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Sydney’s main source of water came from the tank stream in Sydney cove before it was polluted in 1826. Pipes were laid out throughout Sydney and we became more dependent on bore water. The Upper ...

Sydney’s main source of water came from the tank stream in Sydney cove before it was polluted in 1826. Pipes were laid out throughout Sydney and we became more dependent on bore water. The Upper Nepean and Warragamba dam were considered to be the solution. The government has built Primary, Secondary and tertiary Wastewater treatment plants. These plants help remove solids, inorganic material, organic, metals, pathogens, nitrogen and phosphorus. Now the government has proposed a Desalination plant at Kurnell to help Sydney’s water crisis.

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Sydney’s Water Crisis | Biocity Studio Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Water Facts Water is a precious resource and is vital to all living organisms and all process on this earth. It is the basis for all life. It essential to our survival as our bodies are made up of 70% of it. A person can live without food for a month, but can only survive for about a week without water. Water has many functions and uses, We drink It, we clean with it and play In it. Water is crucial to our biology, our ecology and our lifestyles. Water is apart of a closed system meaning that the same water that existed on the earth millions of years ago is still present today. For every bucket of the earth’s water that there is, only one drop of it could we drink (without pre-treating it). The Hydrological Cycle Sydney Regional Groundwater Management Handbook, Final Draft edition April 2005 Elemental Geosystems, Robert W. Christopherson, 2004. Water is apart of a closed system meaning that the same water that existed on the earth millions of years ago is still present today, (the Hydrological Cycle).
  • 3.
    • It takes ... 41 500 litres to produce a kilo of meat
    • 500 litres to produce one orange
    • 1 340 000 litres to produce 1 tonne of aluminium
    • 50 litres to produce a copy of Saturday's newspaper
    • 5000 litres of water to create one kilogram of rice.
    • 4 litres to produce a bottle of beer
    Interesting water facts Elemental Geosystems, Robert W. Christopherson, 2004. http://www.tear.org.au/resources/target/022/water_facts.htm Ocean and freshwater distribution on Earth Elemental Geosystems, Robert W. Christopherson, 2004.
  • 4. THE TANK STREAM WAS THE REASON SYDNEY COVE WAS CHOSEN AS THE SITE FOR THE FIRST AUSTRALIAN SETTLEMENT. THE STREAM SERVED AS THE SETTLEMENTS MAIN SOURCE OF WATER FOR 40 YEARS BEFORE IT WAS ABANDONED IN 1826 DUE TO POLLUTION AND FREQUENT DRY EVENTS. BY THE 1830’S THE TANK STREAM WAS LITTLE MORE THAN A AN OPEN SEWER. IN 1850 THE SWAMP WHICH FEED THE STREAM WAS DRAINED TO MAKE ROOM FOR MORE DEVELOPMENT. DUE TO THE UNRELIABILITY OF THE TANK STREAM SYDNEY BECAME MORE AND MORE DEPENDANT ON BORE WATER. THE TANK STREAM The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961
  • 5. BUSBY’S BORE BUSBY’S BORE IS A TUNNEL FROM SWAMPLAND IN CENTENNIAL PARK TO A RESEVOIR IN HYDE PARK WORK WAS STARTED IN 1827 AND WAS COMPLETED IN 1837 AFTER COMPLETION OTHER NEARBY SPRINGS WERE TAPPED INTO THE LINE AND BY COMPLETION ENOUGH WATER WAS FLOWING TO BE SOLD DOWN AT THE PORT. BUSBY’S BORE IS 3.5 KM LONG 1.5M HIGH AND 1.2M WIDE. THE BORE HAS 28 VERTICAL SHAFTS ALONG ITS LENGTH WHICH HELP FEED IT. The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961
  • 6. SYDNEY WATER SUPPLY 1867 IN 1844 A NEW PIPE NETWORK WAS LAID CONNECTING BUSBY’S BORE TO VARIOUS PARTS OF SYDNEY. The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961 THE BORE REMAINED THE SOLE SUPPLYER OF WATER TO SYDNEY UNTILL THE BOTNANY SWAMPS WATER SUPPLY CAME ONLINE IN 1858. IN 1872 BUSBY’S BORE DRIED UP AND IT WAS CLEANED OUT FOR THE FIRST TIME, REMOVING LARGE AMOUNTS OF SAND. WHEN REOPENED IT WAS MUCH MORE EFFICIENT.
