Water soluble vitamins Lecture 1 Thiamin & Riboflavin ppt BIOCHEMISTRY

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  • Thiamine was the first vitamin to be discovered, around 100 years ago.
  • Transported to tissues bound to albumin
  • After cellular uptake it is converted into its active form
  • Dry beriberi: neuromuscular symptoms- degeneration and demyelination of sensory and motor nerves and severe wasting of musclesWet beriberi: more severe cases of thiamine deficiency. Cardiovascular manifestations appear, edema is the notable feature. Accumulation of pyruvic and lactic acidCerebral beriberi: mental dearrangement, delirium and ataxia.Infantile beriberi: develops in breastfed infants mostly between the 2nd and fifth month in the area where beriberi is endemic.
  • In the United States today, the most significant dietary sources of riboflavin are meat andmeat products, including poultry and fish, and milk and dairy products, such as eggs andcheese. In developing countries, plant sources contribute most of the dietary riboflavinintake. Green vegetables, such as broccoli, collard greens, and turnip greens, are reasonablygood sources of riboflavin. Natural grain products tend to be relatively low in riboflavin,but fortification and enrichment of grains and cereals has led to a great increase inriboflavin intake from these food items.The food sources of riboflavin are similar to those of other B vitamins. Therefore,it is not surprising that if a given individual’s diet has inadequate amounts of riboflavin,it will very likely be inadequate in other vitamins as well. A primary deficiency of dietaryriboflavin has wide implications for other vitamins, as flavin coenzymes are involved inthe metabolism of folic acid, pyridoxine, vitamin K, niacin, and vitamin D (27). from dietary sources. Appreciable amounts of riboflavinmay be lost with exposure to UV light, particularly during cooking and processing.Prolonged storage of milk in clear bottles or containers may result in flavin degradation(28). Fortunately, most milk is no longer sold in clear bottles. There has been some controversyas to whether opaque plastic containers provide greater protection than do cartons,particularly when milk is stored on a grocery shelf exposed to continuous fluorescentlighting.
  • FMN is formed in intestineFAD is formed in LiverFlavin dependent enzymes (flavoproteins)
  • The major function of riboflavin, as noted above, is to serve as the precursor of the flavincoenzymes, FMN and FAD, and of covalently bound flavins. These coenzymes are widelydistributed in intermediary metabolism and catalyze numerous oxidation–reduction reactions.Because FAD is part of the respiratory chain, riboflavin is central to energy production.Other major functions of riboflavin include drug and steroid metabolism, inconjunction with the cytochrome P450 enzymes, and lipid metabolism. The redox functionsof flavin coenzymes include both one-electron transfers and two-electron transfersfrom substrate to the flavin coenzyme (10).Flavoproteins catalyze dehydrogenation reactions as well as hydroxylations, oxidativedecarboxylations, dioxygenations, and reductions of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide.Thus, many different kinds of oxidative and reductive reactions are catalyzed by flavoproteins.
  • FMN Dependent enzymes:FMN is a cofactor for L- amino acid oxidase.NADH dehydrogenase of respiratory chain contains FMNFAD Dependent enzymes:D-amino oxidaseSuccinate dehydrogenaseAceyl coA dehydrogenaseXanthine oxidasePyruvate dehydrogenaseA ketoglutarate dehydrogenaseComplex II of R chain
  • Chemistry:The word niacin refers to two pyridine derivatives. They are nicotinicacid and nicotinamide
  • The beta mercaptoethanol amine(NH2-CH2-CH2-SH) contains one thiol or sulfhydryl(-SH) group. It is the active site where acyl groups are carried. Therefore co-enzyme A is sometimes abbreviated as CoA-SH to denote this active site.The thio ester bond in acyl-CoA is a high energy bond .
  • Figure 22.21. Phosphopantetheine. Both acyl carrier protein and CoA include phosphopantetheine as their reactiveunits.
