MEANINGA seminar as an instructional technique involvesgenerating a situation for a group to have guidedinteraction among themselves on different aspects orcomponents of a topic, which is generally presented byone or more members.
COGNITIVE OBJECTIVES1. To develop higher cognitive abilities2. To develop the ability of responding3. To develop the ability of keen observation ofexperience, feelings and to present themeffectively.4. To develop the ability to seek clarification anddefend the ideas of others effectively.
AFFECTIVE OBJECTIVES1. To develop the feeling of tolerance2. To develop the feelings of co-operation3. To develop the emotional ability among theparticipants of the seminar.4. To acquire the good manners of puttingquestions and answering the questions ofothers effectively.
ROLE OF ORGANISERS It is the organisers who decides the topic of seminar. Topics are related to the current trends or recent developments in theclinical or nursing education. Once the topic is decided and objectives are formulated, organisers startsearching for a suitable chairperson and select an eminent person who iswell versed in the concerned topic as the chairperson. In consultationwith the chairperson, organisers modifies the objectives if needed,finalise the various aspects of the topic and select speakers. Date and time is fixed according to the convenience of the chairpersonand speakers. In case of national or international seminars, large scale preparation isneeded and organisers have to form various committees like invitationcommittee, finance committee academic committee, etc. and co-ordinate effectively for the successful conduction of the seminar.
ROLE OF CHAIRPERSON Chairperson should possess in depth knowledge regarding the topic andit is his duty to guide the seminar in a fruitful manner. Seminar begins with an introductory speech by the chairperson. In the introductory talk, he justifies the topic selection by stating itsrelevance and importance in the current context and introduces thespeakers by highlighting their achievements. After the introductory speech chairperson invites speakers according tothe order. When one speaker completes his speech, he gives a brief summary of itand invites next speaker to present his viewpoints. Once all the speakers complete their presentations, chairperson opensthe discussion session by inviting participants to come out with theirdoubts, clarifications and contributions. Some chairpersons prefer discussion after each speaker completes thepresentation.
ROLE OF SPEAKERS Success of a seminar depends on how well the discussionsession is utilised by the participants. The quality and quantity of the information presented by thespeakers have a direct role in preparing the participants forthe discussion session. Success of the seminar is largely determined by theperformance of the speakers.
Speakers have to prepare and hand over the studymaterials to the organisers in advance so thatorganisers can combine all study materials in a userfriendly way. Study material is given to the participants one or twohours before the seminar. Speakers are expected topresent the relevant information in an interesting andcomprehensible manner with the help of suitableaudio-visual aids.
ROLE OF PARTICIPANTS Objectives of seminars are framed in accordance with the learningneeds of the participants. Always participants make the seminar very live and interesting. They have to prepare themselves well in advance and the studymaterial issued by the organisers before the seminar will alsoprovide the required information in a condensed form. They have to utilise the discussion session by asking questions,seeking clarifications and expressing their viewpoints.Participants should use discussion to enrich their knowledgerather than testing the knowledge of the speakers or thechairperson.
SEMINAR TECHNIQUE Organisers make necessary arrangement for the seminar anddistribute study material to the participants one or two hoursbefore the seminar. Seminar begins with an introductory speech by the chairperson. Chairperson then invites the speakers to present the latestinformation about different aspects of the seminar topic. After each speech chairperson has to summarise it before invitingthe next speaker. After all speakers presented the information on various aspects ofthe topic, chairperson opens the discussion session by invitingquestions, clarifications, and contributions.
Questions and clarifications should be addressed tothe chairperson instead of addressing directly to thespeakers. Chairperson then invite the concerned speaker,chairperson himself can clear the doubt. Seminar will come to an end after the discussionsession with concluding note by the chairperson. In the concluding note, chairperson summarises thewhole information exchanged in the seminar andcongratulate organisers, speakers and participants.
REQUIREMENTS OF SEMINAR Teacher is a leader. 10-15 members are participants. The topic is presented by the students taking 15-20 minutestime. Duration is 1-2 hours. Leader should keep the discussion within the limits ofproblem discussed.
Students present their data in an informal way underthe leadership of the teacher. Care should be taken to avoid stereotype. All the members take part in discussion in an informalway but orderly in manner. The chairperson should be skilled in encouraging thetimid participants. A student secretory should record the problems whicharise and the solution given.
ADVANTAGES OF SEMINAR Role of the student is active; it presupposes that student hasbackground knowledge. If properly conduct, the seminar teaches the method ofscientific analysis and techniques of research. The group as a whole and the individual students try to solveproblems. Exchange of facts and attempts to crystalize the groupopinion which is sound and workable.
By participation, in the solution of problems thestudent becomes more articulate and develops a morecritical point of view and organized, scientificapproach towards issue. Seminar gives training in self-learning and promotesindependent thinking. Ability to see and solve our own problems is increasedbecause personal difficulties can be compared withthose of the group. Skilfully directed, seminar promotes group spirit andcooperativeness.
DISADVANTAGES OF SEMINAR Time-consuming. Cannot be applied to new students. Timid students cannot improve. If subject knowledge is poor, unnecessary discussionarises. The approach to problems extends to theirprofessional and personal activities.
CONDUCTING A SEMINAR The establishing of an environment that contributes to thepurpose of the seminar is of importance and requires askilled teacher. A motivating learning situation that is not too highlyorganised or too relaxed is essential. The discussion needs to be kept active, while at the sametime the orderly development of the subject content shouldbe maintained. The teacher usually guides the seminar, however studentcarry out this function under the guidance of teacher.
THE RULES FOR CONDUCTING ASEMINAR Define the purpose of the discussion. Relate the topic of discussion to the main concept or theobjectives to be attained. Direct and focus the discussion on the topic. Helps students express their ideas. Keep the discussion at a high level of interest so thatstudents will listen attentively to those who arecontributing ideas. Plan comments and questions that relate to the subject andwill also help to guide the discussion.
Set time limitations for each person to contribute. Guard against monopoly of the discussion by anymember of the seminar. Plan for a summary at intervals during discussion andalso at the end and relate the ideas expressed to thepurpose of discussion. Have the discussion recorded either by a student as arecording secretory or have it tape recording. Plan for teacher and student self-evaluation of theprogress made towards the immediate objectives.
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE TEACHER INSEMINAR Selecting the topic. Remaining in the background at the seminar, butsitting where she/he can see the whole group. Being prepared to help out in the initial stages of usingthe method, where there are long silences. See that no essential points are overlooked and thatgross inaccuracies are corrected. See that all have a share in the discussion and thatirrelevant discussion is avoided.