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8-1Chap r    te   8            Designing Pay Levels, Mix                and Pay Structures McGraw-Hill/Irwin    © 2002 by ...
8-2                     Learning ObjectivesAfter studying Chapter 8, students should be able to:1.    Explain all of the s...
8-3    Determining Externally Competitive        Pay Levels and StructuresExternalcompetitiveness:                  Define...
8-4                      Salary Survey! A survey is the systematic process of collecting  and making judgments about the c...
8-5       Set Competitive Pay Policy!Adjust Pay Level – How Much to Pay?!Adjust Pay Mix – What Forms?!Adjust Pay Structure...
8-6 Define Relevant Market Competitors! Employers who compete for the same occupations or skills required.! Employers who ...
8-7      Relevant Labor Markets by Geographic             and Employee Groups Geographic        Production Office and Tech...
8-8                      Design the Survey! Who should be involved in the survey design?! How many employers should be inc...
8-9             Which Jobs to Include?                    Benchmark Jobs                       Approach                   ...
8 - 10  Characteristics of Benchmark Jobs! The contents are well-known, relatively stable,  and agreed upon by the employe...
8 - 11    Which Market Jobs Match Which           Company Jobs?! Any match between an organization’s jobs and  survey jobs...
8 - 12   Data Elements to Consider for Surveys! Nature of the Organization  ! Financial performance  ! Size  ! Structure! ...
8 - 13           Advantages and Disadvantages of             Measures of CompensationBase Pay          Tells how competito...
8 - 14          Analyzing Survey Data (1 of 2)! No single best approach! Check accuracy of data! Two pieces of data on eac...
8 - 15          Analyzing Survey Data (2 of 2)! Frequency distribution organizes data! Measures of central tendency    ave...
8 - 16 Combine Job Evaluation and Market        Survey Data (1 of 2)! Scatterplots: for each benchmark job there is a  dis...
8 - 17               Scatterplot          7          6surveymonthly   5salary($000)    4PAY       3          2          1 ...
8 - 18         Combine Job Evaluation and          Market Survey Data (2 of 2)! Summarize the data further by fitting a li...
8 - 19Scatterplot with Linear Curve          7          6surveymonthly   5salary($000)    4PAY       3          2         ...
8 - 20        Adjust The Data to Reflect      Organization’s Pay Policy (1 of 3)Lead the Market:! pay level should be abov...
8 - 21        Adjust The Data to Reflect      Organization’s Pay Policy (2 of 3)Match the Market:! pay level will be above...
8 - 22         Adjust The Data to Reflect       Organization’s Pay Policy (3 of 3)Lag the Market:! pay level should be bel...
8 - 23                 Least Squares Method! The equation for a straight line will be used, since  most pay distributions ...
8 - 24  Developing a Pay Policy Line          7survey    6monthly   5salary($000)    4PAY       3                         ...
8 - 25              Why Bother with Ranges?!    External Pressures:    a.   Quality variations (KSAs) among individuals in...
8 - 26                 Constructing Ranges:                 Develop Grades (1 of 2)! A grade is a horizontal grouping of d...
8 - 27                 Constructing Ranges:                  Develop Grades (2 of 2)! The objective is for all the jobs th...
8 - 28  Constructing Ranges: Establishing  Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! Pay ranges refer to the vertical dimension of t...
8 - 29  Constructing Ranges: Establishing  Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! Midpoints correspond to the competitive pay  po...
8 - 30  Constructing Ranges: Establishing  Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! The midpoint can be determined as soon as the  ...
8 - 31  Constructing Ranges: Establishing  Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! Range spread is based on some judgment about  h...
8 - 32    Constructing Ranges: Establishing Midpoint,              Minimum, and Maximum! Once the midpoint (based on the p...
8 - 33     Constructing Ranges: Overlap  maximum rate grade A - minimum rate grade B  maximum rate grade A - minimum rate ...
8 - 34              PAY GRADE STRUCTURE          8          7          6  ourmonthly   5                                  ...
8 - 35                      Broadbanding! Use of job clusters or tiers of positions into bands! Purpose is to manage caree...
8 - 36   Contrasts Between Ranges and Bands      Ranges Support:                      Bands Support:! Some flexibility wit...
8 - 37       Broadbanding: Example (1 of 2)!A large technology company reduced the number of grade levels for their exempt...
8 - 38        Broadbanding: Example (2 of 2)! Within these levels, managers hired and calibrated  pay levels based on mark...