  • Custom animation effects: countdown(Advanced)Tip: For the effects on this slide, use a large picture that measures 7.5” high and 10” wide (the dimensions of the slide). To reproduce the animated picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in theSlides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the 7.5” x 10” picture, and then click Insert.On the slide, select the picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from, in the Right box, enter 5.33”. (Note: Under Size and rotate, the Height should now be 7.5” and the Width should now be 5”.)On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Left.Click Align Middle.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture. In the Insert Picture dialog box, select the same 7.5” x 10” picture, and then click Insert.On the slide, select the second picture. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, under Crop from, in the Left box, enter 5.33”. (Note: Under Size and rotate, the Height should be 7.5” and the Width should now be 5”.)On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Right.Click Align Middle.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangle click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle. Select the rectangle. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click Align Right.Click Align Middle. With the rectangle still selected, on the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane. In the Fill pane, select Solid fill, and then do the following:Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 10%.On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click Custom Animation.On the slide, select the left picture. In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point toEntrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Basic, click Peek In. Select the animation effect (peek-in effect for the left picture). Under Modify: Peek In, do the following:In the Start list, select With Previous.In the Direction list, select From Right.In the Speed list, select Medium. On the slide, select the second (right) picture. In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point toEntrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Basic, click Peek In. Select the second animation effect (peek-in effect for the right picture). Under Modify: Peek In, do the following:In the Start list, select With Previous.In the Direction list, select From Left.In the Speed list, select Medium. To reproduce the first animated text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box. On the slide, drag to draw a text box. Enter Time for a short break in the text box. Select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select TW Cen MT.In the Font Size list, select 40. Click Bold. Click the arrow next to Font Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Align Text Right to align the text right in the text box.On the text box, drag the adjustment handles to adjust the size of the text box so that the text wraps onto two lines, as in the example above. Drag the text box onto the lower half of the slide, to the left of the middle.On the slide, select the text box. In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point toEntrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Moderate, click Ascend. Select the third animation effect (ascend effect for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Ascend dialog box, do the following:In the Start list, select With Previous.In the Delay box, enter 1.In the Speed list, select 1 seconds (Fast).To reproduce the other animated text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box. On the slide, drag to draw a text box. Enter : in the second text box. Select the text in the second text box. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select TW Cen MT.In the Font Size list, select 90. Click Bold. Click the arrow next to Font Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left). On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Align Text Left to align the colon left in the second text box. Drag the second text box into the upper half of the slide, to the right of the middle.On the slide, select the second text box. In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point toEntrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Moderate, click Descend. Select the fourth animation effect (descend effect for the second text box). Under Modify: Descend, do the following:In the Start list, select With Previous.In the Speed list, select Fast.On the slide, select the second text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate. Click in the third text box, delete the colon, and then enter 10.Drag the 10 text box on top of the second text box, until the number is positioned to the right of the colon.On the Home tab, in the Editing group, click Select, and then click Selection Pane. In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the 10 text box. In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point toExit, and then click More Effects. In the Add Exit Effect dialog box, under Basic, click Disappear. Select the sixth animation effect (disappear effect for the second text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Disappear dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select After Previous.In the Delay box, enter 1.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the 10 text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate. Click in the fourth text box, delete 10, and then enter 09 (the content of the previous text box, minus one second).In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the 09 text box. On the slide, drag the selected text box on top of the other text boxes.In the Custom Animation task pane, do the following:Select the seventh animation effect (descend effect for the 09 text box). Click Change, point to Entrance, and then click More Effects. In the Change Entrance Effect dialog box, under Basic, click Appear. Select the seventh animation effect (appear effect for the 09 text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Appear dialog box, on the Timing tab, in the Delay box, enter 1.In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the 09 text box. On the Home tab, in the Clipboard group, click the arrow under Paste, and then click Duplicate. On the slide, click in the duplicate text box, delete 09, and enter 08 (the content of the previous text box, minus one second).In the Selection and Visibility pane, select the 08 text box. On the slide, drag the selected text box on top of the other text boxes. On the slide, continue to duplicate, edit, and drag the text boxes as in steps 16-18, entering a number in each new text box that is one second less than the previous text box, until there is a total of 11 numbered text boxes. (Note: The final text box will contain 00). In the Custom Animation task pane, select the last animation effect (disappear effect for the 00 text box), and then click Remove.
  • Custom animation effects: dotted line with text fade by letter(Basic)To reproduce the text effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Text Box, and then on the slide, drag to draw a text box that spans the entire width of the slide.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click Symbol. In the Symbol dialog box, do the following:In the Font list, select (normal text).In the Subset list, select General Punctuation.In the Character Code box, enter 2022 to select BULLET, and then click Insert.Click Insert 33 more times until there is a row of 34 bullets in the text box. In the text box, select the text, and then on the Home tab, in the Font group do the following:In the Font list, select ArialBlack.In the FontSize list, select 44.Click the arrow next to FontColor, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click AlignCenter.Click AlignMiddle.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click TextBox. Drag to draw a text box on the slide.Enter and select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select Corbel.In the FontSize box, enter 50.Click the arrow next to FontColor, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Click Bold.With the text still selected, on the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click Center.Select the second text box. On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, point to Align, and then do the following:Click Align to Slide.Click AlignCenter.Click AlignMiddle.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Center (third option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Blue, Accent 1, Darker 25% (fifth row, fifth option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Black, Text 1 (first row, second option from the left). To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation. On the slide, select the first text box. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntrance Effect dialog box, under Basic, click Fly In.Select the animation effect (fly-in effect for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Fly In dialog box, do the following:On the Effect tab, do the following:In the Direction list, select FromLeft.In the Animatetext list, selectByLetter.In the % delay between letters box, enter 10.On the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (Very Fast).On the slide, select the first text box. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Exit, and then click MoreEffects. In the Add Exit Effect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade. Select the second animation effect (fade effect for the first text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Fade dialog box, do the following:On the Effect tab, do the following:In the Animatetext list, selectByLetter.In the % delay between letters box, enter 10.On the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 1.5.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (Very Fast).On the slide, select the second text box. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following.Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and then click MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Subtle, click Fade.Select the third animation effect (fade effect for the second text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Fade dialog box, do the following:On the Effect tab, do the following:In the Animatetext list, selectByLetter.In the % delay between letters box, enter 6.On the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box,enter 2.In the Speed list, select 0.5 seconds (Very Fast).
