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Lipid metabolism oxidation ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com
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Lipid metabolism oxidation ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com

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    Lipid metabolism oxidation ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com Lipid metabolism oxidation ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com Presentation Transcript

    • Dr. Vijay Marakala, MBBS, MD. Assistant professor BIOCHEMISTRY SIMS & RC
    • Catabolism of FA Oxidation Anabolism of FA De-novo synthesis Ketone body metabolism Cholesterol metabolism Lipoprotein metabolism
    • Triacylglycerol Fatty acids Acetyl CoA TCA CO2 Overview of lipid metabolism
    • » Fatty acids are stored as Triacylglycerol » Constitute 84% of stored energy + Protein - 15% + Carbohydrate (glucose or glycogen) - <1% » Fatty acids mobilized from Triacylglycerol are oxidized to meet the energy needs of a cell
    • Mobilization of FA from TG into tissues Activation and transportation of FA into mitochondria Degradation of FA by oxidation into acetyl-CoA
    • Mobilization of FA from TG into tissues
    • (Adrenalin, Glucagon, ACTH) Mobilization of FA from TG into tissues
    • Mobilization of FA from TG into tissues
    • 9 Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis
    • - β-oxidation - Peroxisomal FA oxidation - α-oxidation - ω-oxidation - Modified β-oxidation pathway
    • β Oxidation of fatty acid is oxidation of fatty acid at the β carbon atom with successive removal of two carbon atoms as acetyl CoA Long assay
    • 1 • Activation of fatty acids in the cytosol 2 • Transport of activated fatty acids in to mitochondria 3 • β-Oxidation proper in the mitochondria
    • Occurs in outer mitochondrial membrane for long chain fatty acids Fatty Acid Acyl-CoA
    • CAT-I CAT-II
    • Overall process of β-oxidation 7 Cycles of β –oxidation with Successive removal of 2 carbon units Palmitoyl-CoA
    • Oxidation by FAD Hydration Oxidation by NAD Thiolysis
    • oxidation oxidation hydration thiolysis C16 7 rounds Acetyl-CoA
    • ENERGETICS OF COMPLETE OXIDATION OF PALMITIC ACID Oxidation 7 cycles 7 FADH2 x 2ATP/FADH2 14 (10.5) 7 NADH + H+ x 3ATP/NADH 21 (17.5) From 8 acetyl CoA Each acetyl CoA provides 12 ATP by TCA cycle 96 (80) Total ATP produced from one palmitic acid 131 (108) Total ATP used for activation 2 NET YIELD OF ATP 129 (106)
    • AVAILABILITY OF FATTY ACIDS Hormones Glucagon Epinephrine Insulin SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACIDS Inhibition of carnitine acyl transferase I by malonyl CoA
    • Provision of energy • 20-30% of energy requirement of the cell • Major pathway Ketone bodies • Diabetes • Starvation Synthesis of biomolecules from acetyl CoA • Acetylcholine • Cholesterol
    • Oxidized by β–oxidation in the same way as that of even number, except the are the end products
    • β-OXIDATION OF ODD CHAIN FATTY ACIDS D L
    • • Requires additional enzymes • Isomerase and reductase Presence of double bonds
    • • Minor pathway • Involves oxdn of fatty acids at α carbon atom • One carbon is removed from the carboxyl end and released as CO2 • Occurs in endoplasmic reticulum • Phytanic acid oxidation α-OXIDATION
    •  It is a minor pathway  Takes place in microsomes  Involves oxidation of last carbon atom ( ω carbon)  More common with medium chain fatty acids
    • Disorders Carnitine deficiency Jamaican vomiting sickness Refsum’s disease Zellweger’s syndrome
    • Can occur particularly in the newborn— and especially in preterm infants Carnitine deficiency Features • Muscle cramps, muscle weakness
    • • Caused by eating the unripe fruit of the akee tree, which contains a toxin, hypoglycin, that inactivates medium and short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, inhibiting β-oxidation and causing hypoglycemia. Jamaican vomiting sickness
    • Is a rare neurologic disorder due to a defect that causes the accumulation of phytanic acid, which is found in plant foodstuffs and blocks β-oxidation. Refsum’s disease Features • Cerebral ataxia • Periphaeral neuropathy • Retinitis pigmentosa
    • Occurs in individuals with a rare inherited absence of peroxisomes in all tissues. Zellweger’s syndrome