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Choosing a project …

Choosing a project
Developing research questions
Writing the proposal
Promoting your proposal
Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Research Design

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  • 1. Lecture 4 Research Proposal (Technical Writing CS212) Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Taibah University College of Computer Science & Engineering Computer Science Department 1Topic list Choosing a project Developing research questions Writing the proposal Promoting your proposal Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Research Design 2 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 1
  • 2. Choosing a Project Establish a good rationale for the project. Make sure the key variables are in the proposal. Does the project answer the proposed questions Are the research objectives feasible? Are the questions novel? Interesting? Useful? Is the scope of the study well focused? Is it ethical to ask these research questions? 3 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityWriting the Proposal Background Objectives (research questions) Research Plan (inclusion/exclusion) Methodology Scope of research 4 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 2
  • 3. Project BackgroundManaging relationships for project success isacknowledged as being as important as the ‘hard’ skillsof managing schedules and budgetsThe Project Manager’s accountabilities includerelationship management (Stakeholder Management)A project’s stakeholder set does not remain staticthroughout the project and needs to be identified,tracked and managed appropriately throughout theproject lifecycle In large organisations today, many projects have teammembers from many different organisations. Teamsconsist of staff, contractors, and staff of otherorganisations 5 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University The Problem How can a project manager ensure all stakeholders are identified and assessed for importance to the project How can the Project Manager fulfil responsibilities in: Inspired leadership Relationship (stakeholder) management Knowledge management Human Resource management 6 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 3
  • 4. Objectives Main objective: To identify ways to improve the building and maintaining of sustainable project relationships for project success. Sub-objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a visualisation tool for stakeholder management. 7 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityPreliminary Questions What is the specific question? Is the idea novel? Do your resources (i.e. facilities, equipment personnel, patient population, time, motivation) make this a realistic project for your centre at this time? Is the answer of sufficient importance? Is the funding appropriate? 8 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 4
  • 5. Initial Steps Do a thorough literature search Enlist support of Supervisor / Mentor and Collaborators Meet to devise a research protocol When you approach prospective collaborators remember that their enthusiasm will be proportional to their anticipated gain (mentorship, authorship, equipment, resources) 9 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityThe Mentor Role Model Support and Encouragement moral – financial resources Your Mentor’s Rewards Your successes For any aspect of the proposal that you can not accomplish by yourself you must establish the fact that you have the necessary collaborations to succeed 10 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 5
  • 6. CollaboratorsRole: Share work Provide essential Knowledge Skills Resources Collaborators’ Rewards Funding or equipment Co-authorship You must convince the reviewers that your research is important! 11 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityPromoting your proposal The Title: Make it specific and captivating Hypothesis: Should be clearly stated in one or two sentences. Do not make reviewers look for it. Objective: Define one or two specific objectives Do not try to answer too many questions (most important problems are answered one question at a time) 12 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 6
  • 7. Proposal Evaluation Criteria How well does the Title introduce the study? This criterion is not formally rated, but it is considered in the overall evaluation process. How well does the Abstract describe the research study? Are the Research Questions adequately defined? Does the Rationale justify the purpose for the study and/or place it within the context of current theory and practice? 13 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityEvaluation Criteria (cont…) Is the Methodology clearly described and well matched to the research questions? Is the Analysis of Data adequately described, or a plan of analysis is presented, if the study is in progress. Are the Findings clearly identified? Are the Implications for future research, classroom practices, or policy discussed? The methodology used should be appropriate for the research identified questions; inappropriate methodology often results in the rejection of the proposal. 14 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 7
  • 8. Factors to Consider cont. In the methodology section, carefully describe the sample characteristics, the measures employed in the study, and the relevant procedures. The proposal must make sense to the reviewers. If your research is “in progress” make sure that you state this and provide a brief timeline for completion. 15 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityBackground Your opportunity to convince the reviewers that you are up-to-date and conversant in your field of enquiry Concise, thorough, well referenced review Preliminary data may strengthen your proposal Should lead to the logical conclusion that your proposed question needs to be answered Preliminary data often allow you to take a little idea and get funding to turn it into a big project 16 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 8
  • 9. Research Methods Deductive Approach testing theory through observation and data Exploratory Study Purposive, self-selection sampling Longitudinal projects must be around 6 months in length In-depth interviews at beginning and end with PM Group interviews with key team members Self-completion diaries to track issues and changes in stakeholder relationships with project 17 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityFull References Include full reference - Author, title, vol., pages, year Chosen for their critical thinking ability and will seldom accept a statement contrary to their own perception without determining your source of information 18 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 9
  • 10. Research Design Describe Facilities and resources Methodology Data management Statistical analysis 19 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityQuantitative and Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods Qualitative Methods Preference for statistical Preference for narrative summary of results. summary of results. Preference for breaking Preference for holistic down of complex description of complex phenomena into specific phenomena. parts for analysis. Unwillingness to tamper Willingness to manipulate with naturally occurring aspects, situations, or phenomena. conditions in studying complex phenomena. 20 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 10
  • 11. Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Quantitative Methods Qualitative Methods Preferences for precise Preference for hypotheses and hypotheses and definitions stated at the definitions that emerge as outset. study develops. Data reduced to Data are typically numerical scores. narrative descriptions. Major focus on assessing Reliability of inferences is and improving reliability often assumed to be of scores obtained from adequate. instruments. Validity is assessed Assessment of validity through cross-checking with reliance on statistical sources of information indices. (triangulation). 21 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityQuantitative and Qualitative Methods (cont….) Quantitative Methods Qualitative Methods Preference for random Preference for expert techniques for obtaining informant (purposive) meaningful samples. sample. Preference for precise Preference for narrative/literary descriptions of procedures. descriptions of procedures. Preference for design or Preference for logical statistical control of analysis in controlling or extraneous variables. accounting for extraneous Preference for specific variables. design control for Primary reliance on procedural bias researcher to deal with (procedural and procedural bias (yet, integrity checks are still measurement integrity critical). checks). 22 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 11
  • 12. Ethical issues Privacy Intellectual Property Confidentiality Reference - Author, title, vol., pages, year Other issues 23 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityResearch Method Timeframe example Day 1 Research Project Develop Research Proposal and obtain approval Develop and test questions Develop and test tool Obtain participants Administer instrument(s) Ongoing data collection and analysis Final collection of data Research Report 24 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 12
  • 13. Reference J. Fraenkel & N. Wallen (1996), How to design and evaluate research in education (3rd Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., p. 442. N. J. Salkind, Exploring Research, 1998, Pearson Education, UK. BPP, Information Systems, Study Text, Paper 2.1, BPP Professional Education, United Kingdom Mohammad Alsuraihi, Technical Writing, CS212 Course notes, Taibah University, Madinah, KSA Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Teaching Course Notes, Taibah University, Madinah, KSA 25 College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 13