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Colombia ingles-elt-conference-2010-presentaciones-yamith-fandino-ppt Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT ANDCURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT AND SYLLABUS DESIGN IN THESYLLABUS DESIGN IN THE POSTMODERN ERAPOSTMODERN ERA XIII NATIONAL ELT CONFERENCEXIII NATIONAL ELT CONFERENCE CHALLENGES FOR THE ELT SYLLABUS:CHALLENGES FOR THE ELT SYLLABUS: DEVELOPING COMPETENCIES FOR THE 21STDEVELOPING COMPETENCIES FOR THE 21ST CENTURYCENTURY UNIVERSIDAD DE LA SALLEUNIVERSIDAD DE LA SALLE APRIL 21APRIL 21 –– 23, 201023, 2010
  • 2. CONTENTS AND INTRODUCTIONCONTENTS AND INTRODUCTION • Understanding curriculum and syllabus • Curriculum: definitions, model, and proposal. • Syllabus: definitions, types, and proposal. • Postmodernism: definitions, characterization, and education. • The ELT postmodern curriculum and syllabus. • Visual, critical and media literacies: an example. Postmodern schooling must reconnect students and teachers, space and time, meaning and context, the knower and the known, humanities and sciences, and especially past, present, and future. What modernity has rent asunder (torn apart/to pieces), postmodernity reevaluates as radically eclectic by embracing the fragmented beauty [of reality]. (Slattery, 2006, p. 293) 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 2
  • 3. UNDERSTANDING CURRICULUM ANDUNDERSTANDING CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUSSYLLABUS •• SyllabusSyllabus refers to the content or subject matter of an individual subject, whereas curriculumcurriculum refers to the totality of content to be taught and aims to be realized within one school or educational programme. (White ,1988) • A curriculumcurriculum will be understood in the broadest sense as the philosophy, purposes, design, and implementation of a whole program. A syllabussyllabus will be narrowly defined as the specification and ordering of content of a course or courses. (Graves, 1996) 04/05/2010 3YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING
  • 4. DEFINITIONS OF CURRICULUMDEFINITIONS OF CURRICULUM Thomas (2002) & Cornbleth (1990)Thomas (2002) & Cornbleth (1990) Curriculum asCurriculum as product (Tyler,product (Tyler, 1949)1949) It transmits facts, skills, and values to students. It stresses mastery of conventional school subjects through traditional teaching methods. Curriculum asCurriculum as practicepractice (Stenhouse, 1975)(Stenhouse, 1975) It provides opportunities for students and teachers to construct knowledge. It provides a basis for planning a course, studying it empirically and considering the grounds of its justification. Curriculum asCurriculum as praxis (Grundy,praxis (Grundy, 1987)1987) It strives to emancipate students from the ideological distortions that might disempower or bias their minds. It enables individuals to become critically aware of how they perceive the world and their acting in it. Curriculum inCurriculum in contextcontext (Cornbleth, 1990)(Cornbleth, 1990) It develops socially valued knowledge and skills to contribute to personal and collective autonomy. It exposes and approaches the impact of structural and socio- cultural processes on teachers and students. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 4
  • 5. MODEL OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENTMODEL OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 5 Graves, 2000, p. 4Graves, 2000, p. 4
  • 6. THE 21ST CENTURY CURRICULUMTHE 21ST CENTURY CURRICULUM • Curriculum must be understood as a sociocultural process consisting of a series of pedagogical actions activated when planning, developing, and assessing a critical and transformative educational program aimed at integrating contextually shaped teaching and learning realities, practices, and experiences. • Goals - provide opportunities to construct knowledge with others. - enable to become critically aware of ideological distortions. - develop socially valued knowledge and skills. • Characteristics - open to critical scrutiny and capable of effective application. - based on informed action and critical reflection. - in favor of a dynamic interaction of students, teachers, knowledge, and contexts. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 6
  • 7. DEFINITIONS OF SYLLABUSDEFINITIONS OF SYLLABUS •• Candlin (1984)Candlin (1984) A syllabus is a social construction produced interdependently by teachers and learners… [It is] concerned with the specification and planning of what is to be learned. •• Dubin & Olshtain (1997)Dubin & Olshtain (1997) A syllabus is a more detailed and operational statement of teaching and learning elements which translates the philosophy of the curriculum into a series of planned steps leading towards more narrowly defined objectives at each level. •• Hadley (1998)Hadley (1998) A syllabus is an endorsement of a specific set of sociolinguistic and philosophical beliefs regarding power, education, and cognition … that guide a teacher to structure his or her class in a particular way. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 7
