The Energy Crisis | Biocity Studio
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The Energy Crisis | Biocity Studio

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Sydney’s energy usage is 15% per capita higher than other developed cities in the world. The government is introducing a Carbon Trading Scheme as a proactive response to Greenhouse Gas Emissions. ...

Sydney’s energy usage is 15% per capita higher than other developed cities in the world. The government is introducing a Carbon Trading Scheme as a proactive response to Greenhouse Gas Emissions. This presentation discusses the outcomes and benefits of the decentralised trigeneration, New York Cities renovation of existing power plants and solar /wind power.

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    The Energy Crisis | Biocity Studio The Energy Crisis | Biocity Studio Presentation Transcript

    • The Energy Crisis
      Kriston Kearney & Zinan Zhang
    • The Energy Crisis
      • 226 600 gWh of electricity generated within Australia annually
      =
      18 333 000 000 two storey houses
      • Of the 226 600 gWh generated, only 209.5 000 gWh is consumed (7.5% discrepancy)
      • 884 400 circuit km of circuit transmission infrastructure
      • Per capita, Sydney uses 10% more electricity than the rest of NSW
      • Sydney has an extremely low population density, due to urban sprawl
      • Sydney’s energy consumption per capita is 15% above average in comparison to other cities of the developed world
    • The Energy Crisis
      • 27.8% of NSW Electricity used residentially, 22.4% commercially
      • 90.5% of NSW electricity from coal, 6.8% hydro, 1.4% gas, 1.3% renewables
      • 2007 US Study of 50 000 power stations found Eraring & Bayswater in 100 worst. Annually, these 2 power station emit the same carbon dioxide as 4.6 million cars
      • 8-10% of electricity lost in transit
    • The Energy Crisis
      • Government introduces Carbon Trading Scheme as a proactive response to Greenhouse Gas Emissions & realisation of finite nature of coal
      • Electricity prices increase significantly
      • Power shortages occur as companies attempt to minimise expenditure and output
      • Economic downturn in commodities
      • Public outcry for short & long term solution
    • The Energy Crisis
      Trigeneration
      • The production of electricity, heating and cooling from a single source
      • Waste heat by-product which results from the generation of electricity is harnessed, and harvested for use in cooling and heating
      • Same concept as cogeneration, however the third element is the cooling of excess steam in electricity generation by an absorption chiller
      • Cogeneration is prevalent throughout Frankfurt, where in 1963, new developments were supplied with heat, courtesy of cogeneration from local coal CHP plant
      • 1972 Frankfurt new developments supplied with heat via gas powered CHP plant
    • The Energy Crisis
      Trigeneration Mechanism
    • The Energy Crisis
      Trigeneration Efficiency
    • The Energy Crisis
      Decentralisation
      • Generating electricity at point of use, or an electric power source connected directly to the distribution network or on the customer side of the meter
      • Rather than being passive energy consumers, buildings are transformed into power generators for themselves and local energy network
      • Decentralisation has the ability to synthesis various energy inputs; fossil and renewable sources
      • Fossil fuel can be used during peak demand periods to cater for demand
    • The Energy Crisis
      Decentralised Trigeneration & Its Benefits
      • Non centralised electricity loses 8-10% in transmission. This is avoided
      • Provides power, hot water, space heating & air conditioning from a single source
      • Trigeneration has a 90% energy efficiency, compared to coal electricity at 35%
      • Absorption chillers are more energy efficient than existing cooling infrastructure & emit significantly less CFCs
      • Excess energy created can be redirected onto the power grid and sold back to the power company
    • The Energy Crisis
      New York City
      • $65 million renovation of existing power plant
      • 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, $20 million savings for residents
      • Removed ‘Co-op’ area in the Bronx off city grid. Completely self sufficient for 55 000
      • Extra energy generated can be diverted in case of black out during peak periods
      If this was to be implemented across Sydney, we can expect....
    • The Energy Crisis
      • Improved energy efficiency from 33.6 billion kWh per annum, to 15.12 billion kWh per annum
      ↑ 55%
      • Improved greenhouse gas emissions from coal electricity generation from 271 million tonnes per annum, to 162.6 million tonnes per annum
      ↓40%
      • Decrease electricity bills significantly, as over 50% electricity bill is accounted for by transmission expenses
    • The Energy Crisis
      Project Electricity Sources
    • The Energy Crisis
      • Over the 11 year projected period, an average of 23.65% of electricity in NSW will be generated from gas
      • A consumption rate of 1% of Australia’s gas reserves would be sustainable for 875 years
      • Current reserves can sustain electricity generation consumption at 23.65% for 37 years and 3 months, or by the solution’s introduction in 2014; 32 years and 3 months
      • Although there are gas fuelled power stations in; Tallawarra, Liddell, Smithfield, Uranquinty, further station will have to be converted or built
      • Current contributing co-gen plants: Kurnell (Caltex), Port Kembla (BHP), Clyde (Shell)
    • The Energy Crisis
      Proposed Decentralisation Scheme
    • The Energy Crisis
      Projected Outcomes/Benefits
      • A more reliable power system, significantly less dependant upon fossil fuels
      • large step towards rendering coal obsolete
      • Most affordable stepping stone in the transition to 100% renewable energy
      • Significantly reduced greenhouse gas emissions
      • Through government incentive, the creation of an updated and sustainable energy system with increased reliability and long term financial benefit
      • Maximisation of building space and creation of a self sufficient sustainable network
    • The Energy Crisis
      Existing Renewable Energy Power Plants 2008
    • The Energy Crisis
      2025 Proposed Renewable Energy Plants
    • The Energy Crisis
      Solar Energy – Photovoltaics
    • The Energy Crisis
      Solar Power
      • Three levels: low level (solar panels for pool), middle level (flat plates used for heating water residentially and commercially), high level (use of mirrors and lenses to generate electricity)
      • Approximately $50 000 to install a solar system capable of powering a house and rendering it self sufficient
      • Through financial incentives and substantial subsidies, the transition to completely renewable power will be undertaken. Feed in tariffs to be introduced
      • Push for BIPV- Building Integrated Photovoltaics
    • The Energy Crisis
      Solar Generation vs. Consumption
    • Wind Generated Energy
      • Approximated 1% of Australia’s electricity is from wind power, with annual production figures of 1125 MW as of 2008
      • 2007, Australia’s wind generation capacity is 0.8 GW in comparison to Germany’s 22 GW, US’ 16 GW
      • Wind power development costs around $1 million per MW of generating capacity installed. To take advantage of economies of scale, wind power facilities should be in excess of 20 MW.
      • 1 Wind turbine = 750 kW in capacity
      • Wind farms can by placed on land, or offshore as seen in the UK
      • Therefore 26 turbines arerequired to produce20 mW, and an investment of $20 million
      The Energy Crisis
    • The Energy Crisis
      In the Long Term…
      • A developer will secure tentative commitments from one or more buyers for the wind plants output over 10 – 30 years of its operational lifetime
      • In combination with other renewable sources, will eventually take up 100% of Australia’s dependence on renewable energy.
      Bayswater Coal Plant (NSW) = 2640 MW at capacity with 4 turbines
      Blayney Wind Farm (NSW) = 9.9 MW at capacity with 15 turbines
      264 x 15 =
    • 3960 Wind Turbines!
    • The Energy Crisis....Solved
      Thank you for listening!
      Kriston Kearney & Zinan Zhang