I. LIFEA. What are we studying  1. Biology     “Bio” = Life “ology” = Description 2. How to studyB. Define
C. CHARACTERISTICSC1. Complex, Organized Order Have levels of hierarchy where each level based on and dependent on the one...
C3. HomeostasisMaintain a complex structure and internal environmentC4. Growth & DevelopmentBecome larger and more complex...
C5. Respond to stimuliInteracts with the environment.C6. ReproduceMake individuals similar to themselves.C7. EvolveChange ...
C8. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic AcidTHE HEREDITARY MATERIAL THAT CONTROLS EVERYTHING.Stores information that acts as a blueprin...
E. How to classify life1. What is used   Cell type   Cell number   Mode of nutrition
2. Classification – 3 domains & 4 kingdomsa. DomainsBACTERIA      ARCHAEA        EUKARYAProkaryote    prokaryote     eukar...
b. Kingdoms of Eukarya      Eukaryotic cell PROTISTA – single or colony FUNGI – multicellular, consume others, cell wall P...
II. SCIENCEA. DefinitionA systematized, mechanistic,causalistic discipline wheregeneralizations to unknowns aredetermined ...
B. Characteristics of scienceB1. CONTROL OF THE UNIVERSEVitalism                     MechanismA vital force (outside the  ...
B2. PURPOSE OF THE UNIVERSETeleology                 CausalismThe universe and          There is no purpose toevents are p...
B3. LOGICDeductive        InductiveGeneralization   Specifics  Specifics      Generalization                 CAN’T PROVE T...
III. TWO SCIENTIFIC APPROACHESA. Discovery Science1. Make verifiable observations and   measurements to describe life2. Co...
B. Hypothesis-Driven Science1. Use scientific method to ask questions2. Do experiments3. Use deductive logic to test hypot...
C. SCIENTIFIC METHODObservationQuestionHypothesisPredictionExperiment and ConrolEvluate resultsPublishTheory
METHOD           OBSERVATIONDefinition       Use sensesExample:         Bacteria does not grow1920’s Fleming       around ...
METHOD       QUESTIONDefinition   What is the cause?Example:     How is the fungus killing the                 bacteria?
METHOD       HYPOTHESISDefinition   Testable statement with one             variable that proposes an             explanat...
METHOD       PREDICTIONDefinition   What you think will happen.Example:     If I isolate material produced             I w...
METHODEXPERIMENT               CONTROLTest the hypothesis      Same as experiment butwith only one variable   without the ...
METHOD       EVALUATEDefinition   What you think results mean.Example:     A chemical produced by the             fungus k...
METHOD       PUBLISHDefinition   Communicate with scientific                community.Example:     Peer review.
METHOD       THEORYDefinition   A general explanation of             natural phenomena. A             theory has been test...
IV. LEVELS OF COMPLEXITYChemicalatoms, compoundsCellularorganelles, cellsTissuecells & cell products that work together
OrganTissues that work together and have agenetic shape.SystemGroup of organs that work together for afunction.OrganismInd...
PopulationLocal group of individuals that arereproductively isolatedCommunityGroup of populations that live close enoughto...
V. MODERN SCIENTISTSA. Linnaeus – classification & taxonomyB. Schleiden & Schwann – Cell TheoryC. Charles Darwin – Theory ...
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General science

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General science

  1. 1. I. LIFEA. What are we studying 1. Biology “Bio” = Life “ology” = Description 2. How to studyB. Define
  2. 2. C. CHARACTERISTICSC1. Complex, Organized Order Have levels of hierarchy where each level based on and dependent on the ones below.C2. Metabolism Acquire and use energy from the environment
  3. 3. C3. HomeostasisMaintain a complex structure and internal environmentC4. Growth & DevelopmentBecome larger and more complex.Use material from the environment and incorporate into the body.
