Lecture 1                           Enterprise Architecture                                Introduction                   ...
Definition (cont…) “The organizational structure of a system or component.”     IEEE Standard 610, “Standard Computer Dict...
Defining an IT Architecture    ANSI/IEEE Standard 1471-2000      Conceptually an IT Architecture is        The fundamental...
Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture: the explicit description and documentation of the current and desired rel...
Enterprise Architecture (cont…)    Enterprise - the highest level of organization,    or one that is trans-organizational ...
Zachman Framework                                                   What   How   Where    Who   When   Why          Planne...
Defining the Enterprise     community          whole of          government                 ministry                      ...
Architecture view (cont…)     Description of the architecture from the viewpoint of a     specific stakeholder     The mai...
System architecture Design:   How each component should be build   OO, Class, design patterns etc’. Differences between ar...
About Enterprise Architecture (cont…)     Architected business information systems     will have:       A greater ability ...
About Architectural Framework (cont…)     Use of a framework leads to:       The use of common principles, assumptions and...
Enterprise Architecture (EA)    Enterprise Architecture has    consistently failed to deliver    to business    Frameworks...
Zachman Framework   Row 1 – Scope    External Requirements and       Drivers                                              ...
The Foundation for Execution                         Strategic Initiatives             Operating model                  De...
Supporting Agility     Exploiting the Model     Integration & Standardisation     Agile Strategic Initiatives     Managed ...
Information architecture Influence from business architecture. Classification enterprise information. How information is b...
Technology architecture Influenced by other architectures. Needed infrastructure to support the systems. Collection of sel...
Who implement it Governmental agencies in the states Firms & enterprises Improvement of IT products and saving            ...
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Lecture1 IS353-Enterprise Architecture(EA-concepts)

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Enterprise Architecture is the art or science of building or constructing edifices of any kind for human use…
It is the special method or ‘style’ in accordance with which the details of the structure and ornamentation of a building are arranged.

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Lecture1 IS353-Enterprise Architecture(EA-concepts)

