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The Energy Crisis | Biocity Studio

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Sydney’s energy usage is 15% per capita higher than other developed cities in the world. The government is introducing a Carbon Trading Scheme as a proactive response to Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This …

Sydney’s energy usage is 15% per capita higher than other developed cities in the world. The government is introducing a Carbon Trading Scheme as a proactive response to Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This presentation discusses the outcomes and benefits of the decentralised trigeneration, New York Cities renovation of existing power plants and solar /wind power.

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  • 1. The Energy Crisis
    Kriston Kearney & Zinan Zhang
  • 2. The Energy Crisis
    • 226 600 gWh of electricity generated within Australia annually
    =
    18 333 000 000 two storey houses
    • Of the 226 600 gWh generated, only 209.5 000 gWh is consumed (7.5% discrepancy)
    • 3. 884 400 circuit km of circuit transmission infrastructure
    • 4. Per capita, Sydney uses 10% more electricity than the rest of NSW
    • 5. Sydney has an extremely low population density, due to urban sprawl
    • 6. Sydney’s energy consumption per capita is 15% above average in comparison to other cities of the developed world
  • The Energy Crisis
    • 27.8% of NSW Electricity used residentially, 22.4% commercially
    • 7. 90.5% of NSW electricity from coal, 6.8% hydro, 1.4% gas, 1.3% renewables
    • 8. 2007 US Study of 50 000 power stations found Eraring & Bayswater in 100 worst. Annually, these 2 power station emit the same carbon dioxide as 4.6 million cars
    • 9. 8-10% of electricity lost in transit
  • The Energy Crisis
    • Government introduces Carbon Trading Scheme as a proactive response to Greenhouse Gas Emissions & realisation of finite nature of coal
    • 10. Electricity prices increase significantly
    • 11. Power shortages occur as companies attempt to minimise expenditure and output
    • 12. Economic downturn in commodities
    • 13. Public outcry for short & long term solution
  • The Energy Crisis
    Trigeneration
    • The production of electricity, heating and cooling from a single source
    • 14. Waste heat by-product which results from the generation of electricity is harnessed, and harvested for use in cooling and heating
    • 15. Same concept as cogeneration, however the third element is the cooling of excess steam in electricity generation by an absorption chiller
    • 16. Cogeneration is prevalent throughout Frankfurt, where in 1963, new developments were supplied with heat, courtesy of cogeneration from local coal CHP plant
    • 17. 1972 Frankfurt new developments supplied with heat via gas powered CHP plant
  • The Energy Crisis
    Trigeneration Mechanism
  • 18. The Energy Crisis
    Trigeneration Efficiency
  • 19. The Energy Crisis
    Decentralisation
    • Generating electricity at point of use, or an electric power source connected directly to the distribution network or on the customer side of the meter
    • 20. Rather than being passive energy consumers, buildings are transformed into power generators for themselves and local energy network
    • 21. Decentralisation has the ability to synthesis various energy inputs; fossil and renewable sources
    • 22. Fossil fuel can be used during peak demand periods to cater for demand
  • The Energy Crisis
    Decentralised Trigeneration & Its Benefits
    • Non centralised electricity loses 8-10% in transmission. This is avoided
    • 23. Provides power, hot water, space heating & air conditioning from a single source
    • 24. Trigeneration has a 90% energy efficiency, compared to coal electricity at 35%
    • 25. Absorption chillers are more energy efficient than existing cooling infrastructure & emit significantly less CFCs
    • 26. Excess energy created can be redirected onto the power grid and sold back to the power company
  • The Energy Crisis
    New York City
    • $65 million renovation of existing power plant
    • 27. 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, $20 million savings for residents
    • 28. Removed ‘Co-op’ area in the Bronx off city grid. Completely self sufficient for 55 000
    • 29. Extra energy generated can be diverted in case of black out during peak periods
    If this was to be implemented across Sydney, we can expect....
  • 30. The Energy Crisis
    • Improved energy efficiency from 33.6 billion kWh per annum, to 15.12 billion kWh per annum
    ↑ 55%
    • Improved greenhouse gas emissions from coal electricity generation from 271 million tonnes per annum, to 162.6 million tonnes per annum
    ↓40%
    • Decrease electricity bills significantly, as over 50% electricity bill is accounted for by transmission expenses
  • The Energy Crisis
    Project Electricity Sources
  • 31. The Energy Crisis
    • Over the 11 year projected period, an average of 23.65% of electricity in NSW will be generated from gas
    • 32. A consumption rate of 1% of Australia’s gas reserves would be sustainable for 875 years
    • 33. Current reserves can sustain electricity generation consumption at 23.65% for 37 years and 3 months, or by the solution’s introduction in 2014; 32 years and 3 months
    • 34. Although there are gas fuelled power stations in; Tallawarra, Liddell, Smithfield, Uranquinty, further station will have to be converted or built
    • 35. Current contributing co-gen plants: Kurnell (Caltex), Port Kembla (BHP), Clyde (Shell)
  • The Energy Crisis
    Proposed Decentralisation Scheme
  • 36. The Energy Crisis
    Projected Outcomes/Benefits
    • A more reliable power system, significantly less dependant upon fossil fuels
    • 37. large step towards rendering coal obsolete
    • 38. Most affordable stepping stone in the transition to 100% renewable energy
    • 39. Significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions
    • 40. Through government incentive, the creation of an updated and sustainable energy system with increased reliability and long term financial benefit
    • 41. Maximisation of building space and creation of a self sufficient sustainable network
  • The Energy Crisis
    Existing Renewable Energy Power Plants 2008
  • 42. The Energy Crisis
    2025 Proposed Renewable Energy Plants
  • 43. The Energy Crisis
    Solar Energy – Photovoltaics
  • 44. The Energy Crisis
    Solar Power
    • Three levels: low level (solar panels for pool), middle level (flat plates used for heating water residentially and commercially), high level (use of mirrors and lenses to generate electricity)
    • 45. Approximately $50 000 to install a solar system capable of powering a house and rendering it self sufficient
    • 46. Through financial incentives and substantial subsidies, the transition to completely renewable power will be undertaken. Feed in tariffs to be introduced
    • 47. Push for BIPV- Building Integrated Photovoltaics
  • The Energy Crisis
    Solar Generation vs. Consumption
  • 48. Wind Generated Energy
    • Approximated 1% of Australia’s electricity is from wind power, with annual production figures of 1125 MW as of 2008
    • 49. 2007, Australia’s wind generation capacity is 0.8 GW in comparison to Germany’s 22 GW, US’ 16 GW
    • 50. Wind power development costs around $1 million per MW of generating capacity installed. To take advantage of economies of scale, wind power facilities should be in excess of 20 MW.
    • 51. 1 Wind turbine = 750 kW in capacity
    • 52. Wind farms can by placed on land, or offshore as seen in the UK
    • 53. Therefore 26 turbines arerequired to produce20 mW, and an investment of $20 million
    The Energy Crisis
  • 54. The Energy Crisis
    In the Long Term…
    • A developer will secure tentative commitments from one or more buyers for the wind plants output over 10 – 30 years of its operational lifetime
    • 55. In combination with other renewable sources, will eventually take up 100% of Australia’s dependence on renewable energy.
    Bayswater Coal Plant (NSW) = 2640 MW at capacity with 4 turbines
    Blayney Wind Farm (NSW) = 9.9 MW at capacity with 15 turbines
    264 x 15 =
  • 56. 3960 Wind Turbines!
  • 57. The Energy Crisis....Solved
    Thank you for listening!
    Kriston Kearney & Zinan Zhang