  4. 4. C5. Respond to stimuliInteracts with the environment.C6. ReproduceMake individuals similar to themselves.C7. EvolveChange over time (from generation to generation)
  5. 5. C8. DNA – Deoxyribonucleic AcidTHE HEREDITARY MATERIAL THAT CONTROLS EVERYTHING.Stores information that acts as a blueprintD. HOW STUDY
  6. 6. E. How to classify life1. What is used Cell type Cell number Mode of nutrition
  7. 7. 2. Classification – 3 domains & 4 kingdomsa. DomainsBACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYAProkaryote prokaryote eukaryote cell
  8. 8. b. Kingdoms of Eukarya Eukaryotic cell PROTISTA – single or colony FUNGI – multicellular, consume others, cell wall PLANTAE – multicellular, make food, cell wall ANIMALIA – multicellular, consume others
  9. 9. II. SCIENCEA. DefinitionA systematized, mechanistic,causalistic discipline wheregeneralizations to unknowns aredetermined through observationand experimentation
  10. 10. B. Characteristics of scienceB1. CONTROL OF THE UNIVERSEVitalism MechanismA vital force (outside the The universe follows thephysical realm controls laws of chemistry andthe universe). physics (uniform in space and time). Ex. Religion Ex. Science
  11. 11. B2. PURPOSE OF THE UNIVERSETeleology CausalismThe universe and There is no purpose toevents are pre-planned. the universe everything is understood by causeEx. Religion and effect. (Cause) (Effect) X happens Y happens
  12. 12. B3. LOGICDeductive InductiveGeneralization Specifics Specifics Generalization CAN’T PROVE TRUEEx. Math Religion Ex. Science
  13. 13. III. TWO SCIENTIFIC APPROACHESA. Discovery Science1. Make verifiable observations and measurements to describe life2. Completely based on inductive reasoning.
  14. 14. B. Hypothesis-Driven Science1. Use scientific method to ask questions2. Do experiments3. Use deductive logic to test hypothesis.
  15. 15. C. SCIENTIFIC METHODObservationQuestionHypothesisPredictionExperiment and ConrolEvluate resultsPublishTheory
  16. 16. METHOD OBSERVATIONDefinition Use sensesExample: Bacteria does not grow1920’s Fleming around fungus.
  17. 17. METHOD QUESTIONDefinition What is the cause?Example: How is the fungus killing the bacteria?
  18. 18. METHOD HYPOTHESISDefinition Testable statement with one variable that proposes an explanation for observationsExample: The fungus produces a chemical that kills the bacteria.
  19. 19. METHOD PREDICTIONDefinition What you think will happen.Example: If I isolate material produced I will find a chemical.
  20. 20. METHODEXPERIMENT CONTROLTest the hypothesis Same as experiment butwith only one variable without the variableHeat broth/fungus Heat broth/ no fungusFilter FilterPour on bacteria Pour on bacteriaBACTERIA DIE BACTERIA LIVE
  21. 21. METHOD EVALUATEDefinition What you think results mean.Example: A chemical produced by the fungus kills the bacteria.
  22. 22. METHOD PUBLISHDefinition Communicate with scientific community.Example: Peer review.
  23. 23. METHOD THEORYDefinition A general explanation of natural phenomena. A theory has been tested and upheld many times.THIS IS NOT A SIMPLE IDEA BUT AFUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE.
  24. 24. IV. LEVELS OF COMPLEXITYChemicalatoms, compoundsCellularorganelles, cellsTissuecells & cell products that work together
  25. 25. OrganTissues that work together and have agenetic shape.SystemGroup of organs that work together for afunction.OrganismIndividual
  26. 26. PopulationLocal group of individuals that arereproductively isolatedCommunityGroup of populations that live close enoughto interactEcosystemGroup of communities and related abiotic
  27. 27. V. MODERN SCIENTISTSA. Linnaeus – classification & taxonomyB. Schleiden & Schwann – Cell TheoryC. Charles Darwin – Theory of EvolutionD. Gregor Mendel - Genetics
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