Introduction to Data
and Information Management
(Database Management Systems IS331)
Lecture 1
Abdisalam Issa-Salwe
Taibah ...
3
About databaseAbout database
Today, almost all organizations depend on theirToday, almost all organizations depend on th...
5
About database (contAbout database (cont……))
From the 1970s onward, two striking and remarkableFrom the 1970s onward, tw...
7
Information ManagementInformation Management
Information management is the collection andInformation management is the c...
9
About databaseAbout database
Information assets are corporate assets. This principle
should be acknowledged or agreed up...
Models of Reality
REALITY
• structures
• processes
DATABASE SYSTEM
DATABASE
DML
DDL
l A database is a model of structures ...
A Message to Map Makers
A model is a means of communication
Users of a model must have a certain amount of
knowledge in co...
Data Modeling
REALITY
• structures
• processes
DATABASE SYSTEM
MODELdata modeling
l The model represents a perception of s...
Database Design
is a model of structures of reality
supports queries and updates
modeling processes of reality
runs effici...
Data Storage
Disk management
File management
Buffer management
Garbage collection
Compression
19
Queries
Selection
Point
R...
People that Work With Databases
System Analysts
Database Designers
Application Developers
Database Administrators
End User...
Database Designers
Choose appropriate structures to
represent the information specified by the
system analysts
Choose appr...
Database Administrators
Manage the database structure
participate in database and application development
assist in requir...
Database Administrators (cont.)
Manage the database management system
generate database application performance reports
in...
29
References
Jeffrey A. Hoffer, et al: Modern Database Management,
8th Edition, 2007, Prentice Hall
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Lecture1 is322 data&infomanag(introduction)(old curr)

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Lecture1 is322 data&infomanag(introduction)(old curr)

