Acca 6(project manage r&stakeholders)
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Acca 6(project manage r&stakeholders) Acca 6(project manage r&stakeholders) Presentation Transcript

  • 1 Project Manager and Stakeholders Lecture 6 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe Thames Valley University
  • 2 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Topic list  About project?  The project manager  The project team  Project stakeholders
  • 3 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University What is a project?  Any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted; "he prepared for great undertakings" www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn  a planned undertaking www.cogsci.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/webwn  "The concept of 'project' means different things to different users, or reflects different frames of reference. In finance and budgeting terms it is an investment with a specified economic return. In economic analysis a project is a potential income generating activity. In management terms the project notion often connotes a particular organisational unit.". www.dfid.gov.uk/aboutdfid/files/glossary_p.htm
  • 4 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project management  The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to a broad range of activities to meet the requirements of the particular project. Project management knowledge and practices are best described in terms of their component processes. www.asq.org/info/glossary/p.html  The set of people, tools, techniques, and processes used to define the project’s goal, plan all the work necessary to reach that goal, lead the project and support teams, monitor progress, and ensure that the project is completed in a satisfactory way. mfg.patentcafe.com/glossary.asp
  • 5 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project management (cont…)  Project management is concerned with the overall planning and co-ordination of a project from inception to completion aimed at meeting the client's requirements and ensuring completion on time, within cost and to required quality standards. www.ecbp.org/glossary.htm  Project management is the systematic planning, organizing and controlling of allocated resources to accomplish project cost, time and performance objectives. Project management is normally reserved for focused, non-repetitive, time-limited activities with some degree of risk and that are beyond the usual scope of program (operational) activities for which the organization is responsible. www.tbs-sct.gc.ca/pubs_pol/dcgpubs/TBM_122/abkglos-1_e.a
  • 6 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project management (cont…)  The objective of project management is a successful project.  A project will be deemed successful if it is completed at the  specified level of quality,  on time (timescale)  within budget.
  • 7 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager  Project manger: The individual responsible for managing a project.  Project management process: The way in which a project manger co-ordinates a project from initiation to completion, using project management and general management techniques, is
  • 8 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Definition of project manager  The individual responsible for managing a project. This person would plan and organise activities required to develop deliverables requested by clients. www.aits.uillinois.edu/glossary/glossaryp.html  Systems analyst with a diverse set of skills--management, leadership, technical, conflict management, and customer relationship--who is responsible for initiating, planning, executing, and closing down a project. myphliputil.pearsoncmg.com/student/bp_hoffer_m
  • 9 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Definition of project manager (con…)  A project manager oversees the execution of entire project or publication, including hiring members of the production team, assigning tasks, organizing and scheduling the writing and production process, and attending to all administrative details. writerseditors.com/services.htm
  • 10 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager duties  Some of the leadership tasks they will be required to perform include choosing team members, assigning duties, motivating employees, setting standards, performing reviews and team member reassignments.
  • 11 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager duties (cont…)  Outline planning  Detailed planning: Teambuilding  Communication  Coordinating project activities  Monitoring and control  Problem solution  Quality control
  • 12 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager duties (cont…)  Outline planning  Develop project targets  Diving the project into activities and placing these activities into the right sequence  Development framework for the procedures and structures  Detailed planning:  work breakdown structure, resource, requirements
  • 13 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager duties (cont…)  Teambuilding:  build cohesion and team spirit  Communication:  Supervisor must know what is going on  Ensure members are briefed  Coordinating project activities:  Between the project team and users, and other external parties
  • 14 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager duties (cont…)  Monitoring and control:  The project manager should estimate the causes for each departure from the standard, and take corrective measures  Problem-solution  Even with the best planning, unforeseen problems may arise  Quality control:  There is often a short-sighted trade-off between getting the project out on time and the project quality.
  • 15 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager skills  Leadership and team building  Organisational  Communication  Technical  Personal
  • 16 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager skills (cont…)  Leadership and team building  Being enthusiastic about the project  Being positive  Delegating tasks  Organisational:  Ensuring all project documentation is clear and distributed to all who require it  Using project management tolls to analyse and monitor project progress
  • 17 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager skills (cont…)  Communication:  Listing to project team members  Using persuasion to coerce reluctant team members or stakeholders to support the project  Ensuring management is kept informed  Technical:  Providing the technical expertise and experience needed to manage the project.
