Microprocessor laboratory


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Presentation given to 6th semester students on first day of their Microprocessor Lab. Introduction to computers and development of microprocessors

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  • Microprocessor laboratory

    1. 1. Microprocessor Laboratory (8086) Department of Electronics and Communications Subject code:
    2. 2. History of Computers <ul><li>The first computers were people! </li></ul><ul><li>Picture shows what is known as “Counting Tables” </li></ul>
    3. 3. History of Computers (300 B. C, Babylonia) A very old Abacus A Modern Abacus
    4. 4. History of Computers Napier’s Bones-1617 <ul><li>The original Napier's bones </li></ul><ul><li>Modern set of Napier’s Bones </li></ul><ul><li>John Napier invented logarithm </li></ul><ul><li>Successive addition=multiplication. </li></ul>
    5. 5. History of Computers Slide Rule -1632 <ul><li>It was still in use in the 1960’s by the NASA engineers and by the men who landed on the moon. </li></ul>
    6. 6. History of Computers Pascaline -1642 <ul><li>Blaise Pascal </li></ul><ul><li>Gear driven calculator </li></ul>
    7. 7. History of Computers Punched Cards-1801 <ul><li>Joseph Marie Jacquard </li></ul><ul><li>Frenchman </li></ul><ul><li>Design of fabric was read from punched cards </li></ul>
    8. 8. History of Computers Difference Engine-1822 <ul><li>Charles Babbage </li></ul><ul><li>Difference Engine never finished </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Engine </li></ul><ul><li>Store=Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Mill=CPU </li></ul>
    9. 9. History of Computers Analytical Engine <ul><li>Ada Byron, Countess Lady Lovelace by marriage, prepared a detailed sequence of instructions for the Analytic Engine. She earned her spot in history as the first computer programmer </li></ul>
    10. 10. History of Computers Hollerith desk-1890 <ul><li>In 1890 the prize was won by Herman Hollerith who helped with his invention by saving the government 5 million dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>Punch (write) new cards based upon an analysis (reading) of some other set of cards. today called a read/write technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Hollerith built a company, the Tabulating Machine Company which, after a few buyouts, eventually became International Business Machines, known today as IBM . </li></ul>
    11. 11. History of Computers Two types of punched cards
    12. 12. History of Computers 1944 <ul><li>World War II </li></ul><ul><li>25 miles target. </li></ul><ul><li>Solving equations was </li></ul><ul><li>laborious </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard and IBM </li></ul><ul><li>Mark I computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches. </li></ul><ul><li>Ran non-stop for 15 years </li></ul>
    13. 13. History of Computers ”Bug” <ul><li>First computer &quot;bug&quot;: a dead moth that had gotten into the Mark I and whose wings were blocking the reading of the holes in the paper tape. The word &quot;bug&quot; had been used to describe a defect since at least 1889 but Hopper is credited with coining the word &quot;debugging&quot; to describe the work to eliminate program faults. </li></ul>
    14. 14. History of Computers <ul><li>1953 Grace Hopper invented the first high-level language, &quot;Flow-matic&quot;. This language eventually became COBOL </li></ul><ul><li>A high-level language is worthless without a program -- known as a compiler -- to translate it into the binary language of the computer </li></ul>
    15. 15. History of Computers- 1959 <ul><li>IBM Stretch </li></ul><ul><li>Computer of 1959 </li></ul>
    16. 16. History of Computers Apple Computer of 1976 <ul><li>Apple was sold as a do-it-yourself kit for $600 </li></ul>
    17. 17. History of Computers Mainframe CDC 7600 <ul><li>Computers were expensive because of their extensive wiring </li></ul>
    18. 18. History of Computers Between Mainframe and Desk Top <ul><li>Minicomputers. </li></ul><ul><li>DEC PDP-12 1969 </li></ul>
    19. 19. History of Computers <ul><li>Between 1943 and 1945 by two professors, John Mauchly and the 24 year old J. Presper Eckert built the ENIAC </li></ul>
    20. 20. History of Computers <ul><li>Cables were “tested” by rats!!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>ENIAC did humanity no favor when it declared the hydrogen bomb feasible. This first ENIAC program remains classified even today. </li></ul>
