Jaipur National University(Established By Government Of Rajasthan ,Approved By The UGC Act 1956)A venture ofSEEDLING GROUP OF INSTITUTIONSPresentation SeminaronRFID TECHNOLOGYPresented by………Bindia KumariB.tech (6CS-22)
WHY RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE?• Wireless sensor networks have the potential to provide remotemonitoring capabilities that can benefit applications such asindustrial control, environmental monitoring and defense.• Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) is one of the most excitingtechnology that revolutionize the working practices byincreasing efficiencies and improving profitability.• It is often presented as a replacement for today’s barcodes butthe technologies has much greater possibilities, such asindividual serial numbers for each item and the possibility toread these numbers at a distance of several meters.
INTRODUCTION OF RFID• Radio-frequency identification(RFID) is the use of wireless non contact system thatuses radio frequency electro magnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached toan object,for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking.• Radio Frequency identification(RFID) is generic term that is used to describe thattransmits the identity of an object or person wirelessly,using radio waves.It’sgrouped under the broad category of automatic identification technologies.• RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID attached to an automobileduring production can be used to track its process through assembly line, RFIDidentity cards can give employees access to locked areas of a building, and RFtransponders mounted in automobiles can be used to bill motorists for accessto toll roads or parking.• RFID is a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostaticcoupling in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum uniquelyidentify an object, animal or person it is an automatic identificationmethod, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data whenever required usingdevices called RFID tags and transponder. It is also called dedicated short rangecommunication(DSRC).
Components of RFID• RFID stands for radio frequency identification device. This technology allowstransmission of data without contact and line of sight from a data medium, what iscalled a transponder, to a reader and vice versa. The term transponder is formedfrom the two words transmitter and responder.• A basic RFID system consists of three components:i) An antenna or coilii) A transceiver with decoderiii) A transponder(RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information
Contd….Basic components of RFID contain: Tags( chip+ antenna)An RFID tag is an object that can be stuck on or incorporated into aproduct, animal or a person for the purpose of identification using radio waves Interrogators( antenna+reader)Interrogators are useful to read the tags & in certain cases even write on them.Tags can be almost attached to anything: Pallets or cases of products, Vehicles, Company assets or personnel, Items suchas apparel,luggage,laundry, People livestock or pets, High value electronics suchas computers, TV’s. Chip Tags consists of a microchip and a coupling element-an antenna. Most Tagsare only activated only when they are within interrogation zone of theinterrogator; outside they “sleep". Chip tags contain memory. The size of the tag depends on the size of the antenna, which increases withrange of tag and decreases with frequency.
Types Of RFID TagsThere are two basic types of RFID tags: Active tagsActive RFID Tags are powered by an internal battery and are typical read/write i.e. Tagdata can be rewritten and/or modified.• Transmits signal from the micro chip circuit through the power obtained from aninternal battery.• Can signal at defined time, Multiple tags can be recorded at once.• High signal range and Larger in size. Passive tagsPassive RFID Tags operates without a separate external power source and obtainoperating power generated from the reader. Passive tags are consequently muchlighter than active tags, less expensive and offer a virtually unlimited lifetime.• Contains no power source, Obtains power from the reader.• Low signal range, Cheaper and smaller than active tags.
Working Operation• A radio frequency identification uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to beidentified. Two way radio transmitter- receivers called interrogators or readerssend a signal to the tag and read its response. The reader generally transmit theirobservation to a computer system running RFID or RFID middleware.• The tags information is stored electronically in a nonvolatile memory. The RFID taginclude a small RF transmitter and receiver. An RFID reader transmits an encodedradio signal to interrogate the tag. The tag receive the message and respond withits identification information.• RFID contain at least two parts :an integrated circuit for storing and processinginformation, Modulating and demodulating a radio frequency(RF) signal, collectingDC power from the incident reader signal, and other specialized functions; and anantenna for receiving and transmitting the signal.