  • 8. SYLLABUS TYPESSYLLABUS TYPES White (1988)White (1988) Type A (interventionist) syllabi are concerned with what should be learned. They divide the language into small, discrete units and evaluate the outcomes in terms of mastery of the language. Type B (non-interventionist) syllabi are concerned with how the language is learned and how this language is integrated with learners’ experiences. Evaluation criteria are set by the learners themselves. Long and Robinson (1998)Long and Robinson (1998) Synthetic syllabi present L2 in a course of gradual accumulation of separately taught parts, and rely on the learner’s ability to combine the pieces accurately. Analytic syllabi present L2 in a process of natural sets of chunks, without linguistic control, and rely on the learner's competence to use the language appropriately. Rabbini (2002)Rabbini (2002) Product-oriented syllabi emphasize the product of language learning and are prone to intervention from an authority. Process-oriented syllabi focus on the specification of communicative tasks and learning activities that learners will undertake during the course. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 8
  • 9. THE 21ST CENTURY SYLLABUSTHE 21ST CENTURY SYLLABUS • Syllabus is the thoughtful specification and ordering of the conceptual, procedural, and attitudinal content of a particular course that adheres to the philosophy and purposes of a curriculum to ensure valuable teaching and learning. • In general, it must: - translate a set of beliefs, values and assumptions regarding power, education, and cognition into course contents, teaching practices, and learning experiences. - result in an ongoing interdependence in classrooms of teachers and learners. • In particular, it must: - present natural chucks of language in realistic situations and authentic texts. - specify learning tasks and communicative activities to be undertaken during the course. - focus on processes and/or projects that integrate critical discourses and transformative actions. - seek the best ways of learning according to learners’ realities and society’s demands. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 9
  • 10. POSTMODERNISM (IRVINE, 2009 & KING, 2010)POSTMODERNISM (IRVINE, 2009 & KING, 2010) POSTMODERNISMPOSTMODERNISM A reaction against rationalism, scientism, logics or objectivity. There is no universal truth. Instead, there are coexisting and relative truths. Skepticism of idea of progress, anti-technology reactions. Pursuit of localizing and contingent theories. Networked and distributed knowledge. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 10 Firehammer (2007) Postmodernism is a reaction to the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. For this reason, postmodernism is highly skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and instead focuses on the relative truths of each person.
  • 11. POSTMODERNISM IN EDUCATIONPOSTMODERNISM IN EDUCATION Usher and Edwards (1994) Beck (1993) Education is ambiguous. It both seeks and rejects closure. It is both closed and open. It can be an instrument/a device control and legitimization, but it has the potential to question the status of the definitive, the certain and the 'proven'. Education must, then, avoid aiming at achieving universally applicable goals pre- defined by the grand narratives. Instead, it should be diverse in terms of goals and processes. It should become the vehicle for the celebration of diversity, a space for different voices against the authorative one. Postmodernism in education is a paradigm that challenges how we learn and appreciate knowledge in our lives. It questions the idea of a universal, unchanging, unified self or subject which has full knowledge of and control over what it thinks, says, and does. Therefore, postmodernist educators must emphasize diversity and heterodoxy; reject hierarchical relationships between educators and learners; recognize and value emotions, attitudes, and inclinations; and emphasize critique and deconstruction of all theories and social practices. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 11
  • 12. THE POSTMODERN ELT CURRICULUMTHE POSTMODERN ELT CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUSAND SYLLABUS • Finch (2006) 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 12 Postmodern metanarratives Classroom-based assessment using portfolios, journals, formative self- and peer-assessment. Social learning: Teamwork balanced by autonomous learning. Plurality of genres: Learning English through pop-culture, comics, the internet, etc. Postcolonialism: Use of diverse Englishes as variants of a lingua franca. Recognition of affective, social and cultural filters. Non-linear and self-reflexive learning of the language as experience. Student-centered learning (Decentralization) and student autonomy (Decentralization)
