongly  encouraging  BQ-­‐9000  
  11. 11. Fuel  
  12. 12. Energy  Content  •  value  of  the          No.  2  D       fuel        130,000  BTUs/gallon  •  Not  specified  by  ASTM  •  Typically  expressed  as   BTUs/gallon        Gasoline      •  B20  1.8%  less  BTU      114,200  BTUs/gallon  •  B100  7.7%              Biodiesel  (B100)    120,000  BTUs/gallon  
  13. 13. Enhanced  Lubricity   Ultra-low Sulfur Diesel •  Equipment  benefits   800 –  Superior  lubricity  HFRR WSD (micron) 700 600 500 –  B2  has  up  to  66%  more   400 lubricity  than  #2  Diesel   300 200 •  EPA  required  sulfur  reduc.on   100 0 in  diesel   0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 •  No  overdosing  concerns   Biodiesel Blend (%)
  14. 14. Low  temperature  Opera.on  •  Cloud  Point,  Low  Temperature  Flow  Test,  and   Pour  Point  are  used  to  monitor  a  fuels  operability   in  cold  condi.ons.      •  Cloud  Point  is  the  measurement  of  the   temperature  in  which  wax  crystals  begin  to  form.  •  Cold  Filter  Plug  Point,  gives  and  indica.on  of  the   temperature  a  fuel  will  plug  a  filter.  •  Pour  Point,  the  temperature  when  a  fuel  will  s.ll   flow,  but  will  not  be  operable  in  an  engine.      
  15. 15. Biodiesel  Pump  Labeling  No  Label  Required:    Fuel  blends  containing  no  more  than  five  percent  biodiesel   and  no  more  than  5  percent  biomass-­‐based  diesel  and  that   meet  ASTM  D975.    Labels  Required:    Fuel  blends  containing  more  than  five  but  no  more  than  20   percent  biodiesel  or  biomass-­‐based  diesel.    Fuel  blends  containing  more  than  20  percent  biodiesel  or   biomass-­‐based  diesel.      Separate  Labels  for  Biodiesel  (Blue  Labels)  and      Biomass-­‐Based  Diesel  (Orange  Labels)  
  16. 16. Exposure  to  Air  •  Enters  through  vent  pipes  and   contains  large  amounts  of   moisture.  •  Generally  displaces  the  fuel  as   tank  is  emp.ed.  •  It  is  not  to  keep  air   from  entering  the  tank.  •  Will  increase  the  oxida.on  of   fuel.  •  Do  not  store  fuels  for  long   periods  of  .me  •  Consider  desiccant  dryers.  
  17. 17. Microbial  Growth  •  Microbes are bacteria or fungus that live and propagate in fuel at the fuel/water interface.  •  Water needed to live—no water, no bugs.  •  Hydrocarbons in petrodiesel or biodiesel provide the food and the water provides the oxygen.  •  This environment is needed for living, growth, and reproduction.  •  The filters with microbial contamination often had an odor different from the normal fuel smell.
  18. 18. Biodiesel  Fuel  Stability  •  The  biodiesel  specifica.on  contains   parameters  for  insuring  adequate  fuel  stability   for  normal  applica.ons  •  The  shelf  life  of  biodiesel  blends  is   recommended  by  NBB  as  6  months    •  Stability  addi.ves  available  on  the  open   market  
  19. 19. Thermal  &   Stability  •  Chemical  degrada.on  occurs  with   contact  with  oxygen  for  long   periods  or  at  high  temperatures.  •  Oxida.on  of  diesel  fuel  can  form   insolubles  and  peroxides    •  Peroxides  increase  deposits  and   gumming  on  fuel  pumps  and   injec.on  systems  •  Filter  plugging  will  also  occur  •  ASTM  D975  now  specifies  a   stability  parameter  
  20. 20. Steps  to  Maintaining  Fuel  •  Store Fuel in Clean, Dry Dark Environment  •  Keep Tank Topped off to eliminate head space  •  Monitor hoses, fill/vapor caps, gaskets for leaks  •  Storage in on-site tanks should be limited to less than 6 months.  •  Once a year send your fuel to lab to be tested for microbial contamination
  21. 21. In  Summary    •  Purchase  fuel  from  known  quality  producer  •  On-­‐site  and  in-­‐process  analysis  is  •  Watch  for  residual  contamina.on  •  Correct  product  handling  and  storage  procedures  is  •  Final  product  must  meet  the  current  revision  of  ASTM   D  6751      
  22. 22.     Op.mized  Biodiesel          •  Tradi.onally,  biodiesel  is  made  from  fats  a  nd  oils  that  are  a   minor  by-­‐product  of  producing  food    •  The  finished  are  largely  based  o  n  the  beginning  fat     or  oil  that  is  available,  none  of  which  has  been  op.mized  for   fuel  use  •  There  are  promising  technologies  that  can  increase  oils/fats   without  u.lizing  any  addi.onal  farmland    •  It  is  possible  to  select  faBy  acid  profile  for  op.mized  biodiesel:   –  B100  with  -­‐20F  cloud  points  or  lower   –  B100  with  superior  stability  vs.  most  petrodiesel     22  
  23. 23. Fuel  Quality  Informa.on  •  The  Na.onal  Renewable  Energy  Laboratory   (NREL)  Biodiesel  Use  &  Handling  Guidelines  at:   hBp://      •  •  hBp://­‐     23  
  24. 24. Biodiesel  Resources     • Biodiesel  Training  Toolkit     • News  Releases  &  Informa.on  Resources   • Technical  Library,  Spec  Sheets  &  Videos   • OEM  Warranty  Posi.ons  on  Biodiesel   •   U.S.  Diesel  Vehicle  List   www.BQ-­‐     •  of  BQ-­‐9000  Cer.fied  Companies     •  of  BioTrucker  retail  sites     www.biodieselautomo?   24   • Dedicated to information exchange for biodiesel & diesel technicians
  25. 25. Thank You! Questions…?                  Rachel  Burton   Call  NBB  at  1-­‐800-­‐841-­‐5849    OEM  Diesel  Technician  Training     Visit   Program    Tel:  919-­‐444-­‐3495           25  
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