8 - 39            Broadbanding:      How many bands to create? (1 of 2)! Determine the number of distinct levels of employ...
8 - 40           Broadbanding:     How many bands to create (2 of 2)!For example:      entry level positions      contribu...
8 - 41 Broadbanding: Placing individual      jobs or roles in bands!Example:        Basic        Proficient        Mastery...
8 - 42                      Pay Compression! Results when wages for those jobs filled from  outside the organization are i...
8 - 43                       Summary! Most organizations survey other employers’ pay  practices to determine the rates com...
8 - 44                       Summary (continued)! The policy on competitive position is translated into  practice by setti...
8 - 45                         Review Questions1. Which competitive pay policy would you   recommend to an employer? Why? ...
8 - 46               Review Questions (continued)4. What do surveys have to do with pay   discrimination?5. Contrast pay r...
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Module 6 comepensation !

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  1. 1. 8-1Chap r te 8 Designing Pay Levels, Mix and Pay Structures McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 8-2 Learning ObjectivesAfter studying Chapter 8, students should be able to:1. Explain all of the steps in designing and administering a pay survey.2. Discuss the importance of defining the external relevant labor market in a pay survey.3. Explain how the market pay line combines internal job structure with external wage rates.4. Discuss the use of pay grades and ranges and their relationship to internal alignment and external competitiveness.5. Discuss broad banding as a flexible alternative to pay grades and ranges. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. 8-3 Determining Externally Competitive Pay Levels and StructuresExternalcompetitiveness: Define Conduct Draw Merge Competitive Set Policy Policy Internal & Pay Levels,Pay relationships Market Surveyamong Lines External Mix andorganizations Pressures Structures Some Major Decisions in Pay Level Determination Some Major Decisions in Pay Level Determination ! Determine pay level policy ! Determine pay level policy ! Define purpose of survey ! Define purpose of survey ! Define relevant labor market ! Define relevant labor market ! Design and conduct survey ! Design and conduct survey ! Interpret and apply results ! Interpret and apply results ! Design grades and ranges or bands ! Design grades and ranges or bands McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. 8-4 Salary Survey! A survey is the systematic process of collecting and making judgments about the compensation paid by other employers.! Surveys provide the data for setting the pay policy relative to competition and translating that policy into pay levels and structures. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. 8-5 Set Competitive Pay Policy!Adjust Pay Level – How Much to Pay?!Adjust Pay Mix – What Forms?!Adjust Pay Structure?!Special Situations!Estimate Competitors’ Labor Costs McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. 8-6 Define Relevant Market Competitors! Employers who compete for the same occupations or skills required.! Employers who compete for employees within the same geographic area.! Employers who compete with the same products and services. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. 8-7 Relevant Labor Markets by Geographic and Employee Groups Geographic Production Office and Technicians Scientists Managerial Executive Scope Clerical & Professional EngineersLocal: Within Most likely Most likely Most likelyrelatively smallareas such ascities or MSAsRegional: Only if in Only if in Most likely Likely Most likelyWithin a short supply shortparticular area or critical supply orof the state or criticalseveral statesNational: Most likely Most likely Most likelyAcross thecountryInternational: Only for Only for SometimesAcross several critical skills critical skillscountries or those in or those in very short very short supply supply McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. 8-8 Design the Survey! Who should be involved in the survey design?! How many employers should be included?! Which jobs should be included?! What information to collect? McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. 8-9 Which Jobs to Include? Benchmark Jobs Approach Low - High Approach Global Approach Benchmark Conversion Approach Market Basket ApproachMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. 8 - 10 Characteristics of Benchmark Jobs! The contents are well-known, relatively stable, and agreed upon by the employees involved! The supply and demand for these jobs are relatively stable and not subject to recent shifts! They represent the entire job structure under study! A majority of the workforce is employed in these jobs McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. 8 - 11 Which Market Jobs Match Which Company Jobs?! Any match between an organization’s jobs and survey jobs must be done on job content rather than on the basis of job title only.! Apply your job evaluation system to the survey job descriptions. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. 8 - 12 Data Elements to Consider for Surveys! Nature of the Organization ! Financial performance ! Size ! Structure! Nature of Total Compensation System ! Cash forms used ! Non-cash forms used! Incumbent and Job ! Date ! Job ! Individual ! Pay McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. 