  • 13. THE POSTMODERN ELT CURRICULUMTHE POSTMODERN ELT CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUSAND SYLLABUS • Breen (1999) • The pedagogy of the language classroom Questioning absolutes - Welcoming ambiguity - accepting uncertainties - participating in different and new discourses - exploring other identities - studying local and other cultures - creating and negotiating - surfing technological sources. • The roles of the teacher A guide who explicitly encourages diverse interpretations. A commentator and facilitator of experiences, ideas and proposals of learners. A cultural worker who facilitates ethnographic research. • The roles of the learner A language player who re-invents rules and conventions governing language. A curious explorer of different text types and discourses across languages. A polyglot who acquires new voices and ways of articulating experiences and ideas. A critical discourse analyst who reflects on uses and realities of language. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 13
  • 14. THE POSTMODERN ELT CURRICULUM ANDTHE POSTMODERN ELT CURRICULUM AND SYLLABUS (SYLLABUS (Slattery, 2006)Slattery, 2006) In terms of goals, - redirect schooling to the development of autobiographical, aesthetic, and intuitive experience, and the sociocultural and sociopolitical relations emerging from an understanding of the individual in relation to knowledge, other learners, the world, and ultimately the self . In terms of content, activities, and materials, - promote a creative search for deeper understanding through interdisciplinary and inclusive tasks, projects and narratives. - include hermeneutics, gender studies, cultural studies, and critical literacy. - problematize, interrogate, contextualize, challenge any kind of text (written, visual, etc). In terms of assessment, - understand knowledge as reflecting human interests, values, and actions that are socially constructed and directed toward emancipation and human agency. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 14
  • 15. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 15 http://www.adidaupclose.org/FAQs/postmodern.gifhttp://www.adidaupclose.org/FAQs/postmodern.gif
  • 16. 21ST CENTURY LITERACY (21ST CENTURY LITERACY (Luke &Luke & Dooley, 2009)Dooley, 2009) • Traditional literacy: mastery of capabilities in reading and writing print text. • New literacy: the rapid expansion of new modes of information and communication technologies (ICTs) demands knowing how to engage with a range of semiotic forms ranging from visual to aural and digital multimodal texts. • ICTs also require a variety of skills that enable individuals to communicate and participate in the wider society and contribute actively to creating a new culture. • Consequently, the 21st ELT curriculum and syllabus should not simply look for better and newer ways of teaching and assessing grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and the four language skills. They should be developed and designed to help learners be wise consumers and responsible producers of information available in multiple media-based formats, which will ultimately allow them to participate critically in multicultural knowledge construction. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 16
  • 17. VISUAL, CRITICAL AND MEDIA LITERACIESVISUAL, CRITICAL AND MEDIA LITERACIES • Visual literacy is the ability to identify, describe, make meaning, interpret, negotiate from information presented in the form of an image and ultimately to think, create, and communicate graphically. • Critical literacy focuses on the relationship between languages and world views, social practices, power, identity, citizenship, inter-cultural relations and global/local issues. • Media literacy consists of a repertoire of competences that enable people to access, analyze, evaluate and create messages in a wide variety of media modes, genres and forms. It offers opportunities for learners to broaden their experience of media, and helps them develop creative skills in making their own media messages. • Together visual, critical and media literacy can help students both critically interpret the powerful images of a multimedia culture and express themselves in multiple media forms. The integration of these literacies can also help develop the necessary interdisciplinary skills needed to establish student voice and democratic conditions for authentic exchange around issues of ethical, social and cultural significance. 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 17