ADVANTAGES OF RFID• The read only Tag code data is 100% secure and cannot be changed or duplicated.• Very robust Tags that can stand extreme conditions and temperatures. Tags areavailable in a great range of types, sizes and materials• No need for physical contact between the data carrier and communication devices. TheTags can be used repeatedly, Relatively low maintenance cost.• No line of sight necessary to read/write data. This makes it possible to use Tags in harshenvironments and in closed containers/structures. When using Bar-code scanners haveto have line of sight to read them.• Bar code only provides a manufacturer and product type. They don’t identify uniqueitems but it can identify the item(not just its manufacturer and category).• Extremely low error rate, No line of sight required• Long read range, Portable database• Multiple tags read/write, Tracking people, items, and equipment in real time
DISADVANTAGES OF RFID• RFID systems are often more expensive than Barcode systems.• RFID technology is harder to understand, Can be less reliable.• RFID Tags are usually longer than Barcode labels.• Tags are application specific. No one tags fit all.• Possibility of unauthorized reading of passports and credit cards.• More than one Tag can respond at the same time.Images of RFID
RFID V/S BARCODEFEATURES RFID BARCODEAbility to read more than Yes Noone item at a timeRead the item while moving Yes NoLine of sight is not required Yes NoBuilt in security Yes NoEnvironmental resistance Yes NoNumber or reads More Less
APPLICATIONS• PRODUCT TRACKINGHigh frequency RFID and HFID/High FID tags are used library book or bookstoreTracking,jewellery tracking, pallet tracking, building access control, airline baggageTracking, and apparel and pharmaceutical item tracking .• ANIMAL IDENTIFICATIONImplantable RFID tags or transponders can be used for animal identification. Thetransponder are more well known as passive RFID technology or simply “chips ”Onanimal.• LIABRARIESThis technology has slowly begun to replace the traditional bar codes on librariesitems( books,cds,dvds).The RFID tag contain identifying information, such as bookstitle or material type, without having to be pointed separate database. Theinformation is read by an RFID reader, which replace the standard barcode.• MUSEUMSRFID are now also implemented in end user application in museum.• SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITIES
RFID TODAY• The practical applications of RFID today are outstanding. Any inventorycould be instantly located in any warehouse, high risk security institutionsare able to keep a constant eye on dangerous offenders, lost pets can bereturned to their owners...the list goes on.• RFID technology is continuously advancing, and the very near future willsee science fiction become reality as Radio Frequency Identification makesits way into everyday functions.• When a secure form of RFID is created for the consumer population andprivacy issues are resolved, RFID tags will change the world. Organizationssuch as EPC Global are spearheading initiatives to standardize regulationsand usage, and numerous reputable companies are spending billions ofdollars and thousands of man-hours to perfect the technology.
FUTURE SCOPE• The world will be very different once Readers and RFID Tagsare everywhere. In an RFID enhanced futures, the benefitswould accurate not just to businesses, but also to consumers.• Once various limitations like lack of a GlobalStandard, security concerns, the cost factors, etc. areovercome and this technology is fully implemented, it cantransform the way we live our lives.• It has the potential of revolutionized the way we travel, theway we open the locks of our homes, the way we purchasegoods, the way we do business and much more.
CONCLUSION• The RFID replaces the traditional identification methods like barcode. The RFIDframework provides the freedom for developers/customers to switch different RFIDvendors at any point of Time during the development with minimal effort.• RFID technology uses waves to automatically identify individual items. After sixtyyears of Development, plus the emergence of the internet, FID is being used inmany fields.• RFID used in libraries can save patrons time and increase library work efficiency;can lesson Staff injures; and can do inventory automatically. The greatestadvantage of RFID tracking system Is its ability to scan books/items on the shelveswithout tipping them out or removing them.• There some hurdles needed to overcome before RFID technology becomeswidespread In the world.One major problem is the high costs the other is privacyissue. In the long run, the RFID technology, when perfected, would eventually be abig help to human.