8 - 13 Advantages and Disadvantages of Measures of CompensationBase Pay Tells how competitors are Fails to include performance incentives and valuing the work in similar other forms, so will not give true picture if jobs competitors offer low base but high incentivesTotal Cash Tells how competitors are All employees may not receive incentives,(base + bonus) valuing work; also tells the so it may overstate the competitors’ pay; cash pay for performance plus, it does not include long-term opportunity in the job. incentives.Total Tells the total value All employees may not receive all theCompensation competitors place on this forms. Be careful; don’t set base equal to(base + bonus + work competitors’ total compensation. Risksstock options + high fixed costs.benefits) McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. 8 - 14 Analyzing Survey Data (1 of 2)! No single best approach! Check accuracy of data! Two pieces of data on each benchmark: Survey data - dollars Our own data - job evaluation points! Scatterplot shows relationships McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. 8 - 15 Analyzing Survey Data (2 of 2)! Frequency distribution organizes data! Measures of central tendency averages or means weighted means medians! Measures of distribution, or dispersion standard deviation percentiles and quartiles range spread McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. 8 - 16 Combine Job Evaluation and Market Survey Data (1 of 2)! Scatterplots: for each benchmark job there is a distribution of wages paid by survey companies.! Each of these distributions has means, ranges, etc...! Scatterplots are useful to see what the data look like. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. 8 - 17 Scatterplot 7 6surveymonthly 5salary($000) 4PAY 3 2 1 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 Our Job Evaluation Points McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. 8 - 18 Combine Job Evaluation and Market Survey Data (2 of 2)! Summarize the data further by fitting a linear curve to it.! Can “eyeball” data, use midpoints, or other mathematical approaches. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. 8 - 19Scatterplot with Linear Curve 7 6surveymonthly 5salary($000) 4PAY 3 2 Line of Best Fit 1 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 Our Job Evaluation Points McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. 8 - 20 Adjust The Data to Reflect Organization’s Pay Policy (1 of 3)Lead the Market:! pay level should be above the market for the year and equal at year end! update factor will be equal to the projected market increase McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. 8 - 21 Adjust The Data to Reflect Organization’s Pay Policy (2 of 3)Match the Market:! pay level will be above the market for the first half of the year and below for the second half! update factor will be half of the projected market increase McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. 8 - 22 Adjust The Data to Reflect Organization’s Pay Policy (3 of 3)Lag the Market:! pay level should be below the market for the entire year! no adjustment will be made to account for the projected market increase McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. 8 - 23 Least Squares Method! The equation for a straight line will be used, since most pay distributions approximate a straight line.! This equation is: Y = a + bX where Y = actual pay rate (from survey data) X = evaluated points for org’n jobs a = Y intercept when X is zero b = slope of line of best fit McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. 8 - 24 Developing a Pay Policy Line 7survey 6monthly 5salary($000) 4PAY 3 Line of Best Fit : using market-survey data 2 (updated and aged to reflect 1 pay policy) 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 360 Our Job Evaluation Points McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. 8 - 25 Why Bother with Ranges?! External Pressures: a. Quality variations (KSAs) among individuals in the external market b. Recognition of differences in the productivity-related value to employers of these quality variations! Internal Pressures: a. The intention to recognize individual performance variations with pay b. Employees’ expectations that their pay will increase over time McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. 8 - 26 Constructing Ranges: Develop Grades (1 of 2)! A grade is a horizontal grouping of different jobs that are considered substantially equal for pay purposes.! Grades enhance an organization’s ability to move people among jobs within a grade with no change in pay. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. 8 - 27 Constructing Ranges: Develop Grades (2 of 2)! The objective is for all the jobs that are similar for pay purposes to be placed within the same grade.! How many pay grades? a. number of jobs b. organization hierarchy c. reporting relationships McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. 8 - 28 Constructing Ranges: Establishing Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! Pay ranges refer to the vertical dimension of the pay structure.! Each pay grade will have associated with it a pay range consisting of a midpoint and a specified minimum and maximum. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. 8 - 29 Constructing Ranges: Establishing Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! Midpoints correspond to the competitive pay policy! The point where the pay policy line crosses each grade becomes the midpoint of the pay range for that grade! Midpoints are the control point of the range! The midpoint represents base pay for a seasoned employee McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. 8 - 30 Constructing Ranges: Establishing Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! The midpoint can be determined as soon as the pay grade limits are set.! Find the job evaluation point value in the center of the pay grade.! Substitute that point value for X in your equation of the pay line! Solve the equation for Y; this value is the midpoint of the range McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. 