Minerals calcium ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com


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Minerals calcium ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com

  1. 1. Dr. Vijay Marakala, MBBS, MD. Assistant professor BIOCHEMISTRY SIMS & RC
  2. 2. Minerals are inorganic compounds that are required for the body as one of the nutrients
  3. 3. Macrominerals Required in excess of 100mg/day Ca++, P, S, Mg, Cl, Na, K. Microminerals Required in amounts less than 100mg/day Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, I, Fl, Cr, CO, Mn
  4. 4. Calcium Phosphorous Iron Copper Iodine Zinc Fluoride Magnesium Manganese Selenium
  5. 5. Sources and RDA Metabolism of calcium Functions of calcium Regulation of plasma calcium Disorders of calcium metabolism
  6. 6. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body Human body contain about 1-1.5 kg of calcium
  7. 7. Children 1000mg/day Adults 500mg/day Pregnancy and lactation 1500mg/day
  8. 8. Absorption Factors affecting absorption Mechanism of absorption Excretion of calcium Distribution and storage
  9. 9. Site Efficiency Upper small intestine 20-30% of dietary Ca
  10. 10. Calcium absorption is increased by Calcitriol PTH High protein diet Optimum Ca:P ratio Acidic pH Bile salts Absorption is decreased by Alkaline pH Phytates and oxalates Steatorrhea Vitamin D deficiency Excess phosphate in diet
  11. 11. Calcium absorption occurs by 1,25(OH)2D3 mediated mechanism.
  12. 12. Stools Unabsorbed calcium in the diet 60 – 70% Urine 50- 200mg/day Sweat 15mg/day
  13. 13. Human body contain about 1-1.5 kg of calcium 99% present in bone and teeth 1% in soft tissue and extracellular fluid Plasma calcium : 9-11mg/100ml
  14. 14. Formation of bone and teeth Nerve conduction Muscle contraction Activation of enzymes Blood coagulation Secretion of hormones As a second messenger Action on myocardium
  15. 15. Ca++ activates • Glycogen phosphorylase kinase • Amylase • PDH, IDH and α- KGDH Ca++ Inhibits • Pyruvate kinase • Trypsin
  16. 16. 50% 40% 10% % Free or ionized calcium Protein bound complex with anions
  17. 17. 3 Organs Gut Bone Kidney 3 Hormones Calcitriol PTH Calcitonin
  18. 18. Hypocalcemia Hypercalcemia
  19. 19. Causes Features Treatment
  20. 20. Inadequate intake Impaired absorption Increased excretion Magnesium deficiency Acute pancreatitis
  21. 21. Muscle cramps and tetany Laryngospasm Convulsion Cardiac arrhythmias Prolongation of QT interval Cataract Chronic hypocalcemia
  22. 22. Contraction of facial muscle in response to tapping the facial nerve Chvostek’s sign Carpal spasm occurring after occlusion of the brachial artery with BP cuff for 3 min Trousseau’s sign
  23. 23. Severe symptomatic cases Intravenous Calcium gluconate Asymptomatic cases Calcium carbonate Vitamin D
  24. 24. Causes Features Treatment
  25. 25. Increased intake Increased absorption Decreased excretion Malignancy
  26. 26. Metastatic calcification Neurological symptoms Renal symptoms Gastrointestinal symptoms Cardiac arrhythmias
  27. 27. Treatment of primary disease Induction of natriuresis Calcitonin