Lecture01(CS372 introduction)
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Lecture01(CS372 introduction) Lecture01(CS372 introduction) Document Transcript

  • Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Taibah University College of Computer Science & Engineering Information Systems Department Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Taibah University 1 Introduction to Knowledge Management Base and Application (Knowledge Base Application CS372) Lecture 1 Irma Becerra-Fernandez, Avelino Gonzalez & Rajiv Sabherwal (2004) Knowledge Management: Challenges, Solutions and Technologies, Prentice Hall 2 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityBecerra-Fernandez, et al. -- Knowledge Management 1/e -- © 2004 Prentice Hall What is Knowledge Management? Knowledge management (KM) may simply be defined as doing what is needed to get the most out of knowledge resources. In general, KM focuses on organizing and making available important knowledge, wherever and whenever it is needed. KM is also related to the concept of intellectual capital.
  • 3 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Definition of Knowledge A clear and certain perception of something understanding learning All that has been perceived or grasped by the mind Practical experience and skill organized information applicable to problem solving A collection of specialized facts, procedures and judgment rules. 4 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah UniversityBecerra-Fernandez, et al. -- Knowledge Management 1/e -- © 2004 Prentice Hall Forces Driving Knowledge Management 1. Increasing Domain Complexity: Intricacy of internal and external processes, increased competition, and the rapid advancement of technology all contribute to increasing domain complexity. 2. Accelerating Market Volatility: The pace of change, or volatility, within each market domain has increased rapidly in the past decade. 3. Intensified Speed of Responsiveness: The time required to take action based upon subtle changes within and across domains is decreasing. 4. Diminishing Individual Experience: High employee turnover rates have resulted in individuals with decision- making authority having less tenure within their organizations than ever before.
  • 5 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Refers to isolated facts such as individual measurements. No meaning on their own Do not signify anything Useless unless placed in some sort of context. Data are raw facts about the organisation and its business transactions. Most data items have little meaning and use by themselves. Information is data that has been refined and organised by processing and purposeful intelligence. Information, purposeful intelligence, is crucial to the definition People provide the purpose and the intelligence that produces true information. Data, Information and Knowledge 6 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 6 Data are raw facts that constitute building blocks of information. Information science defines data as unprocessed information. Information is data that have been organized and communicated in a coherent and meaningful manner. Data is converted into information, and information is converted into knowledge. Knowledge: information that is evaluated and organized so that it can be used purposefully. Data, Information and Knowledge (cont…) View slide
  • 7 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Data, Information and Knowledge (cont…) 8 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge Knowledge Consists of symbols, the relationships between them and rules or procedures for manipulating them Adds context to the information, providing greater meaning and therefore much greater use and value Dynamic and changes with time View slide
  • 9 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge (cont…) Explicit knowledge Objective, rational, technical Policies, goals, strategies, papers, reports Codified Leaky knowledge Tacit knowledge Subjective, cognitive, experiential learning Highly personalized Difficult to formalize Sticky knowledge 10 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Managing Knowledge KM is a process that helps organizations identify, select, organize, disseminate, and transfer important information and expertise that are part of the organization’s memory. KM is the process of systematically and actively managing and leveraging stores of knowledge in an organization
  • 11 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Managing Knowledge (cont…) Systematic and active management of ideas, information, and knowledge residing within organization’s employees Knowledge management systems Use of technologies to manage knowledge Used with turnover, change, downsizing Provide consistent levels of service 12 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Organizational Learning Learning organization Ability to learn from past To improve, organization must learn Issues Meaning, management, measurement Activities Problem-solving, experimentation, learning from past, learning from acknowledged best practices, transfer of knowledge within organization Must have organizational memory, way to save and share it Organizational learning Develop new knowledge Corporate memory critical Organizational culture Pattern of shared basic assumptions
  • 13 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Organizational Learning (cont…) Organizations are realizing how important it is to "know what they know" and be able to make maximum use of the knowledge. Preventing “reinvent the wheel” many times. 14 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Organizational Learning (cont…) Thus, organizations need to know: what their knowledge assets are; how to manage and make use of these assets to get maximum return. KM can improve organization efficiency by providing framework, tools and techniques to reuse captured intellectual assets.
  • 15 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Examples of Organizational Learning (cont…) “We have four people in Makkah who know how to solve this problem. How can we get them to help our team in Madinah?” "People are leaving the company with a lifetime's experience. How can we capture and re-use that?" "We had a team that did a successful proposal for aerospace five years ago. Why did they make the decisions they did? How did they deal with the customer? What made the team tick?" 16 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Examples of Organizational Learning (cont…) "How do we start learning from our experiences and help our people stop repeating others' mistakes?" "We're involved in an exciting project with four other companies. How can we all learn how these virtual teams tick?" "Needs change often these days and we're always bringing new people into projects. How can we get them up to speed and contributing quickly?"
  • 17 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Through Knowledge Management Knowledge management Community of interest Repositories Communities of practice Informal knowledge-sharing techniques Employee initiated Created ShareNet Easy to share knowledge Incentives for posting Internal evangelists responsible for training, monitoring, and assisting users Top management support 18 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge-based Economy Rapid changes in the business environment cannot be handled in traditional ways. Firms are much larger, with higher turnover and require better tools for collaboration, communication, and knowledge sharing. Firms must develop strategies to sustain competitive advantage by leveraging their intellectual assets for optimum performance. Managing knowledge is now critical for firms spread out over wide geographical areas, and for virtual organizations.
