Water / Wastewater - groundwater levels, dry land salinity and drought in Adelaide | Biocity Studio
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Water / Wastewater - groundwater levels, dry land salinity and drought in Adelaide | Biocity Studio

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Adelaide’s main source of water comes from the River Murray and the Mount Lofty catchment area and connects to the reticulation system. Urban stormwater is a major input to surface water with a ...

Adelaide’s main source of water comes from the River Murray and the Mount Lofty catchment area and connects to the reticulation system. Urban stormwater is a major input to surface water with a number of natural creeks discharging to stormwater drains. Although the major source of water comes from the surface water, ground water is also vital resource. Rising groundwater levels, dry land salinity and droughts are major problems in Adelaide. This presentation offers solution to these problems.

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Water / Wastewater - groundwater levels, dry land salinity and drought in Adelaide | Biocity Studio Presentation Transcript

  • 1. water wastewater … by sindy chung biocity studio adelaide 08
  • 2. water wastewater … *history water resources water use issues solutions state government strategies policy
  • 3. history.
    • 1830 - European settlers arrived, The River Torrens was the focus of Adelaide’s water resource.
    • [Variable rainfall and inappropriate development leaded to non-trustable quality of water.]
    • 1860 - The first reservoir was built at Thorndon Park to hold water diverted from the Torrens.
    • 28 Dec 1860 - Piped water was first supplied to some streets in Adelaide
    • 1872 – Hope valley Reservoir was built to help supply Adelaide’s growing urban areas
    • However, challenges faced when providing water to regional South Australia due to the long distances
    • involved and the nature of natural water resources.
    • Thus, a number of massive wood pipelines were planned and built by engineers to transport water
    • from the River Murray to the State.
    • 1955 – The Mannum-Adelaide Pipeline was completed
    • 1973 – The Murray Bridge-Onkaparinga Pipeline was completed.
    • 1977 – Further 8 reservoirs completed to meet metropolitan demand
    water wastewater Source: History, SA Water, http://sawater.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWaterSystems/History.htm Water supply, Atlas of South Australia, http://www.atlas.sa.gov.au/go/resources/atlas-of-south-australia-1986/environment-resources/water-supply
  • 4. water wastewater … history *water resources water use issues solutions state government strategies policy
  • 5. water resources.
    • SA Water delivers water to South Australians through a system made up of a complex network of
    • 25,000 kilometres of mains, reservoirs, treatment plants, pipelines and plumping stations.
    • Adelaide’s mains water is generally from two main sources, River Murray and the Mount Lofty
    • Catchment area and they are connected to the reticulation system by large trunk main that deliver
    • water to storage tanks install at varying levels of the hills to the south, north, and east of the
    • metropolitan area
    • There are 20 water treatment plants around the State and these ensure the water from rivers,
    • catchments and reservoirs meets drinking water quality standards by the time it reaches the
    • households.
    water wastewater Source: Water Supply, SA Water, www.sa water .com.au/SA Water / Your Home/ YourWaterWastewater Services/ Water +Supply.htm
  • 6. water resources. water wastewater Source: Australian water resources 2005
  • 7. water resources.
    • surface water.
    • Urban stormwater is a major input to surface water with a number of natural creeks
    • discharging to stormwater drains.
    • * River Murray
    • - South Australia’s primary water resources.
    • - service the Adelaide metropolitan area
    • - provides about 40% of Adelaide’s mains water supply on average
    • - provides water to over 90% of the state’s population in drought years
    • * Mount Lofty Ranges
    • - provides around 60% of Adelaide’s mains water supply in normal years
    • * Mid North Catchments
    • * Lake Eyre Basins
    • These supply water largely to the Adelaide Hills, metropolitan Adelaide, as well as significant
    • agricultural and horticultural uses.
    water wastewater Source: Australian water resources 2005 pipes, SA water, http://sawater.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWaterSystems/Pipelines.htm http://www.dwlbc.sa.gov.au/water/rivers/index.html http://www.theage.com.au/environment/dire-outlook-for-sick-murray-as-inflows-drop-20080710-3d6x.html
  • 8. water resources. water wastewater Source: Australian water resources 2005 pipes, SA water, http://sawater.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWaterSystems/Pipelines.htm Source: http:// www.epa.sa.gov.au/ws_facts.html
  • 9. water resources. water wastewater Source: http://www.water.gov.au/RegionalWaterResourcesAssessments/SpecificGeographicRegion/TabbedReports.aspx?PID=SA_SW_55x
  • 10. water resources. water wastewater
  • 11. water resources.
    • ground water.
    • Although the majority of South Australians source their water from surface water resources, however, groundwater is a
    • vital resource in many regions of the State.
    • supplies approx 65% of all irrigation water demand in South Australia
    • Most of the spring and mineral water supplies are obtained from groundwater resources of the Piccadilly Valley in the
    • Mount Lofty Ranges.
