Chemistry of lipids cholestrol and lipoproteins ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com

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  • All steroids have a similar cyclic nucleus resembling phenanthrene (rings A, B, and C) to which a cyclopentane ring(D) is attached. The carbon positions on the steroid nucleus are numbered as shown in Figure 15–14. It isimportant to realize that in structural formulas of steroids, a simple hexagonal ring denotes a completely saturatedsix-carbon ring with all valences satisfied by hydrogen bonds unless shown otherwise; ie, it is not a benzene ring.All double bonds are shown as such. Methyl side chains are shown as single bonds unattached at the farther(methyl) end. These occur typically at positions 10 and 13 (constituting C atoms 19 and 18). A side chain atposition 17 is usual (as in cholesterol). If the compound has one or more hydroxyl groups and no carbonyl orcarboxyl groups, it is a sterol,and the name terminates in -ol.
  • Lipids need to be transported in plasma to tissues and organs to perform their metabolic functions. Given the hydrophobic nature of the neutral fats (TG and cholesterol esters), lipid transport via plasma would not be possible without some form of hydrophillic adaptation. The lipids are transported by a series of micelles called lipoproteins, which consist of an outer monolayer of protein (apolipoprotein) and polar lipids (phospholipid and unesterified cholesterol). The inner core consists of the hydrophobic lipids which is the cholesteryl esters & TAG.Lipoproteins function both to keep their component lipids soluble as they transport them in the plasma, and also to provide an efficient mechanism for transporting their lipid contents and to (and from) the tissues. NB. In humans the transport system is less perfect than in other animals, that is why they experience a gradual deposition of lipid especially cholesterol in tissues (atherosclerosis).
  • Chemistry of lipids cholestrol and lipoproteins ppt BIOCHEMISTRY vkunder637@gmail.com

    1. 1. Dr. Vijay Marakala, MBBS, MD. Assistant professor BIOCHEMISTRY SIMS & RC
    2. 2.  No vegetable oil contains any cholesterol.  Cholesterol is the major sterol in animal tissues.  Only a little portion of the body cholesterol is derived from diet. The bulk of it is synthesized in the body.  Unsaturated fatty acids lower blood cholesterol levels by controlling cholesterol’s synthesis as well as its elimination from the body.
    3. 3.  Cyclopentano perhydro phenanthrene ring.  Total 27 carbon atoms.  One hydroxyl group at the third position.  Double bond between carbon atom 5 and 6  An 8 carbon side chain at position 17  Methyl side chains at positions 10 and 13
    4. 4. 1. Major structural constituent of the cell membranes and lipoproteins 2. Precursor for Steroid hormones a. Progesterons b. Glucocorticoids c. Mineralocorticoids d. Androgens & Estrogens 3. Formation of Bile acids and bile salts. 4. Synthesis of Vitamin D
    5. 5. Lipids Proteins LIPOPROTEINS
    6. 6. CHOLESTEROL ESTER TRIACYLGLYCEROL PHOSPHOLIPID FREE CHOLESTEROL APOPROTEIN
    7. 7. LIPOPROTEIN
    8. 8. LIPOPROTEIN CM VLDL IDL LDL HDL
    9. 9. HDLVLDLLDL Origin HDL VLDL LDL CHYLOLICRON ELECTROPHORESIS ULTRACENTRIFIGATION LIPOPROTEIN
    10. 10. PROTEIN COMPONENT OF LIPOPROTEIN PROMOTE TRANSPORT AND UPTAKE OF LIPIDS ACTS AS LIGAND ACTIVATION OF ENZYMES APOPROTEINS
    11. 11. • C-I • C-II • C-III • Except LDL • B-48 • B-100 • A-I • A-II A B CE
    12. 12. • All liver • Liver • B-48: Intestine • B-100: • Liver • A-I: Liver & Intestine • A-II:Liver A B CE
    13. 13. CHYLOMICRON  Formed in the intestinal mucosal cells  Rich in TG  Contain apo-B-48  Apo-E  Apo-C  apo-A
    14. 14. VLDL Synthesized in the liver Contain apo-B-100, C-II and apo-E
    15. 15. IDL Contain apoB-100 and Apo-E
    16. 16. LDL Contain apoB-100
    17. 17. HDL Contain Apo-A-I[Major] Apo-C Apo-E
    18. 18. LDL- Highest CE HDL – Highest protein CM – Highest TG
    19. 19. ANALYTE NORMAL VALUE Total plasma lipids 400-600mg/dl Total cholesterol 140-200mg/dl HDL cholesterol 40–60 mg/dL LDL cholesterol 80-130mg/dl Triglycerides 50-150mg/dl

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