  • 19 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Components of Knowledge Management Systems Technologies Communication Access knowledge Communicates with others Collaboration Perform group-work Synchronous or asynchronous Same place/different place Storage and retrieval Capture, storing, retrieval, and management of both explicit and tacit knowledge through collaborative systems 20 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University KM & Information Technologies The KMS challenge is to identify and integrate the following three technologies: Communication technologies allow users to access needed knowledge, and to communicate with each other--especially with experts. Collaboration technologies provide the means to perform group work. Collaboration technologies use a database management system to capture, store and manage knowledge.
  • 21 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University KM & Information Technologies Information technology facilitates sharing as well as accelerated growth of knowledge. Information technology allows the movement of information at increasing speeds and efficiencies Knowware are technology tools that support KM. Collaboration tools, or groupware, were the first used to enhance collaboration for tacit knowledge transfer within an organization. KM suites are complete KM solutions out-of- the-box. Knowledge Servers contain the main KM software, including the knowledge repository. 22 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Components of Knowledge Management Systems Supporting technologies Artificial intelligence Expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy logic, intelligent agents Intelligent agents Systems that learn how users work and provide assistance Knowledge discovery in databases Process used to search for and extract information Internal = data and document mining External = model marts and model warehouses XML Extensible Markup Language Enables standardized representations of data Better collaboration and communication through portals
  • 23 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Sharing Knowledge Some people are reluctant to share knowledge due to the following reasons:; No skill in knowledge management techniques. Willing to share, but not enough time to do so. Don’t understand knowledge management and benefits. Lack of appropriate technology. No commitment from senior managers. No funding for knowledge management. Culture does not encourage knowledge sharing. 24 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge Management Initiatives Aims Make knowledge visible Develop knowledge intensive culture Build knowledge infrastructure Surrounding processes Creation of knowledge Sharing of knowledge Seeking out knowledge Using knowledge
  • 25 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge Management Initiatives Knowledge creation Generating new ideas, routines, insights Modes Socialization, externalization, internalization, combination Knowledge sharing Willing explanation to another directly or through an intermediary Knowledge seeking Knowledge sourcing 26 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Approaches to Knowledge Management Process Approach Codifies knowledge Formalized controls, approaches, technologies Fails to capture most tacit knowledge Practice Approach Assumes that most knowledge is tacit Informal systems Social events, communities of practice, person-to-person contacts Challenge to make tacit knowledge explicit, capture it, add to it, transfer it
  • 27 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Approaches to Knowledge Management Hybrid Approach Practice approach initially used to store explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge primarily stored as contact information Best practices Best practices captured and managed Methods that effective organizations use to operate and manage functions Knowledge repository Place for capture and storage of knowledge Different storage mechanisms depending upon data captured 28 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Objectives of Knowledge Management Davenport et al. (1998) describe four broad objectives of knowledge management systems in practice: 1. To create knowledge repositories. 2. To improve knowledge access. 3. To enhance the knowledge environment. 4. To manage knowledge as an asset.
  • 29 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Essence of KM 1. Knowledge is first created in the people’s minds. KM practices must first identify ways to encourage and stimulate the ability of employees to develop new knowledge. 2. KM methodologies and technologies must enable effective ways to elicit, represent, organize, re-use, and renew this knowledge. 3. KM should not distance itself from the knowledge owners, but instead celebrate and recognize their position as experts in the organization. 30 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge Repositories Specially Structured Databases. Some systems have been developed in Lotus Notes/Domino Server and hence utilize the Notes database structure. These specialized databases are ideal for storing tacit knowledge because of its nature. Electronic Documents. Others have been developed around electronic document management systems.
  • 31 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge Management System Cycle Disseminate 32 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge Management System Cycle Creates knowledge through new ways of doing things Identifies and captures new knowledge Places knowledge into context so it is usable (Refine) Stores knowledge in repository Reviews for accuracy and relevance (Manage) Makes knowledge available at all times to anyone (Disseminate)
  • 33 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University KM Benefits Reduction in loss of intellectual capital when people leave the company Reduction in costs by decreasing the number of times the company must repeatedly solve the same problem Economies of scale in obtaining information from external providers Reduction in redundancy of knowledge-based activities Increase in productivity by making knowledge available more quickly & easily Increase in employee satisfaction by enabling greater personal development and empowerment Strategic competitive advantage in the marketplace 34 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University KM Integration Since a KM system is an enterprise system, it must be integrated with other enterprise and information systems in an organization. The most important systems to integrate with are; o Decision Support Systems o Artificial Intelligence o Databases and Information Systems o Customer Relationship Management Systems o Supply Chain Management Systems o Corporate Intranets and Extranets
  • 35 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Factors Leading to Success and Failure of Systems Success Companies must assess need System needs technical and organizational infrastructure to build on System must have economic value to organization Senior management support Organization needs multiple channels for knowledge transfer Appropriate organizational culture Failure System does not meet organization’s needs Lack of commitment No incentive to use system Lack of integration 36 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Knowledge Management Issues Buying & Selling Knowledge Most firms are reluctant to sell knowledge, unless they are expressly in the business of doing so. A firm’s knowledge is an asset that has competitive value. Encouraging System Use Employees must be motivated properly to contribute knowledge. The mechanism for doing so should be part of their job, and their salaries should reflect this.
  • 37 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Discussion How do you manage your personal knowledge so you can best reuse it? How do you share your knowledge with others? 38 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, College of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University 38 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Faculty of Computer Science & Engineering, Taibah University Reference Irma Becerra-Fernandez, Avelino Gonzalez & Rajiv Sabherwal: Knowledge Management: Challenges, Solutions and Technologies. Prentice Hall, 2004. Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Lecture Notes, Taibah University, 2010.