8 - 31 Constructing Ranges: Establishing Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! Range spread is based on some judgment about how the ranges support career paths, promotions, and other organization systems.! Range spreads vary between 10 to 150 percent.! Desired range spread is what makes good sense to the employer McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. 8 - 32 Constructing Ranges: Establishing Midpoint, Minimum, and Maximum! Once the midpoint (based on the pay policy line) and the range spread (based on judgment) are specified, minimums and maximums are calculated.! Minimum = Midpoint / [1 + (1/2 range spread)]! Maximum = Minimum + (range spread x minimum) McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. 8 - 33 Constructing Ranges: Overlap maximum rate grade A - minimum rate grade B maximum rate grade A - minimum rate grade AMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. 8 - 34 PAY GRADE STRUCTURE 8 7 6 ourmonthly 5 Vsalary (000) 4 IVPAY 3 III 2 II Pay Policy Line 1 I 100 150 200 250 300 350 Our Job Evaluation Points McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. 8 - 35 Broadbanding! Use of job clusters or tiers of positions into bands! Purpose is to manage career growth and administer pay! An alternative to traditional salary grade structures! Collapses the number of salary ranges within a traditional salary structure into a few broad bands McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. 8 - 36 Contrasts Between Ranges and Bands Ranges Support: Bands Support:! Some flexibility within ! Emphasis on flexibility controls within guidelines! Relative stable organization ! Global organizations design ! Cross-functional experience! Recognition via titles or and lateral progression career progression ! Reference market rates,! Midpoint controls, shadow ranges comparatives ! Controls in budget, few in! Controls designed into system system ! Give managers “freedom to! Give managers “freedom manage” pay with guidelines” ! 100 – 400 percent spreads! To 150 percent range-spread McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. 8 - 37 Broadbanding: Example (1 of 2)!A large technology company reduced the number of grade levels for their exempt professional employees from 12 to 3!The levels were defined as: ! basic, entry-level contributor ! seasoned contributor or team leader ! business unit / team manager or senior professional contributors McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. 8 - 38 Broadbanding: Example (2 of 2)! Within these levels, managers hired and calibrated pay levels based on market information for individuals with similar backgrounds and responsibilities! Managers given market and charged with the responsibility of making salary adjustments as appropriate to attract, retain, and reward their staff McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. 8 - 39 Broadbanding: How many bands to create? (1 of 2)! Determine the number of distinct levels of employee contributions within the organization that actually add value! For example: professional positions management positions technical positions clerical positions McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  40. 40. 8 - 40 Broadbanding: How many bands to create (2 of 2)!For example: entry level positions contributor level positions leadership level positions McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  41. 41. 8 - 41 Broadbanding: Placing individual jobs or roles in bands!Example: Basic Proficient MasteryMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  42. 42. 8 - 42 Pay Compression! Results when wages for those jobs filled from outside the organization are increasing faster than the wages for jobs filled from within the organization! As pay differentials among jobs become very small, the traditional pay structure becomes compressed! Compression is an issue in professional work when new graduates command salaries almost equal to those of professionals with 3 - 5 years experience McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  43. 43. 8 - 43 Summary! Most organizations survey other employers’ pay practices to determine the rates competitors pay.! An employer using the survey results considers how it wishes to position its total compensation in the market: ! To lead ! To match, or ! To follow competition! This policy decision may be different for different business units and even for different job groups within a single organization. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  44. 44. 8 - 44 Summary (continued)! The policy on competitive position is translated into practice by setting pay policy lines. ! They serve as reference points around which pay grades and ranges or bands are designed.! The use of grades and ranges recognizes both external and internal pressures on pay decisions. ! No single “going rate” for a job exists in the market; ! Instead, an array of rates exists.! Internally, the use of ranges is consistent with variations in the discretion present in jobs.! Pay ranges permit employers to value and recognize these differences with pay. McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  45. 45. 8 - 45 Review Questions1. Which competitive pay policy would you recommend to an employer? Why? Does it depend on circumstances faced by the employer? Which ones?2. How would you design a survey for setting pay for welders? For financial managers? Do the issues differ? Will the techniques used and the data collected differ? Why or why not?3. What factors determine the relevant market for a survey? Why is the definition of the relevant market so important? McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  46. 46. 8 - 46 Review Questions (continued)4. What do surveys have to do with pay discrimination?5. Contrast pay ranges and grades with bands. Why would you use either? Does their use assist or hinder the achievement of internal alignment? External competitiveness? McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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