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Lecture9 (cs212)(referencing)

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Technical writing is the presentation of information that helps the reader solve a particular problem. …

Technical writing is the presentation of information that helps the reader solve a particular problem.
Technical communicators write, design, and/or edit proposals, manuals, web pages, lab reports, newsletters, and many other kinds of professional documents.


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  • 1. Lecture 9 References (Technical Writing CS212) Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Taibah University College of Computer Science & Engineering Computer Science DepartmentTopic List1. Why referencing?2. Citation3. References and Bibliography 2 1
  • 2. Why referencing? Referencing is required to:1. Avoid plagiarism – don’t present others work without referencing them.2. Identify context – place your work in context with other recognized publications.3. Support arguments and validate statements.4. Identify sources – provide readers with a comprehensive list of related work that they can use to study your topic in more detail and build upon it. 3Citation Citation - is the process of embedding an abbreviated alphanumeric expression or an order number in the body of an intellectual work to denote a bibliographic reference. Purpose of citation – is to acknowledge the relevance of others’ work to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Citation Methods Harvard System Numeric (Vancouver) System 4 2
  • 3. Citation (cont…) Harvard System – uses the name of the author(s) and the year of their publication within two opening and closing round parentheses ( ). Examples:1. It is often said that computing is an art not a science (Smith and Jones 1993: 20).2. Smith and Jones suggested that computing is an art not a science (1993: 20).3. Smith and Jones (1993: 20) state that “computing has much more in common with the finger things in life, like art, than science or engineering”.4. Shannon et al. (1995) state that … (here is given the text…) 5 Citation (cont…) Harvard System:5. Computing is an art not a science (Smith and Jones 1993a, 1993b).6. Computing is an art not a science (Smith and Jones 1993a) because it is more common to deal with using fingers (Smith and Jones 1993b).7. Computing is an art not a science (Johnson 1992; Peterson et al. 1995; Smith and Jones 1993a, 1993b).8. Computing is an art not a science (Johnson 1992, cited by Markos et al. 1996). 6 3
  • 4. Referencing and Citing: Citation (cont…) Numeric (Vancouver) System – uses a unique number for each cited reference that represents the order number of the cited reference within the list of bibliography. This number is shown within two opening and closing square parentheses [ ], or in the form of superscript font. 7 Citation (cont…) Examples (Numeric/Vancouver System):1. It is often said that computing is an art not a science [21]. Or 212. Smith and Jones suggested that computing is an art not a science [21].3. Smith and Jones [21] state that “computing has much more in common with the finger things in life, like art, than science or engineering”. 8 4
  • 5. Citation (cont…)1. Shannon et al. [19] state that, “Nearly perfect speech recognition was observed under conditions of greatly reduced spectral information. Temporal envelopes of speech were extracted from broad frequency bands and were used to modulate noises of the same bandwidths. This manipulation preserved temporal envelope cues in each band but restricted the listener to severely degraded information on the distribution of spectral energy. The identification of consonants, vowels, and words in simple sentences”. 9Citation (cont…)5. Computing is an art not a science [21, 22].6. Computing is an art not a science [21] because it is more common to deal with using fingers [22].7. Computing is an art not a science [13, 17, 21, 22]. 10 5
  • 6. References and Bibliography References – list only those articles that have been referred to (cited) within the report itself. Bibliography – list all the articles that have been used in the project but not necessarily referred to inside the report. Reference presentation. 11 References and Bibliography 1. Books [1] Anderson, J., Jones, J.P., and Peterson, K.K.L. (1982) The Implications of Science, 2nd edition, Pitman, London, UK. [2] Benjamin, T. (1956) Computer Science Made Easy, Arnold, Leeds, UK. 2. Journal articles [1] Brown, A. and Wesley, C.W. (1995a) “An investigation of the Hawthorne effect”, Management Sciences Journal, 42(1), 47-66. [2] Brown, A. and Wesley, C.W. (1995b) “Adaptation of genetic algorithms in Hawthorne analysis”, Management Monthly, 28(2), 21-23. 12 6
  • 7. References and Bibliography3. Conference articles [1] Jowitt, J.D. (1995) “Information systems in a progressive society”, in Applications of Information Systems XI, Eds Cartwright, R.A. and Laurence, G., Rowntree Publications, Leeds, UK. [2] ISAIS (1995) International Symposium on Applications of Information Systems XI, proceedings of an international conference organized by the Society of IS, London, 12-16 June 199428(2), Rowntree Publications, Leeds, UK.4.Web addresses [1] Gaynor, L. (1993) “Introduction of artificial intelligence”, available from Internet <http://www.cai.com/ai/1086> (25 July 1999). [2] International Group on Complex Systems (1999) “Systems analysis”, Minutes of Second Meeting, 12 June 1999, available from Internet <http://www.IGCS.com/Min/two.html> (25 July 1999). 13References and Bibliography (cont…) Reference presentation:5.Technical reports (institution or company publications) [1] IAEA (1983) Guidebook on Computer Techniques in Nuclear Plants, Technical Report Series No. 27, International Atomic Energy Agency, Russia. [2] National Environment Research Council (1992) Computers in Hydrology Report, Technical Report Vol. II, NERC, London, UK.6.Theses [1] Alsuraihi, M. (2008) “Multimodal Interface Design: A Software Engineering Approach”, published PhD thesis, Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK. [2] Hampson, J. (1994) “The effectiveness of AI in calcite modeling”, unpublished PhD thesis, Department of Computing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. 14 7
  • 8. References and Bibliography (cont…) List of References according to the alphabetic order of authors’ names:[1] Alsuraihi, M. (2008) “Multimodal Interface Design: A Software Engineering Approach”, published PhD thesis, Department of Computing, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK.[2] Anderson, J., Jones, J.P., and Peterson, K.K.L. (1982) The Implications of Science, 2nd edition, Pitman, London, UK.[3] Benjamin, T. (1956) Computer Science Made Easy, Arnold, Leeds, UK.[4] Brown, A. and Wesley, C.W. (1995a) “An investigation of the Hawthorne effect”, Management Sciences Journal, 42(1).[5] Brown, A. and Wesley, C.W. (1995b) “Adaptation of genetic algorithms in Hawthorne analysis”, Management Monthly, 28(2), 21-23. 15 Reference - Mohammad Alsuraihi, Technical Writing, CS212 Course notes, Taibah University, Madinah, KSA - Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Teaching Notes, College of Computer Science and Engineering, Taibah University, Madinah, KSA. 16 8