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Vitamins

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week 5

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  • 1. VITAMINS BIOCHEM LEC WK 5
  • 2. VITAMINS
    • VITAMINS- essential organic molecules needed in very small amounts for cellular metabolism
    • Primary Deficiency of a Vitamin- occurs when the vitamin is not consumed in sufficient amounts to meet physiologic needs
    • Secondary Deficiency- develops when absorption is impaired or excess excretion occurs
  • 3. VITAMINS
    • Categories
    • Water Soluble Vitamins- Vitamin B Complex, Choline, Vitamin C
    • Fat Soluble Vitamins- Vitamins A, D, E, K
    • Food Sources: Almost all foods, yet NO one food group is a good source of all vitamins; fresh fruits and vegetables are particularly rich sources
  • 4. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • THIAMINE (B1)
    • functions: to serve as coenzyme in energy metabolism; role in nerve functioning related to muscle actions
    • RDA: 1.2 mg for men/ 1.1 mg for women
    • Deficiency: BERI-BERI—2 Types
    • WET- manifests with edema affecting cardiac function
    • DRY- affects the CNS, producing paralysis and extreme muscle wasting
    • Toxicity: non-toxic; excess is excreted in urine
  • 5. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • RIBOFLAVIN (B2)
    • function: coenzyme in the release of energy from nutrients
    • sensitive to light
    • RDA: 1.3 mg for men/ 1.1 mg for women
    • Deficiency: ARIBOFLAVINOSIS—S/SX
    • CHEILOSIS- lips become swollen and cracks develop in corners of the mouth
    • GLOSSITIS- inflammation of the tongue
  • 6. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • NIACIN (B3)
    • functions: coenzyme for many enzymes; critical for glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle
    • occurs naturally in 2 forms: NICOTINIC ACID and NIACINAMIDE
    • RDA: 16 NE for men/ 14 NE for women
    • Deficiency: PELLAGRA—3D’s ( Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia )
  • 7. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • PYRIDOXINE (B6)
    • functions: coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids and CHON
    • 3 forms ( pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine ) all can be converted to the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate for use in the body
    • RDA: 1.3 mg for men and women
    • Deficiency: S/SX: dermatitis, altered nerve function, weakness
  • 8. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • FOLATE
    • function: coenzyme in reactions involving the transfer of 1-Carbon units during metabolism
    • 4 forms ( folate, folic acid, folacin and pteroylglutamic acid )
    • for folate to be maintained for use in the body, Vitamin B12 must be available
    • folate has a role in proper formation of fetal neural tubes (brain and spinal cord development)
    • RDA: 400 mcg for men/women 600mcg for pregnant women
    • Deficiency: megaloblastic anemia—large RBC that cannot carry oxygen
  • 9. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • COBALAMIN/CYANOCOBALAMIN (B12)
    • functions: coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism; needed for maturation of RBC
    • absorption of Vitamin B12 relies on an intrinsic factor (IF) a substance produced by stomach mucosa
    • deficiency: Pernicious Anemia- inadequate RBC formation caused by lack of IF in the stomach
  • 10. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • BIOTIN
    • function: coenzyme in synthesis of fat, glycogen and amino acids
    • deficiency: S/SX: scaly red skin rash, hair loss, loss of appetite, depression
  • 11. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • PANTOTHENIC ACID
    • function: for metabolism of CHO, FATS and CHON
    • deficiency: do not occur in nature
    • CHOLINE
    • function: needed for synthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter, and lecithin( phospholipid)
    • deficiency: rare
  • 12. WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • ASCORBIC ACID ( VITAMIN C )
    • functions: collagen synthesis and other CT; antioxidant; iron absorption; coenzyme
    • RDA: 90 mg for men/ 75 for women/ 125 mg for smokers
    • Deficiency: SCURVY: S/SX—inflammation of CT, gingivitis, muscle degeneration, bruising and hemorrhaging as the vascular system weakens
  • 13. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • VITAMIN A
    • functions: component of visual pigments; needed for maintenance of epithelial tissues; antioxidant
    • RDA: 900 mcg RAE for men/ 700 mcg RAE for women
    • Deficiency: XEROPHTHALMIA—night blindness progressing to a hard, dry cornea (keratinization) resulting in complete blindness
  • 14. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • VITAMIN D
    • function: aid in absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus; promotes bone growth
    • precursor: 7-dehydrocholesterol (found in the skin)
    • active form: 1,25- dihydrocholecalciferol
    • deficiency: RICKETS- a childhood disorder caused by Vitamin D or Calcium deficiency that leads to insufficient mineralization of bone and tooth matrix
  • 15. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • VITAMIN E (TOCOPHEROLS)
    • function: antioxidant
    • RDA: 15 mg TE for men/women
    • Deficiency: rare
    • VITAMIN K
    • function: cofactor in the synthesis of blood clotting factors
    • deficiency: inhibits blood coagulation