CONTENTS• INDRODUCTION• Biometrics• Palm Vein Technology• REASONS FOR CONSIDERING THE PALM AREA FOR IDENTIFICATION :• Accuracy• Practical applications• Advantages• Disadvantages• Conclusion• References 3
INTRODUCTION• Palm vein technology is one of the upcoming technology.• It is the world’s first contactless personal identification system that uses the vein patterns in human palms to confirm a person’s identity.• It is highly secure and accurate.• The contact less feature gives it a hygienic advantage over other biometric authentication technologies.• It uses the vascular patterns of an individual’s palm as personal identification data.• biometric authentication technology, which identifies people by their unique biological 4 information
Biometrics Automated measurement of Physiological and/or behavioral characteristics to determine or authenticate identity is known as Biometrics Increasing necessity of e-mail, Internet resources etc, offers serious security concerns. Biometrics can be defined as recognizing and identifying a person based on physiological or behavioral characteristics The behavioral characteristics measure the movement of a user, when users walk, speak, type on a keyboard or sign their name. The physiological characteristics would be the physical human traits like fingerprints, hand shape, eyes and face, veins, etc
BIOMETRIC FEATURES• It becomes obsolete to beware passwords safely or to remember to all of them.• Abuse of stolen id cards and passports will be reduced enormously.• Abuse of stolen credit cards will be prevented.• Taking over foreign identities will be impossible.• Building access right to people without the right of admittance will be prevented.• Access to devices/computers will be not possible for persons without the right of admittance.• Unnecessary costs will be drastically reduced.• Level of common convenience and safety will grow.
Biometrics Process new biometric sample is requested. No Signal Processing, Quality Biometric Transmission Feature Extraction, Sufficient? Data Collection Representation Yes Generate Template Database Template Match Yes Decision Confidence? No
VOICE PRINTVoice Recognition: is the Identification using the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals.ADVANTAGES• Easy to use and requires no special training or equipment.• Relatively inexpensive compared to other biometrics.• Consumers prefer to use voiceprints over other biometric technology for identification according to a Chase bank’s research study.DISADVANTAGES• When processing a person’s voice over multiple channels such a microphone and then over a telephone reduces the recognition rate.• Physical conditions of the voice, such as those due to sickness, affect the voice verification process.• Environment noise reduces the overall accuracy and effectiveness of the recognition.• The storage requirement for voiceprint database can be very large.• A person’s voice changes over time.
Voice Identification System Construct voice reference template Database
FINGER PRINT• Fingerprint Recognition is the identification by using patterns of friction ridges and valleys on an individuals fingertips which are unique to that individual. ADVANTAGES• Since fingerprints are the composition of protruding sweat glands, everyone has unique fingerprints. They do not change naturally.• Its reliability and stability is higher compared to the iris, voice, and face recognition method.• Fingerprint recognition equipment is relatively low-priced compared to other biometric system DISADVANTAGES• Vulnerable to noise and distortion brought on by dirt and twists.• Some people may feel offended about placing their fingers on the same place where many other people have continuously touched.• Some people have damaged or eliminated fingerprints.• Since users have to touch the sensing device, so it gets damaged on scratches on it
Fingerprint Recognition steps: Database
FACE RECOGNITIONFace recognition uses the visible physical structure of the faceand analyses the spatial geometry of distinguishing features in itto identify an individual.ADVANTAGESNon intrusive, privacy cannot be invaded easily.Cheap technology.DISADVANTAGES 2D recognition is affected by changes in lighting, the person’s hair, the age,and ifthe person wear glasses.It also depends on orientation/angle of user’s face with camera. Requires camera equipment for user identification; thus, it is not likely tobecomepopular until most PCs include good resolution cameras as standardequipment.Even the expressions on the face also affect the recognition process. Forexample:in Canada passport size photo with neutral face expression areaccepted.