    21. 21. History of Computers <ul><li>Eckert and Mauchly's next teamed up with the mathematician John von Neumann to design EDVAC, which pioneered the stored program . </li></ul>
    22. 22. History of Computers <ul><li>After ENIAC and EDVAC came other computers with humorous names such as </li></ul><ul><li>ILLIAC, </li></ul><ul><li>JOHNNIAC, </li></ul><ul><li>and, of course, </li></ul><ul><li>MANIAC. </li></ul>
    23. 23. History of Computers <ul><li>Arthur C. Clarke chose to have the HAL computer of his famous book &quot;2001: A Space Odyssey&quot; born at Champaign-Urbana. Have you ever noticed that you can shift each of the letters of IBM backward by one alphabet position and get HAL? </li></ul>
    24. 24. History of Computers <ul><li>The original IBM Personal Computer (PC) </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Microprocessor Age <ul><li>1971 </li></ul><ul><li>World’s first microprocessor is Intel 4004 . </li></ul><ul><li>4096 4-bit wide memory locations. </li></ul><ul><li>45 instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>p-channel MOSFET technology, 50 KIPS( kilo instructions per second) </li></ul>
    26. 26. Intel 4004
    27. 27. Technical details of the Intel 4004 <ul><li>Maximum clock speed was 740  kHz </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction cycle time: 10.8 µs [12] (8 clock cycles / instruction cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction execution time 1 or 2 instruction cycles (10.8 or 21.6 µs), 46300 to 92600 instructions per second </li></ul><ul><li>Separate program and data storage. Contrary to Harvard architecture designs, however, which use separate buses , the 4004, with its need to keep pin count down, used a single multiplexed 4-bit bus for transferring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12-bit addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8-bit instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4-bit data words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruction set contained 46 instructions (of which 41 were 8 bits wide and 5 were 16 bits wide) </li></ul><ul><li>Register set contained 16 registers of 4 bits each </li></ul><ul><li>Internal subroutine stack 3 levels deep. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Intel 8008 <ul><li>3500 transistors </li></ul><ul><li>.5 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>48 instructions </li></ul><ul><li>16 Kbytes memory </li></ul><ul><li>The 8008 was the CPU for the very first commercial personal computers. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Bit-Byte-Nibble <ul><li>Bit= 0 or 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Eight bits = byte (Bite)  </li></ul><ul><li>Four bits = Nibble (Small bite)  </li></ul>
    30. 30. Intel 8080 <ul><li>1974 </li></ul><ul><li>8 bit microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>Motorola released MC6800 </li></ul><ul><li>8080 was TTL compatible </li></ul><ul><li>Interfacing was much easier and less expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>64 Kbyte memory. </li></ul><ul><li>First PC Altair 8800 released. BASIC language interpreter developed by Bill Gates. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Intel 8085 <ul><li>1977 </li></ul><ul><li>769,230 instructions per second </li></ul><ul><li>Internal clock generator, internal system controller and higher clock frequency </li></ul><ul><li>About 200 million in existance. </li></ul>
    32. 32. The Modern Microprocessor <ul><li>In 1976 the Intel 8086 was released </li></ul><ul><li>16 bit microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 MIPS (million instructions per second) </li></ul><ul><li>1 Mbytes of memory </li></ul><ul><li>4 or 6 byte instruction cache or queue to prefetch instructions before they were executed. </li></ul>
    33. 33. The 80286 Microprocessor <ul><li>16 bit architecture microprocessor </li></ul><ul><li>16 Mbyte memory </li></ul><ul><li>4 MIPS </li></ul>
    34. 34. Intel 80386 <ul><li>1986 </li></ul><ul><li>32 bit microprocessor, (32 bit data bus, 32 bit memory address) </li></ul><ul><li>4 G bytes of memory </li></ul><ul><li>275,000 transistors </li></ul>
    35. 35. Pentium Pro Processor
    36. 36. Pentium pro <ul><li>21 million transistors </li></ul><ul><li>3 integer units and a floating point unit </li></ul><ul><li>Clock frequency 166 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>16 K level 1 cache, 256 K level 2 cache. </li></ul><ul><li>3 execution engines, 3 instructions at a time. </li></ul>