    • Soft drink and beer manufacturers pump high quality water from the deep Tertiary aquifer beneath Adelaide.
    • Groundwater is also pumped for industrial applications and for irrigation of recreational and sports fields throughout
    • the metropolitan area.
    • Groundwater is used for potable drinking water supplies throughout the South East (Blue Lake in Mount Gambier)
    • and on Eyre Peninsula.
    water wastewater Source: http://www.dwlbc.sa.gov.au/water/groundwater/index.html
  • 12. water wastewater … history water resources *water use issues solutions state government strategies policy
  • 13. water use. water wastewater Source: Water proof adelaide, SA Water, http://www.waterproofingadelaide.sa.gov.au/WPA/ProgressImplementation/RWU/_default.htm
  • 14. water use. water wastewater Source: Water proof adelaide, SA Water, http://www.waterproofingadelaide.sa.gov.au/WPA/ProgressImplementation/RWU/_default.htm House hold water use
  • 15. water use. water wastewater Source: Water proof adelaide, SA Water, http://www.waterproofingadelaide.sa.gov.au/WPA/ProgressImplementation/RWU/_default.htm
  • 16. water wastewater … history water resources water use *issues solutions state government strategies policy
  • 17. issue .
    • salinity .
    • "salinity ... as one of the most serious environmental issues in the Basin"
    • a major challenge facing South Australia.
    • Rising groundwater levels and dryland salinity remain
    • the largest threats to river salinity and the long-term
    • productivity of the region
    • Solution.
    • Established “South Australian River Murray
    • Salinity Strategy 2001”
    • On ground works such as salt interception schemes for
    • reducing saline ground water flows from
    • irrigation districts along the River Murray
    • The salinity in the Murray River at Morgan
    • (close to the off-take for Adelaide's water) has been rising slowly
    • for 80 years and is forecast to rise more quickly over the next 100 years.
    water wastewater Source: Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council (1999), http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/general2003/revolution/revolution.html South Australia’s Water Resources, Vol2, State Water Plan, Government of South Australia, 2000 Water innovation – a new era for Australia, Kathleen H Bowmer, 2004
  • 18. issue.
    • drought.
    • Reduced rainfall + increased temperatures + increased population = drought dangerous
    • Only 3.3% of the land area received an annual rainfall above 500mm , while about 83% receives less
    • than 250mm .
    • Summary of Adelaide water supply area contextual information
    water wastewater Source: River Murray System Drought Update for May 2008 , http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/water/allocation/index.html Water supply, Atlas of South Australia, http://www.atlas.sa.gov.au/go/resources/atlas-of-south-australia-1986/environment-resources/water-supply http://www.water.gov.au/RegionalWaterResourcesAssessments/SpecificGeographicRegion/TabbedReports.aspx?PID=SA_SW_55x Item Value Rainfall 1 Total rainfall 2004-2005 567mm  Average annual rainfall for period of record 582mm  Average annual rainfall 1994-2005 578mm Total evapotranspiration 2  Evapotranspiration 2004-05 241mm
  • 19. issues.
    • drought.
    water wastewater Source: Water supply, Atlas of South Australia, http://www.atlas.sa.gov.au/go/resources/atlas-of-south-australia-1986/environment-resources/water-supply
  • 20. water resources.
    • drought .
    water wastewater Source: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/water/allocation/index.html issues.
  • 21. water resources. water wastewater Source: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/water/allocation/index.html Annual rainfall for the Adelaide water supply area (modified from BOM, 2006) drought. issues.
  • 22. water resources. water wastewater Source: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/water/allocation/index.html Monthly rainfall and evaporation for the Adelaide water supply area (modified from BOM, 2006 & Climate Atlas) drought. issues.
  • 23. water resources. water wastewater Source: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/water/allocation/index.html drought. issues.
  • 24. water resources. water wastewater Source: http://www.anra.gov.au/topics/water/allocation/index.html Total water supplied by SA Water to Adelaide compared to population from 1999-2000 – 2004-05 (source: WSAA, 2005) drought. issues.
  • 25. water wastewater … history water resources water use issues *solutions state government strategies policy
  • 26. solutions.
    • drought.
    • “ There will never be any more freshwater on Earth than there is now.
    • No new water is being made and water can’t escape from the Earth.
    • The water we use is recycled over and over again. ”
    water wastewater Source: http://sawater.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWaterSystems/The+Water+Cycle.htm
  • 27. solutions.
    • wastewater recycling.
    • SA Water started the wastewater recycling practices since 1944 .
    • Today, 250 megalitres of wastewater is processed everyday by SA Water’s 3 major metropolitan
    • wastewater treatment plants in Christies Beach, Glenelg and Bolivar.
    • Wastewater is 99.99% water, which comprises a mixture of domestic sewage (waste
    • from household toilets, sinks, showers and wash machines), industrial effluent, occasional run-off of surface water
    • and ground water which has infiltrated into the sewers.
