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Bio(diverse)city – the variety of life | Biocity Studio
 

Bio(diverse)city – the variety of life | Biocity Studio

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Sydney is very diverse compared to other large cities around the world. Recent pressures are resulting in a decline of our diverse flora and fauna. Sydney has followed London’s and Scandinavian ...

Sydney is very diverse compared to other large cities around the world. Recent pressures are resulting in a decline of our diverse flora and fauna. Sydney has followed London’s and Scandinavian models to help with linking green space and biodiversity. We now have realised how important biodiversity is and have been limiting Sydney’s urban growth patterns.

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    Bio(diverse)city – the variety of life | Biocity Studio Bio(diverse)city – the variety of life | Biocity Studio Presentation Transcript

    • bio (diverse) city the variety of life matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson
    • biodiversity matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson (O’Riordan & Kleeman, Eds.) The variety of living organisms on earth, the range of species, the genetic variability within each species, and the varied characteristics of ecosystems.
      • it is estimated that only about one tenth of all species are known, and loss rates are possibly 50 – 100 times greater than ever experienced in recorded history.
      • (O’Riordan and Kleeman, p.9)
      • we are in the midst of the biosphere’s 6 th major extinction episode – one driven by human activities.
      • threat of extinction hangs over 10% of known bird species, 20% of known mammal species, 5% of known fish species, and 8% of all recorded plant species.
      • (O’Riordan and Kleeman)
      global issue matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson
    • australia
      • about 80% of vertebrate species and plant species are found nowhere else in the world.
      • Australia has 85 bioregions – approximately 33 of these have more than 30% of their ecosystems described as threatened.
      • serious decline in many parts of Australia, for example, by the late 1990’s Australia had lost estimated 80% of its old growth-forest.
      • loss of biodiversity has been identified as ‘ perhaps the most serious environmental problem in Australia ’.
      • (Catherin Bull)
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson 19 of 268 mammal species are now lost 90% of temperate woodland and mallee vegetation is now cleared 20 of 777 bird species are now lost Australia has the highest percent of threatened mammal and plants extinction threatens almost 25% of all eucalypt species
    • sydney
      • Sydney is very diverse in comparison to many other large scale global cities, however recent pressures are resulting in a dramatic decline of our diverse flora and fauna.
      • Sydney followed a strategy based on a Scandanavian model which implemented corridors along transport routes . as population increases, development is taking place in between the corridors, further fragmenting biodiversity, whereas other major cities have had more success with several major regional centres.
      • Cumberland Plain green belt proposal 1951
      • this large green belt modeled on the 1944 London strategy aims to link substantial areas of green space within the city to the
      • outer park systems.
      • similar to London and Los Angeles our green belt is defined by geological elements such as the catchment, bordering reserves and parklands.
      • urban sprawl continues beyond the greenbelt with the establishment of satellite cities. these regional centres would be predominantly independent of the CBD.
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson urban expansion within the global context
    • sydney
      • Western Sydney Parklands Proposal 2007
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson impact of urban sprawl Western Sydney Parkland proposal, City of Cities 2005 development has allowed urban sprawl to fragment ecological communities within Sydney. the Western Sydney Parkland is an example of this environmental isolation. the reduction in genetic diversity, habitat and movement now makes these species more vulnerable to human induced pressures and climate change. more recently the value of biodiversity has been recognised, and is limiting Sydney’s urban growth patterns which are confined by our natural geographic borders - water catchments, Hawkesbury and Nepean river systems.
    • sydney
      • regional biodiversity corridors
      • Sydney’s national parks and reserves work
      • as biodiverse corridors separating urban sprawl and agricultural land. these corridors provide a connection between different communities, enabling evolution of ecosystems.
      • the Western Sydney Parkland exists in relative isolation to the outer green network. parks within the inner Sydney district are further disconnected due to their size and distribution.
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson
    • infrastructure matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson green spaces such as National Parks, the Royal Botanic Gardens, reserves and parklands. humans are now realising the value of biodiversity and are implementing constructed habitats to encourage biodiversity. conservation advice, EIS, government legislation and a variety of Non Governmental Organisations also support biodiversity.