  • 7. SYDNEY WATER SUPPLY 1888 AS SYDNEY GREW SO DID THE WATER MAINS. BY 1888 THE MAINS EXTENEDED UP INTO GLEBE, DARLINGTON, REDFERN, PADDINGTON, CHIPPENDALE, ULTIMO AND WOOLLOOMOOLOO. THE BOTANY SWAMPS AND THE SWAMPS SUPPLYING BUSBY’S BORE WERE EXTENSIVILY DAMED AND DEMAND WAS STARTING TO OUTGROW THE SYSTEM. THE UPPER NEPEAN WAS CONSIDERED AS A SOLUTION TO THE PROBLEM, IN 1886 WATER FLOWED INTO BOTANY FROM THE NAPEAN VIA PROSPECT AND A TEMPORARY PIPE SYSTEM UNTILL THE CANAL FROM PROSPECT TO PETERSHAM WAS COMPLETED. The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961
  • 8. GREATER SYDNEY’S WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 1960 WITH THE CONSTRUCTION OF WARRAGAMBA DAM IN 1960, SYDNEY WAS ABLE TO SUPPLY ALL OF ITS CITIZENS WITH CLEAN AND FREAH WATER. PROSPECT RESERVOIR BECAME THE MAJOR WATER QUALITY CONTROL FOR SYDNEYS WATER. DUE TO THE INCREASE IN WATER SUPPLY SYDENY WAS ABLE TO EXPAND ITS SUBURBS FURTHER WAY FROM THE TRADITIONAL CENTRE OF THE CITY. WARRAGAMBA DAM SUPPLYS 80% OF SYDNEYS WATER AND IS 65KM WEST OF SYDNEY. The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961
  • 9. SOUTHERN FEEDER DAMS THE NEPEAN DAM SYSTEM BUILT BETWEEN 1902 AND 1935 COMPRISES OF 4 MAIN DAMS HOLDING A MAX CAPACITY OF 510,600 ML. THE DAMS ARE 80KM SOUTH OF SYDNEY AND PUMP INTO PROSPECT RESERVOIR AROUND 60KM AWAY, BEFORE BEING TREATED FOR CONSUMPTION. WATER FROM THESE DAMS ALSO PROVIDE WOLLONGONG WITH ITS WATER. The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961
  • 10. TALLOWA DAM Construction 1971-1976 85,000 ML Capacity Part of the Shoalhaven Scheme Tallowa Dam has been a potent barrier to migratory native fish with estuarine/marine juvenile stages, blocking species including Australian bass from more than 80% of their former range SHOALHAVEN-RIVER WATER EXTRACTION SCHEME 7,500 ML pumped into Warragamba Dam annually, or 205 ML daily This pumping system is part of the Shoalhaven Power Scheme, where water is pumped up hill from Tallowa Dam to Fitzroy Falls Dam and released back, generating 240 MW. WINGECARRIBEE DAM 24,121 ML Capacity Water pumped from Shoalhaven can be diverted into Warragamba Dam or into the Nepean River. AVON DAM Construction 1921-1926 Capacity 214,260 ML CORDEAUX DAM Construction 1918-1926 Capacity 93,640 ML NEPEAN DAM Construction 1925-1935 Capacity 81,360 ML CATRACT DAM Construction 1902-1907 Capacity 94,300 WARRAGAMBA DAM Construction 1948-1960 Capacity 2,027,000 ML Supplies 80% of Sydney's water PROSPECT RESERVOIR Filtration Plant Supplies 4 million People with clean water SCHEMATIC MAP OF SYDNEYS DAM PROVIDED WATER The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoalhaven_River http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_Nepean_Scheme
  • 11. SYDNEY’S WATER SUPPLY AND STORAGE SYSTEMS AFTER BEING TREATED IN PREOSPECT FILTRATION PLANT THE WATER IS PUMPED ALONG SYDNEYS WATERMAINS TO HOLDING RESERVOIRS. PUMPING STATIONS SITUATED AROUND SYDNEY HELP KEEP PRESSURE IN THE MAINS AT AN ACCEPTABLE LEVEL. The Water Supply, Sewerage and Drainage of Sydney, W.V.Arid 1961
  • 12. OPENED IN 1996 AFTER 36 MONTHS CONSTRUCTION COSTING $200 MILLION. IT IS ONE OF THE LARGEST SINGULARLY DEVELOPED WATER FILTRATION PLANTS IN THE WORLD. USES 18,000 TONNES OF COARSE GRAINED SAND AS FILTATION MEDIA. AT CAPACITY THE PLANT CAN FILTER 3000 ML PER DAY. SYDNEY CURRENTLY USES AROUND 1300 ML PER DAY UNDER LEVEL 3 WATER RESTRICTIONS Taken from Australian Water Services Prospect Water Filtration Plant