  1. 1. Introduction to Data and Information Management (Database Management Systems IS331) Lecture 1 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Taibah University College of Computer Science & Engineering Information Systems Department Jeffrey A. Hoffer, et al: Modern Database Management, 8th Edition, 2007, Prentice Hall 2 ObjectivesObjectives Understand how the database approach isUnderstand how the database approach is different and superior to earlier data systemsdifferent and superior to earlier data systems Examine how information demand andExamine how information demand and technology explosion drive database systemstechnology explosion drive database systems Trace the evolution of data systems and noteTrace the evolution of data systems and note how we have arrive at the database approachhow we have arrive at the database approach Comprehend the benefits of database systemsComprehend the benefits of database systems and perceive the need for themand perceive the need for them Survey briefly various data models, types ofSurvey briefly various data models, types of databases, and the database industrydatabases, and the database industry
  2. 2. 3 About databaseAbout database Today, almost all organizations depend on theirToday, almost all organizations depend on their database systems for the crucial information theydatabase systems for the crucial information they need to run their business.need to run their business. In every industry across the board, from retail chainIn every industry across the board, from retail chain stores to financial institutions, from manufacturingstores to financial institutions, from manufacturing enterprises to government departments, and fromenterprises to government departments, and from airline companies to utility businesses, databaseairline companies to utility businesses, database systems have become the norm for informationsystems have become the norm for information storage and retrieval.storage and retrieval. Database systems form the centerpiece of theDatabase systems form the centerpiece of the growing and maturing electronic commerce.growing and maturing electronic commerce. Database and Web technologies have merged.Database and Web technologies have merged. 4 About database (contAbout database (cont……)) How were companies running their business beforeHow were companies running their business before computers came into use?computers came into use? Organizations needed information to execute theOrganizations needed information to execute the business processes, sell goods and services, andbusiness processes, sell goods and services, and satisfy the needs of customers.satisfy the needs of customers. Manual files supported business operations.Manual files supported business operations. Accounting personnel performed manualAccounting personnel performed manual calculations and prepared invoices.calculations and prepared invoices. Payroll departments manually wrote the checks.Payroll departments manually wrote the checks.
  3. 3. 5 About database (contAbout database (cont……)) From the 1970s onward, two striking and remarkableFrom the 1970s onward, two striking and remarkable phenomena were distinctly observed. (Refer to Figure 1phenomena were distinctly observed. (Refer to Figure 1--11 indicating these two major developments).indicating these two major developments). First, demand for information has escalated in everyFirst, demand for information has escalated in every organization.organization. Organizations have steadily become global and widespread.Organizations have steadily become global and widespread. Organizations have to contend with fierce competitiveOrganizations have to contend with fierce competitive pressures.pressures. They need vast and complex information to stay in businessThey need vast and complex information to stay in business and make a profit.and make a profit. Second, the past three decades have witnessed a huge,Second, the past three decades have witnessed a huge, explosive growth in information technology. Processors haveexplosive growth in information technology. Processors have become faster, cheaper, and smaller.become faster, cheaper, and smaller. 6 About databaseAbout database Information, as we know it today, includes bothInformation, as we know it today, includes both electronic and physical information.electronic and physical information. The organizational structure must be capable ofThe organizational structure must be capable of managing this information throughout themanaging this information throughout the information lifecycle regardless of source or formatinformation lifecycle regardless of source or format (data, paper documents, electronic documents,(data, paper documents, electronic documents, audio, video, etc.) for delivery through multipleaudio, video, etc.) for delivery through multiple channels that may include cell phones and webchannels that may include cell phones and web interfaces.interfaces.
  4. 4. 7 Information ManagementInformation Management Information management is the collection andInformation management is the collection and management of information from one or more sourcesmanagement of information from one or more sources and the distribution of that information to one or moreand the distribution of that information to one or more audiences.audiences. Management means the organization of and control overManagement means the organization of and control over the structure, processing and delivery of information.the structure, processing and delivery of information. The organizational structure must be capable ofThe organizational structure must be capable of managing this information throughout the informationmanaging this information throughout the information lifecycle regardless of source or format (data, paperlifecycle regardless of source or format (data, paper documents, electronic documents, audio, socialdocuments, electronic documents, audio, social business, video, etc.) for delivery through multiplebusiness, video, etc.) for delivery through multiple channels that may include cell phones and webchannels that may include cell phones and web interfaces.interfaces.
  5. 5. 9 About databaseAbout database Information assets are corporate assets. This principle should be acknowledged or agreed upon across the organization otherwise any business case and support for IM will be weak. Information must be made available and shared. Of course not all information is open to anyone, but in principle the sharing of information helps the use and exploitation of corporate knowledge Information the organisation needs to keep is managed and retained corporately. In other words the retention and archiving, of information. If you save a document today, you expect it to be secured and still available to you tomorrow What a Database Is and Is Not l your personal address book in a Word document l a collection of Word documents l a collection of Excel Spreadsheets l a very large flat file on which you run some statistical analysis functions l data collected, maintained, and used in airline reservation l data used to support the launch of a space shuttle The word database is commonly used to refer to any of the following: 10
  6. 6. Models of Reality REALITY • structures • processes DATABASE SYSTEM DATABASE DML DDL l A database is a model of structures of reality l The use of a database reflect processes of reality l A database system is a software system which supports the definition and use of a database l DDL: Data Definition Language l DML: Data Manipulation Language 11 Why Use Models? Models can be useful when we want to examine or manage part of the real world The costs of using a model are often considerably lower than the costs of using or experimenting with the real world itself Examples: airplane simulator nuclear power plant simulator flood warning system model of US economy model of a heat reservoir map 12
  7. 7. A Message to Map Makers A model is a means of communication Users of a model must have a certain amount of knowledge in common A model on emphasized selected aspects A model is described in some language A model can be erroneous A message to map makers: “Highways are not painted red, rivers don’t have county lines running down the middle, and you can’t see contour lines on a mountain” [Kent 78] 13 Use a DBMS when this is important persistent storage of data centralized control of data control of redundancy control of consistency and integrity multiple user support sharing of data data documentation data independence control of access and security backup and recovery Do not use a DBMS when l the initial investment in hardware, software, and training is too high l the generality a DBMS provides is not needed l the overhead for security, concurrency control, and recovery is too high l data and applications are simple and stable l real-time requirements cannot be met by it l multiple user access is not needed 14
  8. 8. Data Modeling REALITY • structures • processes DATABASE SYSTEM MODELdata modeling l The model represents a perception of structures of reality l The data modeling process is to fix a perception of structures of reality and represent this perception l In the data modeling process we select aspects and we abstract 15 Process Modeling REALITY • structures • processes DATABASE SYSTEM MODELprocess modeling l The use of the model reflects processes of reality l Processes may be represented by programs with embedded database queries and updates l Processes may be represented by ad-hoc database queries and updates at run-time DML DML PROG 16
  9. 9. Database Design is a model of structures of reality supports queries and updates modeling processes of reality runs efficiently The purpose of database design is to create a database which 17 Database Capabilities Data Storage Queries Optimization Indexing Concurrency Control Recovery Security 18
  10. 10. Data Storage Disk management File management Buffer management Garbage collection Compression 19 Queries Selection Point Range Conjunction Disjunction Join Natural join Equi join Theta join Outer join Projection Set operations Cartesian Product Union Intersection Set Difference Other Duplicate elimination Sorting Built-in functions: count, sum, avg, min, max Recursive (not in SQL) SQL queries are composed from the following: 20
  11. 11. People that Work With Databases System Analysts Database Designers Application Developers Database Administrators End Users 21 System Analysts Communicate with each prospective database user group in order to understand its information needs processing needs Develop a specification of each user group’s information and processing needs Develop a specification integrating the information and processing needs of the user groups Document the specification 22
  12. 12. Database Designers Choose appropriate structures to represent the information specified by the system analysts Choose appropriate structures to store the information in a normalized manner in order to guarantee integrity and consistency of data Choose appropriate structures to guarantee an efficient system Document the database design 23 Application Developers Implement the database design Implement the application programs to meet the program specifications Test and debug the database implementation and the application programs Document the database implementation and the application programs 24
  13. 13. Database Administrators Manage the database structure participate in database and application development assist in requirement analysis participate in database design and creation develop procedures for integrity and quality of data facilitate changes to database structure seek communitywide solutions assess impact on all users provide configuration control be prepared for problems after changes are made maintain documentation 25 Database Administrators (cont.) Manage data activity establish database standards consistent with data administration standards establish and maintain data dictionary establish data proponencies work with data proponents to develop data access and modification rights develop, document, and train staff on backup and recovery procedures publish and maintain data activity standards documentation 26
  14. 14. Database Administrators (cont.) Manage the database management system generate database application performance reports investigate user performance complaints assess need for changes in database structure or application design modify database structure evaluate and implement new DBMS features tune the database Establish the database data dictionary data names, formats, relationships cross-references between data and application programs (see metadata slide) 27 End Users Parametric end users constantly query and update the database. They use canned transactions to support standard queries and updates. Casual end users occasional access the database, but may need different information each time. They use sophisticated query languages and browsers. Sophisticated end users have complex requirement and need different information each time. They are thoroughly familiar with the capabilities of the DBMS. 28
  15. 15. 29 References Jeffrey A. Hoffer, et al: Modern Database Management, 8th Edition, 2007, Prentice Hall

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