Face recognition process:Input face Extraction of Extraction of face featuresimage face image Positive Database negative
IRIS SCAN• The iris is the colored ring of textured tissue that surrounds the pupil of the eye.• ADVANTAGES Very high accuracy. Verification time is generally less than 5 seconds. The eye from a dead person would deteriorate too fast to be useful, so no extra precautions have to been taken with retinal scans to be sure the user is a living human being.• DISADVANTAGES Intrusive. A lot of memory for the data to be stored. Very expensive. Difficult to use because of positioning eye. Requires more time for matching with database stored
Iris Identification Steps:Input of face Recognition of Detection ofimage Put iris in focus iris pattern eye regions accept Database reject
Signature Identification:• Signature identification: is the analyses of the way a user signs his or her name.• The process used by a biometric system to verify a signature is called dynamic signature verification (DSV).• the angle at which the pen is held• the number of times the pen is lifted,• the time it takes to write the entire signature,• the pressure exerted by the person while signing,• the variations in the speed with which different parts of the signature are written.• ADVANTAGES Unique for every individual and user himself can decide the identity. Lesser false acceptance rate. Relatively cheap technology. No expert training required
DISADVANTAGES Signature of a person may change after a long time, like ifan user gone through an accident and he cannot use hishand and then he signs after a long time, his sign andpressure points may change. High false rejection rate.Pressure points may change because of weather or somedisease. System can be fooled by imitating Profile Database
Palm Vein Technology• In this technology ONE’S PALM is used as the “PASSWORD” for verification• The veins present in the palm of the individual are scanned & verified thus providing the access• Palm vein authentication is one of the vascular pattern authentication technologies.• Vascular pattern authentication includes vein pattern authentication using the vein patterns of the palm, back of the hand or fingers as personal identification data• The palm vein authentication uses the vascular patterns of the palm as personal identification data
First the individual places his PALM on the sensor, thus the sensor takes the “PALM VEIN IMAGE” and compares it with the pre-registered one with the help of INFRA RED RAYS.If there is a match then access is allowed, if not access is denied.This system is not at all dangerous. A near infrared ray is a component of sunlight, whose effect is much less than walking in sunlight.
REASONS FOR CONSIDERING THE PALM AREA FOR IDENTIFICATION :• A palm has wide area and more complicated vascular pattern and contains some differentiating features for personal identification when compared with the patterns present in the back of the hand and the ventral side or dorsal side of the fingers.• The palm normally has no hair and thus eliminates an obstacle to capturing the vein pattern and it is less susceptible to a change in skin color.• For this purpose the contactless palm vein authentication device was launched by Fujitsu in Japan. This is also known as palm secure.
REASONS FOR CONSIDERING THE PALM AREA FOR IDENTIFICATION ….• In palm vein authentication we use sensing and matching technology.• when near-infrared light passes, deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood flowing through the veins absorbs near-infrared rays, causing it to be visible as black regions to the scanner.• Arteries and capillaries, whose blood contains oxygenated hemoglobin,which does not absorb near-infrared light, are invisible to the sensor, hence “VEINS” are chosen
SENSING TECHNOLOGY : The sensing technology used for vein patterns is based onnear-infrared ray spectroscopy (NIRS) and imagingDeoxygenated hemoglobin in vein vessels absorbs lighthaving a wavelength of about 760 nm within near-infraredarea (Fig. 1).When capturing a body using near-infrared rays only theblood vessel pattern containing the deoxidized hemoglobinis visible as a series of dark lines (Fig.2).The vein authentication device translates the black lines ofthe infrared ray image as the blood vessel pattern of thepalm (Fig. 3), and then matches it with the previouslyregistered blood vessel pattern of the individual.
Fig1: visible ray Fig2:infrared ray Fig 3 :Extracted vein image image patternBlood vessel patterns are unique to every individual. Even the vein patternson each hand are different.
IMAGING METHODS:There are two imaging methods used for veins 1.Reflection 2.Transmission.Reflection Method:The reflection method illuminates the target part from the front In this method, an illumination device and a capturing device can be combined because the direction of illumination and capturing is the same.Transmission method: The transmission method illuminates the target part from the back, the side or the surface around the target. but in this method, those devices must be used separately because the direction of illumination and capturing differs
Matching: The palm vein pattern is extracted from infrared-ray images as dark lines. This Matching involves 1. Capture 2. Extraction of palm vein pattern features 3. Storing of palm vein pattern features 1. Capture: Decide whether or not the user will hold his/her palm over the palm vein authentication sensor. If the palm is held, capture the infrared-ray image 2. Extraction of palm vein pattern features: Extract the palm vein pattern from the captured infrared-ray image by image processing. Convert the palm vein pattern to palm vein feature data following the algorithm to determine the correspondence between the two palm vein patterns. 3. Storing of palm vein pattern features: Store the palm vein feature data to storage, smart card or hard disk, depending on the application.
HOW IT WORKSWorking of Palm Vein SystemsWe Rest our palm on Vein ScannerPalm Vein Scanner – near Infra Red RaysInfra red rays will pass through veinsVeins carry Deoxygenated HemoglobinDeoxygenated blood absorbs Infra Red RaysArteries and capillaries reflects infra red raysVein patterns are captured for Authentication If Authorized, the requested Application gets Activated•Extract the vein patterns from the infrared image and convert intovein pattern data.•Now Compares it with database 28
Step 1:Palm vein authenticationtechnology consists of a small Palm veinscanner thats easy and natural to use,fast and Highly accurate . Simply holdyour palm a few centimeters Over thescanner and within a second it readsyour unique vein pattern. A vein pictureis taken and palm pattern is registered.
