Carbohydrate chemistryppt lecture 1 BIOCHEMISTRY

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Definition, classification and functions of carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates or saccharides (Greek: sakcharon, sugar are essential components of all living organisms and are, in fact, the most abundant class of biological molecules. The name carbohydrate, which literally means “carbon hydrate,” stems from their chemical composition, which isroughly (C H2O)n, where n 3
  • Soluble in water sweet to taste.
  • Disaccharides which have 2 ms units are the most abundant in nature
  • 100 or 1000 monosaccharide unotsAlso called glycans
  • Carbohydrate chemistryppt lecture 1 BIOCHEMISTRY

    1. 1. Dr. Vijay Marakala, MD. Assistant professor BIOCHEMISTRY SIMS & RC
    2. 2. Relax
    3. 3. CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES Class 1 • Definition, classification and function Class 2 •Structure and Isomerism Class 3 • Polysaccharides
    4. 4. CARBOHYDRATES Polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or compounds that yield these derivatives on hydrolysis. “saccharides” in Greek means sugar
    5. 5. CLASSIFICAIONT OF CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides
    6. 6. Monosaccharides Single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit Simple sugars
    7. 7. MONOSACCHARIDES D/U the number of carbon atom D/U the functional group
    8. 8. CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides
    9. 9. OLIGOSACCHARIDES Short chain of monosaccharide units (2-10 units) Joined together by glycosidic bond On hydrolysis gives 2-10 molecules of simple sugars
    10. 10. OLIGOSACCHARIDES
    11. 11. Monosaccharides Oligosaccharides Polysaccharides CLASSIFICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES
    12. 12. POLYSACCHARIDES Polymers of monosaccharides May be linear or branched Sparingly soluble in water Form colloidal solutions when heated with water They are not sweetish
    13. 13. POLYSACCHARIDES Polysaccharides Homopolysaccharides Heteropolysaccharides
    14. 14. Multiple monomer types, branched Homopolysaccharides Unbranched Branched Heteropolysaccharides Two monomer types, unbranched
    15. 15. • Several units of one and the same type of monosaccharide unit Homopolysaccharides Starch Dextrins Glycogen Cellulose Inulin
    16. 16. • Two or more different types of monosaccharide units or their derivatives Heteropolysaccharides Heteropolysaccharides Plant Heteroglycans Agar Gum Pectin Human Glycosaminoglycans Heparin Chondritin sulfate Hyaluronic acid
    17. 17. Functions of carbohydrates • Source of energy • Storage form of energy • Serve as structural component • Dietary fibers • Constituent of RNA and DNA • Carbohydrates are involved in cell-cell interaction.
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