    • Aimed to reduce the amount of nutrients discharged to the ocean, as well as meeting
    • the environmental and public health guidelines.
    water wastewater Source: http://sawater.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWasteWaterSystems/Recycled+Water+Overview.htm Total Statewide Wastewater Recycled Per Year ML/year % of total wastewater flows 1997/1998      4,730   4.7 2002/2003 18,000 18.7 2003/2004  20,541                20.5 2004/2005 21,298 20.3 2005/2006  18,936 18.3 2006/2007 27,041 28.6
  • 28. solutions.
    • water recycling process.
    • A series of treatment process will then undertake in order to
    • clean the water before discharge into the environment or
    • reuse.
    • preliminary treatment – uses screens to remove the larger solid inorganic materials, such as paper and plastics.
    • primary treatment – remove solid particles of organic material are removed from the suspension by gravity settling.
    • secondar treatmeant – biological breakdown process which breaks down dissolved and suspended organic solids by suing naturally occuring micro-organisms.
    • teriary treatment – to reduce pathogens, which are micro-organisms which can pose a risk to human health.
    • 5. sludge treatment – digesters heated to 35 degrees celsius, where the anaerobic micro-organisms thrive without any oxygen.
    water wastewater Source: http://sawater.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWasteWaterSystems/Wastewater+Treatment+Process.htm
  • 29. water wastewater … history water resources water use issues solutions *state government strategies policy
  • 30. state government strategies.
    • The total amount of Wastewater recycled in Adelaide will increase by 50% when $426 million is spent in the
    • next four years to upgrade the wastewater treatment plants in Christies Beach and Aldinga, as well as the
    • Angle Vale pipeline extension in order to provide water to more market gardeners .
    • About 45% of all Adelaide’s wastewater will be recycled by 2011 (with comparison to 29% in 2006-07)
    • $5 million plan to save 1 billion litre (4000 Olympic sized swimming pools) of drinking water a year by piping
    • recycled water into city buildings.
    • Recycled water from Glenelg to be pumped through all cooling towers in commercial buildings in Adelaide’s
    • central business district. ie VS1 – the SA Water building.
    • $60 million pipeline is pending from the Glenelg Wastewater Treatment Plant to be extended to allow more
    • city buildings to use the recycled water.
    water wastewater Source: SA State Budget 08 – wastewater recycling program for city, The advertiser, June 05, 2008 City pipeline plan for recycled water, Greg Kelton, 23/4/08
  • 31. water wastewater … history *water resources water use issues solutions state government strategies *policy
  • 32. policy .
    • Water restrictions
    • – to control the water usage across the State during different seasons.
    • Water Resources Act 1997
    • – provides statutory powers and structure for management of water resources
    • Environment Protection Act 1993
    • - to control and prevent pollution in South Australia
    • South Australian River Murray Salinity Strategy 2001
    • – to reduce saline groundwater flows from irrigation districts along River Murray.
    • The State Water Plan
    • – provides strategic directions for the sustainable use and management of the state’s water resources.
    • The Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity conservation
    • - responsible for the policy and management of South Australia’s natural land and water resources .
    • Catchment Water Boards
    • – manage water resources through a range of licenses and permits and prepare water allocation plans
    • for the major irrigation areas .
    water wastewater Source: Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council (1999), http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/general2003/revolution/revolution.html South Australia’s Water Resources, Vol2, State Water Plan, Government of South Australia, 2000 Water innovation – a new era for Australia, Kathleen H Bowmer, 2004
  • 33. water wastewater … End.
  • 34. reference .
    • History, SA Water, http://sawater.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWaterSystems/History.htm
    • Water supply, Atlas of South Australia, http://www.atlas.sa.gov.au/go/resources/atlas-of-south-australia-1986/environment-resources/water-supply
    • Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council, 1999, http://www.clw.csiro.au/publications/general2003/revolution/revolution.html
    • South Australia’s Water Resources, Vol2, State Water Plan, Department of Water Resources, 2000
    • Policies for a sustainable future, Vol1, State Water Plan, Department of Water Resources, 2000
    • Kathleen H. Bowmer, Water innovation – a new era for Australia, 2004
    • pipes, SA water, http://sawater.com.au/SAWater/Education/OurWaterSystems/Pipelines.htm
    • Water proof adelaide, SA Water, http://www.waterproofingadelaide.sa.gov.au/WPA/ProgressImplementation/RWU/_default.htm
    • SA State Budget 08 – wastewater recycling program for city, The advertiser, June 05, 2008
    • Trends in water consumption of metropolitan Adelaide 1969-1983, engineering and water supply department, South Australia 1984
    • Seminar on managing impacts on the Water environmnet in the 1990’s, Australian water and wastewater asscociation, Adelaide, 1991
    • Australian water resources 2005
    water wastewater
  • 35.