  • Water soluble vitamins Lecture 1 Thiamin & Riboflavin ppt BIOCHEMISTRY

    1. 1. • Thiamine [B1] • Riboflavin [B2] • Niacin [B3] • Pantothenic acid [B5] • Pyridoxine [B6] • Biotin • Folic acid • Cobalamine [B12] Vitamin B complex
    2. 2. Thiamine Riboflavin
    3. 3. Thiamine
    4. 4. Pyrimidine ring Methylene bridge Thiazole ring
    5. 5. Rich Sources Good sources Fair sources • Outer coatings of food grains like rice, wheat and yeast. • Whole cereals, pulses, oilseeds and nuts. • Meat, liver and egg and fish.
    6. 6. 1mg/day
    7. 7. Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP or TDP) is the active form of thiamine.
    8. 8. Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP or TDP) is the active form of thiamine.
    9. 9. Essential for release of energy from carbohydrates Necessary branched chain amino acid metabolism Needed for normal functioning of nervous system
    10. 10. In carbohydrate metabolism Oxidative decarboxylation Transketolase reactions
    11. 11. Pyruvate Acetyl - CoA NAD+ NADH+H+ CO2 Oxidative decarboxylation PDH
    12. 12. α ketoglutarate Succinyl - CoA NAD+ NADH+H+ CO2 Oxidative decarboxylation
    13. 13. Xylose-5 phosphate Ribose-5 phosphate Glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate Sedoheptulose-7 phosphate Transketolase TPP
    14. 14. Failure of carbohydrate metabolism ↓ATP production Impaired cellular functions
    15. 15. Dry beriberi Wet beriberi Cerebral beriberi Infantile beriberi
    16. 16. RIBOFLAVIN
    17. 17. 27
    18. 18. 1.3 – 1.7mg/day
    19. 19. Absorbed in small intestine and distributed to all tissues by circulation.
    20. 20. FMN FAD
    21. 21. Active forms of riboflavin are FMN and FAD. They act as prosthetic groups of several enzymes. Catalyzes oxidation-reduction reactions. Growth, repair, development of body tissues - healthy skin, eyes and tongue
    22. 22. Co-enzyme activity FMN - dependent enzymes FAD - dependent enzymes
    23. 23. Oral • Angular Stomatitis • Cheliosis • Glossitis Facial • Dermatitis of nasolabial region. Ocular • Vascularization of cornea
    24. 24. NIACIN
    25. 25. Nicotinic acid Nicotinamide
    26. 26. NIACIN [B3]- SOURCE
    27. 27. 15-20 mg/day
    28. 28. NAD+ NADP+
    29. 29. NAD+, NADP+ are involved in oxidation and reduction reactions NAD in oxidative pathways - TCA cycle, Glycolysis NADP in reductive pathways - PPP, Synthesis of cholesterol, FA
    30. 30. PELLAGRA Dermatitis Diarrhoea Dementia Death
    31. 31. CAUSES Dietary deficiency Deficient synthesis Isoniazid Hartnup disease Carcinoid syndrome
    32. 32. Pantothenic acid Pyridoxine
    33. 33. Combination of pantoic acid and β-alanine
    34. 34. 5-10 mg/day.
    35. 35. Freely absorbed in the intestine and reach various tissues through circulation.
    36. 36. ACTIVE FORMS Coenzyme-A [CoA-SH] Acyl carrier protein [ACP]
    37. 37. Coenzyme-A TCA cycle Fatty acid synthesis Cholesterol synthesis ACP Fatty acid synthesis
    38. 38. Rare in humans Burning Foot Syndrome Experimental animals Anemia Dermatitis Fatty liver
    39. 39. : Time for a short break 1009080706050403020100
    40. 40. ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
    41. 41. Pyridoxine Pyridoxal Pyridoxamine PYRIDOXINE [B6]- CHEMISTRY
    42. 42. PYRIDOXINE [B6]
    43. 43. 2-2.5 mg/day
    44. 44. Pyridoxine is easily absorbed and reaches various tissues through circulation. In the tissues pyridoxine is converted to pyridoxal and pyridoxamine.
    45. 45. Pyridoxal phosphate
    46. 46. Protein metabolism Heme synthesis Glycogenolysis
    47. 47. Transamination Deamination Decarboxylation Heme synthesis Production of Niacin Glycogenolysis
    48. 48. Reaction type Example Transamination Oxaloacetate + glutamate ⇔ aspartate + α-ketoglutarate Deamination Serine → pyruvate + NH3 Decarboxylation Histidine → histamine + CO2 Condensation Glycine + succinyl CoA → δ-aminolevulinic acid
    49. 49. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia Peripheral neuropathy Convulsions
    50. 50. Isoniazid or isonicotinic acid hydrazine (INH) Pencillamine Oral contraceptives and excessive alcohol consumption

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