    • value of biodiversity
      • an ecocentric world view would argue the moral responsibility of humans to maintain the variety of life irrespective of any resultant benefits to the human population
      • however, this is a view not shared by the majority of populations. hence, the value of biodiversity is generally considered in respect to its potential benefits to humans .
      • both utilitarian value (useful now) and option value (possibly useful soon). (Spicer, 115)
      • utilitarian value – US$33trillion per year is a conservative estimate of services provided by the environment outside the current market.
      • (Spicer, 117)
      • greater diversity in an ecosystem results in higher levels of productivity.
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson tree=habitat tree=timber plant=medicine wetland=filter water=recreation
    • benefits of biodiversity
      • ecological
      • - improved air quality through reduced carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
      • - improved soil quality
      • - lower dust levels
      • - reduced water run off, decreasing erosion
      • - increased ecosystem stability and resilience
      • social
      • - provides green space
      • - creates settings for active and passive interaction
      • - improved physical and mental health
      • - provides a variety of experiences
      • cultural
      • - education of natural systems
      • - respect and appreciation of the environment
      • - greater knowledge of human impact on the ecosystem
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson cycle education health beauty
    • threats to biodiversity
      • clearing and development due to human population growth
      • changed fire regimes
      • total grazing pressure
      • changes to the aquatic environment
      • climate change
      • exploitation of natural resources
      • human pollution
      • weeds and feral animals
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson backburning foxes and rabbits dredging mining agriculture climate change
    • threats to biodiversity matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson clearing and development due to human population growth changed fire regimes total grazing pressure changes to the aquatic environment climate change over-exploitation of natural resources human pollution weeds and feral animals
    • threats to biodiversity
      • introduced species
      • - estimated that approximately 20 new pests or diseases are introduced annually into Australia
      • - the cane toad , the willow, black striped mussel and fire ants have become threats
      • - in Sydney, rabbits, feral cats, and exotic bird species, as well as invasive exotic plant species, continue to threaten the indigenous population
      • - in Australia more than 2500 species of introduced plants are established in the wild
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson
    • threats to biodiversity
      • introduced species
      • - estimated that approximately 20 new pests or diseases are introduced annually into Australia
      • - the cane toad , the willow, black striped mussel and fire ants have become threats
      • - in Sydney, rabbits, feral cats, and exotic bird species, as well as invasive exotic plant species, continue to threaten the indigenous population
      • - in Australia more than 2500 species of introduced plants are established in the wild
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson
    • dependence
      • the human population heavily relies on biodiversity to exist/survive, however with our rapid population growth and urban sprawl, communities within our environment are becoming less diverse
      • to survive, biodiversity heavily relies on the human population to make sensitive design decisions when planning cities and other development
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson
    • possible issues
      • disease/epidemics
      • London mad cow disease, Chinese bird flu. need for variety of food sources.
      • environmental management
      • Hispaniola – Republic of Haiti and the Dominican Republic – Dominican Republic with strict environmental policy vs. Haiti with little or no environmental policy.
      • overpopulation
      • will create greater demand for fertile land with increased food consumption and decreased use of fertiliser as oil prices rise. Conditions not unlike the situation leading to the 1994 Rwandan genocide .
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson Republic of Haiti Dominican Republic
    • references
      • -Archer. M & Beale. B, 2004, Going Native
      • -Beeton. B, 2006, Australia State of the Environment
      • -Bull. C, 2002, New Conversations with an Old Landscape
      • -Christopherson. R, 2004, Elemental geosystems
      • -City of Sydney, 2003, State Environment Report
      • -CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology & Saunders. D & Margules. C, 1998, Environmental Indicators- Biodiversity
      • -Hillstrom. K & L.C, 2003, Australia Oceania and Antartica
      • -Lines. W, 1991, Taming the Great Southern Land
      • -Mcdonald. D, 2007, Key topics in conservation biology
      • -Meyer. B, 2005, Future Sydney- A City of Cities
      • -O'riordan & Stoll-Kleemann, 2002, Biodiversity, sustainibility and human communities
      • -Spicer. J, 2006, Biodiversity
      • -Suzuki. D, 1999, The sacred balance
      matthew coggan , rosanna krauss , catherine wilson
    •