  • 13. INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT US AND OUR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE Repairing 8,000 km of pipes resulted in the saving of 49 million liters of water per day, meaning that there could still be up to 90 million liters of water leaking out of the remaining pipes everyday. The percentage of water lost though leaks is 8.9% (leakage report as at 21 December 2006 , Sydeny Water) There is 21,000 km of water pipes which deliver water to Sydney http://www.sydneywater.com.au/SavingWater/ReducingLeaks/LeakReductionActivities.cfm Deterioration of aged fittings on a main (such as a hydrant or valve) can cause leaks Water main leaks and breaks are generally the result of one of or a combination of the following: Drought conditions - as the ground dries out, the pipes can move and sometimes break Corrosion of the water main, due to some surrounding "aggressive" soils (mainly clays or loams) Movement of aboveground pipelines - which make the joints susceptible to leaks Change of water pressure in the main (similar to "water-hammer" in the home) can cause a pipe's weak point to start a horizontal crack Ground movement around the main caused by dry/wet/cold weather conditions can cause a "broken back" crack on the main Constant impact of road traffic over a main can cause a pipe to crack A poorly fitted main tap can cause metal corrosion and subsequent leaks Meaning the worst case scenario there is thirty-two billion eight hundred and fifty million liters of water being lost to leaks per year. Or thirteen thousand one hundred and forty Olympic swimming pools. http://www.sydneywater.com.au/SavingWater/ReducingLeaks/WhatCausesLeaksAndBreaks.cfm Water Use and the Built Environment: Patterns of Water Consumption in Sydney Patrick Troy, Darren Holloway and Bill Randolph
  • 14. Groundwate r Groundwater cross-section Groundwater is all water which occurs as a part of the “hydrologic cycle” below the land surface. Groundwater represents a major proportion of the Earth’s usable water resources. Approximately 22.04% of all freshwater. Groundwater plays a significant role in the total water cycle. It Stores and filters water along with recharging and maintaining the flow of rivers, dams, streams, and wetlands. Groundwater is continually interacting with the many different processes of the Earth’s surface including rivers, lakes, dams, streams and wetlands. Sydney Regional Groundwater Management Handbook, Final Draft edition April 2005 Australian Government Land and water, April 2007, The Impact of Groundwater Use on Australia’s Rivers, Dr Richard Evans, Principal Hydrogeologist, Sinclair Knight Merz, Land & Water Australia Bore cross section
  • 15. Groundwater moves very slowly through aquifers, usually less than one metre per day until it seeps into low lying areas, streams, lakes, wetlands or the ocean. About 40% of the flow of Australian streams comes from groundwater. In turn, rivers and lakes can contribute large amounts of water to an aquifer. Groundwater is a renewable resource, but the ability to replenish or recharge it is limited. Higher Water table Lower Water table Australian Government Land and water, April 2007, The Impact of Groundwater Use on Australia’s Rivers, Dr Richard Evans, Principal Hydrogeologist, Sinclair Knight Merz, Land & Water Australia Even if a river or wetland is gaining flow from other sources. Groundwater pumping still reduces the baseflow, as the groundwater table sinks relative to the stream level and draws water out of the stream. Figure 1 and Figure 2 shows this process. Thus heavy pumping of groundwater can reduce the flow and level of these hydrological features.
  • 16.
    • Groundwater comes to the surface at many places, including flowing into streams and rivers, out of artesian springs and flowing into wetlands. The wetlands, rivers and streams and springs all have plants and animals that rely on the groundwater. Groundwater is recharged in three ways:
    • by rainfall or irrigation
    • by leakage from streams, lakes and reservoirs, or
    • by water rising from aquifers underneath.
    • And it can discharge in three ways:
    • by evapotranspiration (water lost through the combined effects of evaporation from the grounds surface and transpiration from the vegetation)
    • by flowing into surface water, or
    • by leaking into a deeper aquifer.
