Technological and Pedagogical Issues Surrounding Mass Production of  Multimedia Learning Content Presented by:   Christoph...
Introduction <ul><li>Cultural, Pedagogical and Technical Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to educational principles </l...
Standards Initiative <ul><li>Many standards available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Distributed Learning </li></ul></ul><...
Learning Object Challenges <ul><li>Affordability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production   and   User   based </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Embedding Learning Objects <ul><li>Conform to metadata standards </li></ul><ul><li>Library catalogue approach </li></ul><u...
Learning Styles <ul><li>Process orientated teaching and Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Capture Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>...
Stakeholders <ul><li>Academics </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Technologists </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Act...
Granularity <ul><li>Self contained objects </li></ul><ul><li>Learning material </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers learning outcome...
Research Approach <ul><li>Case study focusing on action research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal and informal decisions </li...
Case Study <ul><li>Project Background </li></ul><ul><li>Produced in association with UK based educational charity </li></u...
Educational Design <ul><li>Pedagogical standard of classroom learning achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Key elements identified <...
Capture Interactions <ul><li>All written materials and diagrams included </li></ul><ul><li>Tools are consumer based electr...
Packaging Interactions <ul><li>Material includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio & Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentat...
Forward Compatibility <ul><li>Mass productions tools are backward and forward compatible </li></ul><ul><li>Tools output ea...
Learning Object Delivery <ul><li>1 hour section broken into 3 parts </li></ul><ul><li>All original material included </li>...
Production Risk Management <ul><li>Capture Audio and Video </li></ul><ul><li>Editing into Learning Objects </li></ul><ul><...
Pedagogic Risk Management <ul><li>Substantial evaluation through stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Academics </li></ul><ul><u...
Conclusion <ul><li>Mass production of re-usable Learning Objects using existing tools is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainabl...
References <ul><li>ADL. (2007) Advanced Distributed Learning. Accessed (2008) http://www.adlnet.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>AIC...
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Technological and pedagogical issues surrounding mass production of elearning

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Technological and pedagogical issues surrounding mass production of elearning

  1. 1. Technological and Pedagogical Issues Surrounding Mass Production of Multimedia Learning Content Presented by: Christopher Peat & Dilip Patel The Centre for Information Management and E-Business London South Bank University
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Cultural, Pedagogical and Technical Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Adhere to educational principles </li></ul><ul><li>Conform to technology standards </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers learning content to diverse group of learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low production costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable, accessible, durable and re-usable Learning Objects </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Standards Initiative <ul><li>Many standards available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced Distributed Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMS Global Learning Consortium </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sharable Content Object Reference Model (SCORM) – 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical architecture for Learning Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross Platform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass produced Learning Objects should conform to standards </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Object Challenges <ul><li>Affordability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Production and User based </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accessibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Web based accessibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Durability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Re-usability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata and compatible systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LMS independent </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Embedding Learning Objects <ul><li>Conform to metadata standards </li></ul><ul><li>Library catalogue approach </li></ul><ul><li>Centralized repository </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible via Moodle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Course Management System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogical Principles </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Learning Styles <ul><li>Process orientated teaching and Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Capture Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Supports student learning </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers can reflect upon delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Identify: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Scenarios </li></ul></ul>Conversational Framework
  7. 7. Stakeholders <ul><li>Academics </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Technologists </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit Existing Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating New Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-using Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing Repositories </li></ul></ul>Learning Technologists Management Academics Interchanging roles Overlapping responsibilities
  8. 8. Granularity <ul><li>Self contained objects </li></ul><ul><li>Learning material </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers learning outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Reusable objects </li></ul><ul><li>Natural breaks define granularity </li></ul><ul><li>Summary sections </li></ul>
  9. 9. Research Approach <ul><li>Case study focusing on action research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal and informal decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous and Asynchronous collaborative tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face to face dialogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed using rapid prototyping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify user requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify feasibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsequent changes incorporated continually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensures material meets pedagogical criteria </li></ul>
  10. 10. Case Study <ul><li>Project Background </li></ul><ul><li>Produced in association with UK based educational charity </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to advance knowledge of nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>The project is part of KTP, funded by the Technology Strategy Board along with the other government funding organisations. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Educational Design <ul><li>Pedagogical standard of classroom learning achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Key elements identified </li></ul><ul><li>Each element digitised </li></ul><ul><li>Met Criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SCORM Compliant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited Budget </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain pedagogical standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi Browser / Platform </li></ul></ul>Paper Based Resources Classroom Activities and Quizzes Presentation Material Classroom Based Lectures Learning Objects
  12. 12. Capture Interactions <ul><li>All written materials and diagrams included </li></ul><ul><li>Tools are consumer based electronics </li></ul><ul><li>Two video cameras </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow shot – captures increased facial interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide shot – Negates risk in narrow shot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radio Microphone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Captures increased tonal expression </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Packaging Interactions <ul><li>Material includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio & Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation Slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PDF Documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasks and Quizzes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Packaged using: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source and proprietary software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Integrates with existing courseware </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Production </li></ul>
  14. 14. Forward Compatibility <ul><li>Mass productions tools are backward and forward compatible </li></ul><ul><li>Tools output easily editable </li></ul><ul><li>Identify key criteria for subsequent tools: </li></ul>
  15. 15. Learning Object Delivery <ul><li>1 hour section broken into 3 parts </li></ul><ul><li>All original material included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures original context is maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Summarised into 5 bite size chunks </li></ul>
  16. 16. Production Risk Management <ul><li>Capture Audio and Video </li></ul><ul><li>Editing into Learning Objects </li></ul><ul><li>Assess to be technically and pedagogically sound </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow diagrams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessed for value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production process fully documented </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pedagogic Risk Management <ul><li>Substantial evaluation through stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Academics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets Learning Outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging as additional resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feedback positive </li></ul><ul><li>Further formalised evaluation required </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>Mass production of re-usable Learning Objects using existing tools is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost-effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future Work: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess true value of learning content with stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widen participation, specifically to less affluent neighbourhoods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards ensure adaptable Learning Objects are created </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata can personalise learning experience </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>ADL. (2007) Advanced Distributed Learning. Accessed (2008) http://www.adlnet.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>AICC. (2007) Aviation Industry CBT (Computer-based Training) Committee (AICC). Accessed (2007) http:// www.aicc.org / </li></ul><ul><li>Barikzai, S. (2006) Integrating Courseware into Collaborative Learning Environments. PHD Thesis, London South Bank University, UK </li></ul><ul><li>Brumfit, C. M., R (1989). Research in the Language Classroom . London. </li></ul><ul><li>IMS. (2002) IMS Global Learning Consortium. Accessed (2008) http:// www.imsproject.org </li></ul><ul><li>Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking university teaching , Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>LTSC. (2002) Learning Technology Standards Committee - LTSC (formally IEEE Computer Society P1484). Accessed (2008) http:// ltsc.ieee.org / </li></ul><ul><li>MOODLE. (2008) MOODLE - An Open Source Learning Management System. Accessed (2008) http://www.moodle.com </li></ul><ul><li>Polsani, P. R. (2003). &quot;Use and Abuse of Reusable Learning Objects.&quot; Journal of Digital information 3 (4). </li></ul><ul><li>Rehak, D. and R. Mason (2003). Reusing Online Resources: A Sustainable Approach to eLearning. Keeping the Learning in Learning Objects . A. Littlejohn. London, Kogan Page. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiley, D. A. (2002). Connecting learning objects to instructional design theory: A definition, a metaphor, and a taxonomy. Learning Objects . D. A. Wiley, on-line. </li></ul>
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