1a 1. science done

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1a 1. science done

  1. 1. GENERAL SCIENCEI. LIFEA. WHAT ARE WE STUDYINGB. DEFINEC. CHARACTERISTICS C1. COMPLEX ORGANIZED ORDER C2. METABOLISM C3. HOMEOSTASIS C4. GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT C5. RESPOND TO STIMULI C6. REPRODUCE C7. EVOLVE C8. DNA(DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID)D. HOW STUDY
  2. 2. E. HOW TO CLASSIFY LIFE 1. WHAT IS USED - cell type, number of cells, mode of nutrition 2. CLASSIFICATION a. DOMAINS BACTERIA ARCHAEA EUKARYA b. KINGDOMS OF EUKARYA (IN FLUX) PROTISTA ________ cell FUNGI ________ cell, consume others, ________ cell wall PLANTAE ________ cell, makes own food, ________ cell wall ANIMALIA ________ cell, consumes other, ________ cell wall II. SCIENCE A. DEFINITION –
  3. 3. B. CHARACTERISTICS OF SCIENCE B1. CONTROL OF THE UNIVERSE Vitalism Mechanism B2. PURPOSE OF THE UNIVERSE Teleology Causalism B3. LOGIC – Bag of beads (example) Deductive Inductive
  4. 4. III. TWO SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES A. DISCOVERY SCIENCE Verifiable observations Inductive reasoning B. HYPOTHESIS-DRIVEN SCIENCE Scientific method Experiments Hypothesis C. LIST PARTS OF THE SCIENTIFIC METHODObservationQuestionHypothesisPredictionExperiment and ConrolEvluate resultsPublishTheory
  5. 5. METHOD DEFINITIONS EXAMPLE – 1920’s FlemingOBSERVATION Bacteria does not grow around fungus.QUESTION How is the fungus killing the bacteria?HYPOTHESIS The fungus produces a chemical that kills the bacteria.PREDICTION If I isolate the material produced I will find a chemical.EXPERIMENT AND CONTROL Experiment Experiment Control Heat broth heat broth /fungus / no fungus Filter filter Pour on bacteria pour on bacteria Control RESULT Bacteria die bacteria liveEVALUATE A chemical produced by the fungus kills the bacteria.PUBLISH Peer reviewTHEORYTHIS IS NOT A SIMPLE IDEA BUT A FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE.
  6. 6. LEVEL OF TERMS OF SUBLEVELS EXAMPLES FIELDCOMPLEXITYChemical Level Energy Proton, Neutron, Electron Physics Subatomic particles Glucose Chemistry Atoms Chlorophyll Biochemistry Compounds Photosynthesis Reactions Cellular Respiration Physiology MoleculeCellular Level Organelles Ribosomes Cytology Cell (Fundamental Unit) Nucleus Bone MuscleTissue Level Related cells and cell products which Phloem perform a specific function. Xylem Muscle Nervous Histology Blood HematologyOrgan Level Related tissues with genetic shape Stem Morphology Leaf Kidney, Stomach, Muscle AnatomySystem Level Related organs that work together for a Digestive, Respiratory, common function(s). ReproductiveOrganism Level Animals Zoology Birds Ornithology Mammals Mammalogy Fish Icthyology Reptile Herpetology Invertebrates Invertebratology Parasites Parasitology Plants Botany Microorganism Microbiology Fungi Mycology Classification Taxonomy Behavior EthologyPopulation Level Local group of related organisms that are Redwood trees Ecology reproductively isolated. Ground Squirrel FishCommunity Level Local group of related populations Desert Pine Forest Tide PoolEcosystem Level Group of communities and related Ocean abiotic factors Coniferous Forest Tundra Fields of Biology that can be related to Biological Inheritance Genetics any level of complexity Biological changes over long time periods EvolutionIV. LEVELS OF COMPLEXITY (MAJOR THEME OF THE SEMESTER)V. SOME OF THE MODERN SCIENTISTS WE WILL DISCUSS A. Linnaeus (Karl von) (1758) – classification & taxonomy
  7. 7. B. Schleiden and Schwann – Cell TheoryC. Charles Darwin – Theory of EvolutionD. Gregor Mendel – Genetics

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