    Groundwater http://www.csiro.au/science/ps18h.html http://www.tear.org.au/resources/target/022/water_facts.htm http://www.ncgm.uts.edu.au/media/ThemythofSydneybeingdroughtproof.pdf
  • 17. Ground water http://portal.environment.wa.gov.au/portal/page?_pageid=53,34347&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL www.sydney.cma.nsw.gov.au/
    • Acid sulphate soils are naturally occurring soils and sediments containing sulphide minerals.
    • In an undisturbed state below the watertable, these soils are non acidic or harmful.
    • However if the soils are drained, excavated or exposed by lowering of the water table, (e.g excessive groundwater pumping) then the sulphides will react with oxygen to form sulphuric acid. Causing the following effects:
    • ecological damage to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems
    • effects on estuarine fisheries and aquaculture projects
    • contamination of groundwater with arsenic, aluminium and heavy metals
    • reduction in agricultural productivity through metal contamination of soils (predominantly by aluminium)
    • damage to infrastructure through the corrosion of concrete and steel pipes, bridges and other sub-surface assets.
  • 18. Desalination Aerial view of the proposed site of the desalination plant Sydney’s Desalinisation project, by Sydney Water, 2006 Looking South East
  • 19. Desalination Kurnell was chosen as the preferred site for Sydney’s desalinisation plant in 2005, and in 2006 blueprints for the project were created. In November 2006 the plans were given approval by the Minister for Planning. No Private property will be resumed and no homes will be demolished with the construction of the plant and pipe system. No Private property will be resumed and no homes will be demolished with the construction of the plant and pipe system. The desalinisation plant will be built on cleared industrial zoned land at Kurnell. The plant will be powered 100% by green energy and will have no net greenhouse impact. Desalinated water will be pumped into Sydneys water distribution system via an 18 Km pipeline from Kurnell, across Botany Bay, connecting to the city water tunnel at Erskineville. The Desalinisation plant uses the process of reverse osmosis to remove salt and other imputities from seawater to produce drinking water standards that meet the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines and NSW Health Requirements. Reverse osmosis is the process that forces seawater through a membrane under high pressure. The membranes act like a microscopic strainer that separates fresh water from salt and other impurities. Sydney’s Desalinisation project, by Sydney Water, 2006
  • 20. Desalination Aerial view of the proposed site of the desalination plant Sydney’s Desalinisation project, by Sydney Water, 2006 Looking East
  • 21. Desalination The Desalination Process of Reverse Osmosis Sydney’s Desalinisation project, by Sydney Water, 2006
  • 22. Waste Water The delivery system Drinkable desalinated water from the desalinisation plant travels through various sized pipes underneath Botany Bay and to Sydney water pipes at Erskineville Sydney’s Desalinisation project, by Sydney Water, 2006
  • 23. Desalination Site and water pipeline Prospect Reservoir
  • 24. Waste Water Stormwater flows into small street drains through pipes owned and managed by the council which collects a range of pollutions and different substances coming out of the local catchment area. These smaller drains collect, such things as water after a storm event, larger forms of rubbish such as cans, plastic bags, heavy metals and oils of roads, nutrients, fertilisers and grass clippings from residential and industrial areas. Many other types of pollutants are collected, though these are just to name a few. These pollutants are then carried through larger drains and pipes owned by Sydney water called Trunk Drains, which eventually take the untreated waste (with the exception of various types of Gross Pollutant Traps) and pollutants into local bays and river systems. Sydney’s trunk drains provide drainage for 25% of metropolitan Sydney. . Stormwater www.sydneywater.com.au
  • 25. Waste Water The Wastewater and Sewage that Sydney produces flows to sewage treatment plants which are either primary, secondary or tertiary facilities. These treatment facilities treat the water through a number of different processes which are often, physical, chemical and or biological. These processes remove solids, organic matter, pathogens, metals, and nutrients. To produce water that is then suitable for discharge back into rivers or the ocean. The Primary stage involves the removal of solids though a range of screens. Examples of primary treatments plants can be seen at, North Head, Bondi, Malabar and Fairfield. The Secondary treatment process removes smaller dissolved and suspended pollutants such as organic and inorganic solids through bacterial decomposition which breaks down the material. Examples of this type of treatment plant can be seen at Richmond, Riverstone, Wimmalee, Warriewood and Cronulla. Tertiary treatment processes further treat and remove inorganic material and substances such as the plant nutriants nitrogen and Phosphorus. Disinfection and Solar radiation are often used at this stage as well. Examples of this type of treatment facility include, St Marys and Quakers Hill. Waste Water & Sewage www.sydneywater.com.au
  • 26.  
  • 27.