  • 18 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project manager skills (cont…)  Personal  Being flexible  Showing persistence  Being creative  Being patience
  • 19 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Leadership style
  • 20 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project team  Comprises the people who report directly or indirectly to the project manager  Project’s success depend to a large extent on the team members select  The team comprises individuals with different skills and personalities  Question when building a team:  What skills required  Who has the particular talent  Availability and affordability  What level of supervision
  • 21 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Factors which enhances project team  Effective communication  All member being aware of the team’s purpose  Collaboration and creativity  Trusting, supportive atmosphere  Innovative/creative behaviour  Interdependence among the team  Capacity of conflict resolution  Enthusiasm  Acceptance of change
  • 22 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Managing conflict  Conflict will occasionally occur  Positive: fresh ideas and energy being input to the project  Negative conflict: problems which may bring the project to a standstill  An open exchange of views between project personnel should be encouraged  This will help ensure all possible courses of action  Manager to keep in touch with the relationship of team members and act as a conciliator if necessary.
  • 23 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Negotiation techniques  Focus on the problem, not the personalities  Define the problem carefully  Try to develop options that would result in mutual gain  Look for a wide variety of possible solutions
  • 24 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Resolution techniques  Ideally the conflict will be resolved by the parties involved agreeing on a course of action. If this does occurs, the project manager should:  Work through using negotiation techniques  Attempt to establish a compromise  Try to smooth out any differences  Emphasise areas of agreement  If all attempts fails, the manager should make a decision.
  • 25 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Controlling the team  Two types of control strategies: Behavioural control: deals with the behaviour of team members. Control is exercised through agreed procedures, policies and mythologies Output control: attention is focused on results, more that the way these were achieved
  • 26 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Controlling the team (cont…)  Trust-control dilemma: T + C = Y T = the trust the superior has in the subordinate, the trust which the subordinate feels the superior has in him C = the degree of control exercised by the superior over the subordinate Y = a constant, unchanging value
  • 27 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Controlling the team (cont…)  Any increase in C leads to an equally decrease in T.  If the manager retains more ‘control’ or authority, the subordinate will immediately recognise that he/she is being trusted less  If the superior wishes to show more trust in the subordinate, this can only be done by reducing C , that is by delegating more authority.
  • 28 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Controlling the team (cont…)  Span of control  Span of control or span of management refers to the number of subordinates responsible to a person  Classical theorists  There are physical and mental limitation to a manager’s ability to control people, relationships and activities  There should be tight managerial control from the top of an organisation downward. The span of control should be restricted to allow maximum control.
  • 29 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Controlling the team (cont…)  The appropriate span of control will depend on:  Ability of the manger  Ability of the team members  Nature of the task  The geographical dispersal
  • 30 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project stakeholders  Identifying Stakeholders - a Primary and an Ongoing Task  "Satisfy stakeholders!" is the project manager's mantra. For successful projects, it's not enough to deliver on the customer's demand; projects have to meet all stakeholder expectations. Identifying stakeholders is a primary task because all the important decisions during the initiation, planning and execution stages of the project are made by these stakeholders.
  • 31 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project stakeholders (cont…)  Some primary project stakeholders:  the project manager,  the risk manager  the project team,  the support team  the sponsor,  the customer.  In a larger sense, anyone who participates in the project or is impacted by its results is a stakeholder. Each stakeholder has an essential contribution to make and all stakeholder expectations need to be met.  Contribution made by different people to the project is the principal criteria for identifying stakeholders
  • 32 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Support team Customers Project manager Sponsors Team Members Risk manager
  • 33 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project stakeholders (cont…)  Managing stakeholder dispute  Establish a framework to predict the potential for disputes. This involves risk management, since an unforeseen (risk) has the potential to create conflict, and dispute management  Dispute resolution processes:  Resolution: is the solution of a conflict  Settlement: is an arraignment which brings an end to the conflict
  • 34 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University Project stakeholders (cont…)  Conflict between project stakeholders may be resolved by:  Negotiation  Partnering  Mediation  A third party neutral may judge or intervene to impose a solution  On very large projects, a Dispute Review Board (DRB) may be formed
  • 35 Abdisalam Issa-Salwe, Thames Valley University