Emotions i


Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Emotions i

  1. 1. Emotions I Why Emotions? Classification of Emotions Emotion and ReasonWhy Emotions?n Emotions seem to “take control” on occasion, biasing our perceptions and motivating us to behave in particular ways.n We sometimes do things that seem irrational when under the influence of the “passions,” and we tend to hold a person less accountable for such acts.n So why do we have emotions? What are they for?What Emotions Are Forn Emotions are brain mechanisms that have evolved to promote the “right” behaviors under certain commonly encountered circumstances.n Emotions add an evaluative dimension to experience, which turns out to be crucial for rational decision-making. 1
  2. 2. Components of an Emotionn Affect n This is subjective feeling: happiness, sadness, anger, etc.n Cognitive reaction n You recognize, or “know” what happened.n Physiological reaction n Internal changes occur involving the autonomic nervous system and hormones.n Behavioral reaction n You feel disposed to behave in particular ways, depending on the emotion (e.g., lashing out at someone when angry).Classifying the Emotionsn Several attempts have been made to classify emotions.n Such schemes try to identify “primary” or “basic” emotions. Other emotions are then viewed as combinations of the primary emotions.n Two such schemes were provided by Robert Plutchik and Richard LazarusPlutchik’s Classificationn Eight primary emotionsn Each emotion has associated with it a n Common stimulus n Typical behaviorn Each emotion can vary in intensity; emotions we give different names may be the same emotion at various intensities. 2
  3. 3. Plutchik’s Eight Primary Emotions (First Four)Anger Blocking of goal- Destruction of directed behavior ObstacleFear Threat or danger ProtectionSadness Loss of Search for help something valued and comfortDisgust Something Rejection; gruesome or pushing away loathsome Plutchik’s Eight Primary Emotions (Last Four) Surprise A sudden, novel Orientation; stimulus turning toward Curiosity A new place or Exploration and environment searching Acceptance A member of Sharing; taking one’s own group; in; incorporating something of value Joy Potential mate Reproduction; courting; mating Lazarus’ Classification n Richard Lazarus proposed a system of fifteen basic emotions. n He associated each of these with a “relational theme” – a specific relationship or interaction between people and their environments. n Examples n Anger: Relational theme is a demeaning offense against me and mine. n Guilt: Having transgressed a moral imperative. 3
  4. 4. Emotion and Reasonn Behavior promoted by emotions may not suit the current circumstances so that it appears irrational or produces undesirable effects. n Examples: Attacking the boss for not giving you an expected raise; Poor public -speaking performance due to evaluation apprehension.n Antonio Damasio proposed, based on clinical studies of brain-damaged individuals, that solid decision-making requires input from emotional-evaluative systems. 4