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Technological and pedagogical issues surrounding mass production of elearning

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  • 1. Technological and Pedagogical Issues Surrounding Mass Production of Multimedia Learning Content Presented by: Christopher Peat & Dilip Patel The Centre for Information Management and E-Business London South Bank University
  • 2. Introduction
    • Cultural, Pedagogical and Technical Challenges
    • Adhere to educational principles
    • Conform to technology standards
    • Case Study:
      • Delivers learning content to diverse group of learners
      • Low production costs
      • Affordable, accessible, durable and re-usable Learning Objects
  • 3. Standards Initiative
    • Many standards available
      • Advanced Distributed Learning
      • IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee
      • IMS Global Learning Consortium
    • Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) – 1998
      • Technical architecture for Learning Objects
      • Cross Platform
    • Mass produced Learning Objects should conform to standards
  • 4. Learning Object Challenges
    • Affordability
      • Production and User based
    • Accessibility
      • Web based accessibility
    • Durability
      • Forward compatibility
    • Re-usability
      • Metadata and compatible systems
    • Interoperability
      • LMS independent
  • 5. Embedding Learning Objects
    • Conform to metadata standards
    • Library catalogue approach
    • Centralized repository
    • Accessible via Moodle
      • Open Source
      • Course Management System
      • Pedagogical Principles
  • 6. Learning Styles
    • Process orientated teaching and Learning
    • Capture Interactions
    • Supports student learning
    • Teachers can reflect upon delivery
    • Identify:
      • Stakeholders
      • Learning Objects
      • Learning Scenarios
    Conversational Framework
  • 7. Stakeholders
    • Academics
    • Learning Technologists
    • Management
    • Activities
      • Exploit Existing Technology
      • Creating New Objects
      • Re-using Objects
      • Managing Repositories
    Learning Technologists Management Academics Interchanging roles Overlapping responsibilities
  • 8. Granularity
    • Self contained objects
    • Learning material
    • Delivers learning outcomes
    • Reusable objects
    • Natural breaks define granularity
    • Summary sections
  • 9. Research Approach
    • Case study focusing on action research:
      • Formal and informal decisions
      • Synchronous and Asynchronous collaborative tools
      • Face to face dialogue
      • Observations
      • Interviews
    • Developed using rapid prototyping
      • Verify user requirements
      • Verify feasibility
      • Subsequent changes incorporated continually
    • Ensures material meets pedagogical criteria
  • 10. Case Study
    • Project Background
    • Produced in association with UK based educational charity
    • Aims to advance knowledge of nutrition
    • The project is part of KTP, funded by the Technology Strategy Board along with the other government funding organisations.
  • 11. Educational Design
    • Pedagogical standard of classroom learning achieved
    • Key elements identified
    • Each element digitised
    • Met Criteria:
      • SCORM Compliant
      • Limited Budget
      • Retain pedagogical standard
      • Multi Browser / Platform
    Paper Based Resources Classroom Activities and Quizzes Presentation Material Classroom Based Lectures Learning Objects
  • 12. Capture Interactions
    • All written materials and diagrams included
    • Tools are consumer based electronics
    • Two video cameras
      • Narrow shot – captures increased facial interactions
      • Wide shot – Negates risk in narrow shot
    • Radio Microphone
      • Captures increased tonal expression
  • 13. Packaging Interactions
    • Material includes
      • Audio & Visual
      • Presentation Slides
      • PDF Documents
      • Tasks and Quizzes
    • Packaged using:
      • Open source and proprietary software
    • Integrates with existing courseware
    • Rapid Production
  • 14. Forward Compatibility
    • Mass productions tools are backward and forward compatible
    • Tools output easily editable
    • Identify key criteria for subsequent tools:
  • 15. Learning Object Delivery
    • 1 hour section broken into 3 parts
    • All original material included
      • Ensures original context is maintained
    • Summarised into 5 bite size chunks
  • 16. Production Risk Management
    • Capture Audio and Video
    • Editing into Learning Objects
    • Assess to be technically and pedagogically sound
    • Workflow diagrams
      • Assessed for value
    • Production process fully documented
  • 17. Pedagogic Risk Management
    • Substantial evaluation through stakeholders
    • Academics
      • Meets Learning Outcomes
    • Students
      • Engaging as additional resources
    • Feedback positive
    • Further formalised evaluation required
  • 18. Conclusion
    • Mass production of re-usable Learning Objects using existing tools is:
      • Sustainable
      • Cost-effective
    • Future Work:
      • Assess true value of learning content with stakeholders
      • Widen participation, specifically to less affluent neighbourhoods
    • Standards ensure adaptable Learning Objects are created
    • Metadata can personalise learning experience
  • 19. References
    • ADL. (2007) Advanced Distributed Learning. Accessed (2008) http://www.adlnet.org/
    • AICC. (2007) Aviation Industry CBT (Computer-based Training) Committee (AICC). Accessed (2007) http:// www.aicc.org /
    • Barikzai, S. (2006) Integrating Courseware into Collaborative Learning Environments. PHD Thesis, London South Bank University, UK
    • Brumfit, C. M., R (1989). Research in the Language Classroom . London.
    • IMS. (2002) IMS Global Learning Consortium. Accessed (2008) http:// www.imsproject.org
    • Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking university teaching , Routledge.
    • LTSC. (2002) Learning Technology Standards Committee - LTSC (formally IEEE Computer Society P1484). Accessed (2008) http:// ltsc.ieee.org /
    • MOODLE. (2008) MOODLE - An Open Source Learning Management System. Accessed (2008) http://www.moodle.com
    • Polsani, P. R. (2003). "Use and Abuse of Reusable Learning Objects." Journal of Digital information 3 (4).
    • Rehak, D. and R. Mason (2003). Reusing Online Resources: A Sustainable Approach to eLearning. Keeping the Learning in Learning Objects . A. Littlejohn. London, Kogan Page.
    • Wiley, D. A. (2002). Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. Learning Objects . D. A. Wiley, on-line.