  1. 1. Lecture 1 Enterprise Architecture Introduction (Enterprise Architecture IS353) Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Taibah University College of Computer Science & Engineering Information Systems DepartmentTopic subject Background Enterprise Architecture definition System architecture The Role of EA Enterprise Frameworks: Zachman Framework Open Group’s Architecture Framework (TOGAF) The Foundation for Execution Business architecture Information architecture Application architecture Technology architecture Implementation 2 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 1
  2. 2. Definition (cont…) “The organizational structure of a system or component.” IEEE Standard 610, “Standard Computer Dictionary: A Compilation of IEEE Standard Computer Glossaries” “The fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other, and to the environment, and the principles guiding its design and evolution.” IEEE Standard 1471, “IEEE Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software-Intensive Systems. 3 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityDefinition (cont…) Oxford: “The art or science of building or constructing edifices of any kind for human use…” “The special method or ‘style’ in accordance with which the details of the structure and ornamentation of a building are arranged.” 4 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 2
  3. 3. Defining an IT Architecture ANSI/IEEE Standard 1471-2000 Conceptually an IT Architecture is The fundamental organization of a system, embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and the environment, and the principles governing its design and evolution. Practically it is represented in Architectural Descriptions from the viewpoints of the Stakeholders5 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversitySome more ANSI/IEEE definitions Architect: the person, team, or organisation responsible for systems architecture Architecting: the activities of defining, documenting, maintaining, improving and certifying proper implementation of an architecture. Architectural description a collection of products to document an architecture.6 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 3
  4. 4. Enterprise Architecture Enterprise Architecture: the explicit description and documentation of the current and desired relationships among business and management processes and information technology OMB Circular A-130,Enterprise Architecture (cont…) Defines a framework in which one describes the current and future work activities and justifies the investments (personnel, data, applications) of an “enterprise” 4
  5. 5. Enterprise Architecture (cont…) Enterprise - the highest level of organization, or one that is trans-organizational Infrastructure - all supportive resources to getting the job done: people, processes, technology Model - a recreation or representation of the infrastructure Framework - the collection of the models suited to a specific enterpriseReference Models Business Reference Model (BRM) –define mission-critical lines of business, business processes, and functions Technical Reference Model (TRM) –identifies and describes the information services used to achieve the BRM Data Reference Model (DRM) – defines the data/information structures, definitions, and valids required by the BRM in the context of the TRM 5
  6. 6. Zachman Framework What How Where Who When Why Planner’s view Contextual Owner’s view Conceptual Designer’s view Logical Builder’s view Physical Integrator’s view As Built User’s view Functioning What How Where Who When WhyDescribing the Enterprise Work work assignments data processesmission data Investments, Planning Software system data design data Data management business modeling 6
  7. 7. Defining the Enterprise community whole of government ministry division office workgroup # participants, complexityArchitecture views System Stakeholder: an individual, team, or organization (or classes thereof) with interests in, or concerns relative to, a system View: a representation of a whole system from the perspective of a related set of concerns Viewpoint: (a schema of the information in a view) acts as a pattern or template from which to develop individual views by establishing the purposes and audience for a view and the techniques for its creation and analysis14 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 7
  8. 8. Architecture view (cont…) Description of the architecture from the viewpoint of a specific stakeholder The main mechanism of communication between the architect and the stakeholder Used to ensure accuracy of understanding of the current system Used to ensure the architecture meets the need of each stakeholder The collection of views comprises the description of the architecture15 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityArchitecture view (cont…) An architecture framework is a set of tools which can be used for developing a broad range of different architectures.[3] It should: describe a method for defining an information system in terms of a set of building blocks show how the building blocks fit together contain a set of tools provide a common vocabulary include a list of recommended standards include a list of compliant products that can be used to implement the building blocks16 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 8
  9. 9. System architecture Design: How each component should be build OO, Class, design patterns etc’. Differences between architecture and design Many different designs may address the same need Different architectures imply different needs Sample from reality: House Architecture: number of rooms, main structure, character, guiding lines. Design: interior design, rooms structure, electricity, etc’ 17 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityAbout Enterprise Architecture Its not technical! Aligning IT to business. Answering all of the enterprise needs Transverse view. knowing and managing the current situation, paving the road for the wanted one. Implementation of information management Enforce homogeneous solutions and enable “One system” to the users. 18 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 9
  10. 10. About Enterprise Architecture (cont…) Architected business information systems will have: A greater ability to respond to new demands A greater business value to the organization A greater ability to use new technology A faster, simpler and cheaper procurement process The ability to support a faster time-to-market19 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityAbout Architectural Framework Architecture design is a complex process An architectural framework is a tool for: Designing a broad range of a architectures Assisting the evaluation of different architectures Selecting and building the right architecture for an organization It embodies best practice and acknowledged wisdom It presents a set of services, standards, design concepts, components and configurations It guides the development of specific architectures20 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 10
  11. 11. About Architectural Framework (cont…) Use of a framework leads to: The use of common principles, assumptions and terminology The development of information systems with better integration and interoperability, especially with respect to issues that affect the whole enterprise What Framework is Not: A framework does not make architectural design an automatic process It is a valuable aid to experienced and knowledgeable IT Architects21 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityThe position of IT Architects Technical Business Management Management IT Architects System Designers & Developers22 11
  12. 12. Enterprise Architecture (EA) Enterprise Architecture has consistently failed to deliver to business Frameworks have grown ever more complex Competitive pressure has never been more So how can Enterprise Architecture deliver results? 23The Role of EA Informing and Supporting Business Strategic Vision while reforming and simplifying the approach to the processing that supports the business The Enterprise and the Business The opportunities to do business better and satisfy the business “imperatives”. Supporting strategic agility, representing technical innovation in business terms interpreting that strategic vision to direct and motivate IT activity. Direct and motivate IT activity 24 12
  13. 13. Zachman Framework Row 1 – Scope External Requirements and Drivers What How Where Who When Why Business Function Modeling Row 2 – Enterprise Model 1 Contextual Contextual Business Process Models Row 3 – System Model 2 Conceptual Conceptual Logical Models Requirements Definition 3 Logical Logical Row 4 – Technology Model Physical Models Solution Definition and Development 4 Physical Physical Row 5 – As Built As Built 5 As Built As Built Deployment Row 6 – Functioning 6 Functioning Functioning Enterprise What How Where Who When Why Functioning Enterprise EvaluationOpen Group’s Architecture Framework (TOGAF) A set of methods for IT Architectures IT Emphasis Aims to provide a Common Vocabulary The Open Group Technology Neutral Technical Pedigree 26 13
  14. 14. The Foundation for Execution Strategic Initiatives Operating model Defines Enterprise architecture integration and standardization requirements Foundation for execution • Core business processes • IT infrastructure 27Foundation and Infrastructure Foundation is partly the IT Infrastructure Automated and non-automated technology Understanding is key The tool is not the job! Supporting the ‘Undertaking to do Business’ 28 14
  15. 15. Supporting Agility Exploiting the Model Integration & Standardisation Agile Strategic Initiatives Managed Progression Business Types 29 Business architecture Enterprise architecture awareness Implement EA vision Organization commitment Mapping stakeholders Business architecture How the business works BPM / BPMN / BPEN Business targets What are the vision and mission. Gaps from current situation Constraints and demands from IT 30 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 15
  16. 16. Information architecture Influence from business architecture. Classification enterprise information. How information is being managed? Where to store data? Data schemas How to collaborate data Mapping of unused / missing information Information availability Information security. 31 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityApplication architecture Byproduct of business and information architecture. Aligning systems to business needs Basic structure of systems Architecture patterns Relations and communication between systems How systems share data 32 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 16
  17. 17. Technology architecture Influenced by other architectures. Needed infrastructure to support the systems. Collection of selected technologies and tools to implement chosen architectures Development Tools Communication Backups Standards 33 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityImplementation Solution Mapping current situation Defining the ideal situation Gap analysis Creating blueprints, instructions and standards to fill the gaps. Work plan Practical definition of migration to ideal situation on time line. Taking into account current situation and other constraints Governance Governance the chosen architecture in daily work 34 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 17
  18. 18. Who implement it Governmental agencies in the states Firms & enterprises Improvement of IT products and saving 35 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityReferences Clive Finkelstein, 2007, Introduction to Enterprise Architecture. http://www.tdan.com/ Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Lecture Notes: Enterprise Architecture Fundamentals, Thames Valley University, 2008. 36 18

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