Step 2:The registered palm pattern is stored into thedatabase along with the personal details of theclient
1. One should place his/her palmnear to scanner.
• 2. The scanner makes use of a special characteristic of the reduced hemoglobin coursing through the palm veins — it absorbs near- infrared light. This makes it possible to take a snapshot of whats beneath the outer skin, something very hard to read or steal.
• 3. The integrated optical system in the palm vein sensor uses this phenomenon to generate an image of the palm vein pattern and the generated image is digitized, encrypted and finally stored as a registered template in the database.
Data Flow 35
Palm vein authentication Palm has to be Sensor emits near Oxygen reduced blood positioned infrared within the veins absorbs the 3-8 cm over the beam to the palm near infrared light sensorThe generated template can The sensors template library The sensors wide angular nearbe stored in either a database SW changes the raw image infrared camera takes a raw into template data image of the palm vein pattern
User Interface •Contactless •Non-invasive •2.18 seconds recognition speedsource 38
How Secure is the Technology? How Secure is the Technology?• On the basis of testing the technology on more than 70,000 individuals, Fujitsu declared that the new system had a false rejection rate of 0.01%(i.e., only one out of 10,000 scans were incorrect denials for access).• And a false acceptance rate of less than 0.00008% (i.e., incorrect approval for access in one in over a millio scans).• And if you registered your profile as a child, itll still be recognized as you grow, as an individuals patterns of veins are established in utero• No two people in the world share a palm vein pattern -even those of identical twins will differ.
Overview of BiometricsTechnology + - Fingerprint •Popular •Less Accurate •Cheapest Voice •Non invasive •Least AccurateIris & Retinal •Very accurate •Invasive •Expensive •Sensitive Palm Vein •Non-invasive •Unfamiliar •Relatively Cheap •Accurate
accuracy TECHNOLOGY FALSE ACCEPTANCE RATE FALSE REJECTION RATE Palm Secure .00008% .01% Fingerprint 1-2% 3% Iris .0001% - .94% .99% - .2% Voice 2% 10%• Vein patterns – Distinctive and unique to individuals, even left and right hands. – Difficult to steal or forge• False acceptance rate – A rate at which someone other than the actual person is falsely recognized.• False rejection rate – A rate at which the actual person is not recognized accurately.
In comparison with otherstechnology*note – Chart created using average of data provided by the Table 43
Need Of ItNo more problems of forgotten passwords and id codes - biometrics is the technology taking care of it.Apart from other techniques like IRIS scan in which Cataract replacement, Finger scan during Injuries etc can be an disadvantage, this technique has no problems.
ADVANTAGES:• Contactless, hygienic and non-invasive .• It is difficult to forge for intruders because blood vessels are hidden within the body.• This technology is non- intrusive; It does not involve any physical contact between the user and the system .• Vein patterns are unique to each individual; even identical twins have different vein patterns .• Palm vein technology has an FRR of 0.01% and FAR of less than 0.00008%.this is based on the experiments conducted on 70,000 individuals in Japan. It is Highly accurate
DISADVANTAGES:• There are numerous factors that can effect the quality of the captured image. They are body temperature, ambient temperature, humidity, unevenly distribution of heat, heat radiation, nearness of vein to surface, camera calibration and focus.• Palm vein recognition is invasive because it creates fear among the users that it can be a painful process• It is relatively expensive and not available for mass production yet.• It is not applicable to people who lost their palms.
APPLICATIONS: Palm vein authentication is utilized in various Fields such as• Security systems - Door lock and integrated building security systems• Log-in control – login into pc’s or servers, network data access, etc.• Healthcare - ID verification for medical equipment, electronic record management, etc.• Financial services - ATM,Banks, vault access, etc.
Practical Application ATM:• Palm vein pattern is captured by using the palm vein sensor on the ATM. The palm vein pattern is converted to palm vein features and transferred to the user’s smart card a• The matching between the palm vein features stored on the smart card and those transferred from the sensor is executed on the smart card.• The result is the output from the card. ATM MACHINES WITH PALM VEIN SENSOR UNIT 49
Login authentication:• Palm vein authentication can be integrated into laptop PCs by USB .• It is used to control access to electronically stored information.• Because login authentication using palm vein authentication can also be used for authentication using conventional IDs and passwords
Door security system:• The palm vein authentication access control unit can be used to control entry and exit into and out of rooms and buildings.• This unit consists of operation and control sections. The operation section has a key pad, indicators , contactless smart card reader and palm vein sensor• The control section has a processing unit for the authentication and stores palm vein features of enrollees• This unit executes verification when a user input his or her ID
Palm vein pattern authentication technologydeveloped by Fujitsu was being used in a widerange in japan . If this technology is introduced in our country wecan solve many problems such as passwordprotection in ATM security in various fields and if we implement thistechnology in government offices we can make theemployees to work according the governmenttimings surely this technology will bring a revolution in thefield of science and technology in the near future.