  • 18. VISUAL, CRITICAL AND MEDIA LITERACIESVISUAL, CRITICAL AND MEDIA LITERACIES SUGGESTED PLAN I – Introduce the document (source, author/artist, period, context) II – Describe it as precisely as possible (from more general to more specific) III – Classify the different themes at work and/or interpret the vision of the author basing yourself on the elements from the description. IV - Analyze and interpret V – React stating your personal opinion and experience wikieducator.org/ELT.../visual_and_critic al_literacy SUGGESTED QUESTIONS 1.Who sent this message? Knowing who the author is and what is behind the message. 2.What techniques are used to attract my attention? Knowing about the power of arts over us. 3.How might other people understand this message differently from me? Knowing about other alternative interpretations. 4.What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in or omitted from this message? Knowing the value system being projected to us. 5.Why was this message sent? Knowing what profit or power is being gained. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yzeVjA M-drg 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 18
  • 19. REFERENCESREFERENCES Baudrillard, J. (1991). Simulacra and simulations. Translated by Sheila Faria. Michigan: University of Michigan press. Beck, C. (1993). Postmodernism, pedagogy, and philosophy of education. Retrieved from http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/eps/PES-Yearbook/93_docs/BECK.HTM Breen, M. (1999). Teaching language in the postmodern classroom. BELLS: Barcelona english language and literature studies, 10, pags. 47-64 Candlin, C.N. (1984). Syllabus design as a critical process. In C.J. Brumfit (Ed.). General English Syllabus Design. ELT Documents No. 118. London: Pergamon Press & The British Council. 29-46. Cornbleth, C. (1990) Curriculum in Context, Basingstoke: Falmer Press. Derrida, J. (1976). Of Grammatology. Translated by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976. De La Fuente, M. (2008). National cultural representations. Critical literacy for ELT project. Retrieved from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/Materials_National%20Cultural%20Representations.pdf Dubin, F. & Olshtain, E. (1997) Course Design: Developing Programs and Materials for Language Learning, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Finch, E. (1996). The postmodern language teacher. Studies in British and American Language and Literature, 78, 221-248. Firehammer, R. (2007). Postmodernism. Retrieved from http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Philosophy-Postmodernism.htm Graves, K. (2000) Designing Language Courses. Canada: Heinle & Heinle. Grundy, S. (1987) Curriculum: Product or Praxis, Lewes: Falmer. Hadley, G. (1998). Looking Back and Looking Ahead: A Forecast for the Early 21st Century. The language teacher, July. Retrieved from http://www.jalt- publications.org/tlt/articles/2001/07/hadley Irvine, M. (2009). Approaches to Po-Mo. Retrieved from http://www9.georgetown.edu/faculty/irvinem/theory/pomo.html Long, M. H., & Robinson, P. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research and practice. In Doughty, C. J., & Williams, J. (eds.), Focus on form in second language acquisition (pp. 15- 41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lyotard, J. (1979). The postmodern condition: A Report on Knowledge. Theory and History. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Luke, A., & Dooley, K. (2009). Critical literacy and second language learning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning (Vol II). New York, London: Routledge. (In press). Retrieved from http://education.arts.unsw.edu.au/media/File/LukeDooleyCritical_Literacy_in_SLEDec09.pdf Rabbini, R. (2002). An Introduction to Syllabus Design and Evaluation. The Internet TESL Journal, 8(5). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Rabbini-Syllabus.html Richards, J. (2001) Curriculum Development in Language Teaching, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Slattery, P. (2006). Curriculum development in the postmodern era. New York: Routledge Taylor and Francis. Smith, M. K. (1996, 2000) 'Curriculum theory and practice' the encyclopaedia of informal education, www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm Stenhouse, L. (1975). An introduction to Curriculum Research and Development, Heinemann Educational Books. Traducción española: Investigación y desarrollo del curriculum, (2ª ed.), Madrid, Morata, 1987. Tyler, R. W. (1949) Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Thomas, E. (2002). Teacher education. Dilemmas and prospects. London: Kogan. Usher, R. and Edwards, R. (1994). Postmodernism and Education. Routledge, London. White, R. (1993) The ELT Curriculum, USA: Cambridge University Press. White, R. (1988). The ELT Curriculum, Design, Innovation and Management. Oxford: Basil Blackwell 04/05/2010 YAMITH JOSÉ FANDIÑO - MA IN TEACHING 19