Importance of Enzymes in Biotechnology


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Importance of Enzymes in Biotechnology

  1. 1.  Contents: • Introduction to enzymes • Introduction to Biotechnology • Enzymes and Pharmaceuticals Industries • Enzymes and Bio-fuels • Enzymes and Paper and Pulp Industries • Enzymes and Brewing Industries.
  2. 2. Enzymes Enzymes are biological catalysts or assistants. Enzymes consist of various types of proteins that work to drive the chemical reaction required for a specific action or nutrient. Enzymes can either launch a reaction speed it up. Enzymes function in a mild environment similar to the body environment of a living organism, and they support life by synthesizing and degrading materials that constitute the building blocks of the organism and by creating energy. Enzymes function as highly selective catalysis in such a way that they selectivity catalyze specific reactions (reaction specificity) and specific materials (substrate specificity).Technology for utilizing enzymes for the improvement of our life is a key feature of biotechnology. Classification of enzymes: According to the Enzyme Commission, International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology enzymes are classified into following.
  3. 3. Biotechnology: Biotechnology is defined as the exploitation of biological processes for industrial and other purposes, Biotechnology can be broadly defined as "using organisms or their products for commercial purposes." especially the genetic manipulation of micro organisms for the production of antibiotics, hormones, etc Biotechnology encompasses wide range of industries such as • Pharmaceuticals Industries • Bio-fuels Industries •Paper and Pulp Industries •Food and Brewing Industries • Agricultural Industries etc …
  4. 4. Enzymes & Pharmaceuticals Industries Insulin: The hormone insulin is essential for the control of blood sugar levels. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which some people cannot make insulin themselves. This disease kills many people in the world every year. Insulin has been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since 1922 when Leonard Thompson became the first human to receive an injection of manmade insulin. Production of Genetic Engineered Insulin 1. Human insulin is extracted from pancreas cells and an insulin-producing gene is isolated. 2. A plasmid DNA is extracted from a bacterium and cut with restriction enzyme, forming plasmid vector. 3. Insert human insulin-producing gene into the bacterial plasmid vector to form the recombinant DNA of human insulinproducing gene. 4. Introduce this recombinant DNA into a bacterial cell to form the recombinant bacterium.
  5. 5. 5. The recombinant bacteria multiply in a fermentation tank and produce human insulin. 6. Insulin is extracted, purified and bottled. It is then ready to be injected into diabetic patients.
  6. 6. Fuel made from organic material such as food wastes and micro-organisms OR Any solid ,liquid or gas fuels that’s can be derived from Bio-mass. Bio-fuel is basically an Eco-friendly fuel that is generated from recently deceased biological matter. A fuel can be considered as a bio-fuel only when it comprises of more than 75% of renewable materials. Many people confuse fossil fuels and recently deceased biological matter. You should keep in mind that fossil fuels like oil are composed of biological matter that has been dead for a very long time. Hence, fossil fuels are usually linked to global warming. In the bio-fuel industry, cellu-lases used to break down cellulose into sugars that can be fermented Types OF Bio-Fuels  Bio-gas  Bio-diesel  Ethanol (derived from sugar , starch , lignin, cellulose , vegetative and animal waste)  Butanol (made from organic matter in renewable biomass
  7. 7. Effects of Bio-fuel on the Environment: The major bio-fuel characteristic is that it is renewable because it is formed from organic matter that can be easily replenished. Additionally, bio-fuel is also biodegradable since when it is burned it does not cause global warming. Instead of staying in the atmosphere for a long time like other fossil fuels, biofuel eventually dissipates without harming nature or disturbing the Eco balance. Bio-fuel is greener and cleaner in contrast with fossil fuels since it produces minute quantities of harmful greenhouse gases. Interestingly, biofuel is capable of producing 90% higher energy in contrast with the amount of energy used to generate it.
  8. 8. Enzymes & Paper and Pulp Industry In the paper industry, the enzymes named as amylases, xylanases, cellulases, and ligninases are used to degrade starch to lower viscosity, aiding sizing and coating paper.
  9. 9. Enzymes & Brewing Industry In the brewing industry, enzymes from barley are released during the mashing stage of beer production. They degrade starch and proteins to produce simple sugar, amino acids, and peptides that are used by yeast for fermentation. Industrially-produced barley enzymes are widely used in the brewing process to substitute for the natural enzymes found in barley. Amylase, glucanases, and proteases are used to split polysaccharides and proteins in the malt. Betaglucanases and arabinoxylanases are used to improve the wort and beer filtration characteristics. Amyloglucosidase and pullulanases are used for low-calorie beer and adjustment of fermentability. Proteases are used to remove cloudiness produced during storage of beers.
  10. 10. From all of the above description about Pharmaceuticals industries, Bio-fuels industries, paper and pulp industries and brewing industries it has been concluded that enzymes are very important in biotechnology . These both are very important for the welfare of man-kind .