PLC Training by Business Industrial Network 12/29/03 www.bin95.com Business Industrial Network www.BIN95.com See http://www.bin95.com/ebooks/index.htm#powerpoints to download full 3 day course of 235 slides in 3 PPT files and 27 page workbook. And download other related course powerpoints.
Hello, and welcome to the second of our PowerPoint presentations to help you to understand and master plant and equipment reliability and maintenance management. Most people think maintenance is involved with looking after machinery and infrastructure. But the truth is maintenance is about building more reliable and productive businesses. Maintenance is best managed from the perspective of how to use maintenance ti maximise the profits of a business. Seen from this light, maintenance becomes a profit centre, that makes its money by the amount of savings and additional revenue it brings to the business.
Maintenance can become a profit centre (instead of a cost centre) when its prime purpose is to either save money or make money. The best is to have it do both concurrently. Maintenance saves money by 1) preventing plant and equipment failures, 2) by reducing the need to do maintenance and 3) by optimising the resources (i.e. finding the lowest cost mix between in-house staff and contractors) needed to maintain the operation. It makes money by improving plant and equipment so that 1) it can make more product, 2) it can make better quality product or, 3) it makes lower cost product. When Maintenance (i.e. its people and resources) is used to get more performance from existing plant and equipment it becomes a profit-focused business. The key issue is to turn Maintenance into being profit-driven in its thinking and practices.
Maintenance has a greater purpose than simply looking after plant and machinery. If that was all that was necessary then maintainers would only ever fix equipment and do servicing. In today’s competitive world, maintenance has grown into the need to manage plant and equipment over the operating life of a business’ asset. It is seen as a subset of Asset Management, which is the management of physical assets over the whole life cycle to optimize operating profit. There are at least six key factors required of maintenance to achieve its purpose of helping to get optimal operating performance. These are to reduce operating risk, avoid plant failures, provide reliable equipment, achieve least operating costs, eliminate defects in operating plant and maximise production. In order to achieve these all people in engineering, operations and maintenance need great discipline, integration and cooperation. There needs to be an active partnership of equals between these three groups where the needs and concerns of each is listened to and
Maintenance can be refocused toward improving the ‘bottom line’ by developing a new model for the ‘business of maintenance’. To do this successfully the change must be soundly led, well-planned and properly resourced, then communicated to all and persevered with until it becomes the standard way that maintenance contributes to the organisation’s success.
Maintenance methodology today has progressed to the approach shown in the slide. We identify the way equipment can fail and the risk the failure has on the business. Then we put in place appropriate methods and techniques to either prevent failure, or minimize its consequences. This requires cooperation between people in order to make sure maximum quality production is made while also keeping machinery in top working order so that quality product can be safely and surely produced. The balance between production and production capability is an always moving requirement that is actively managed through the use of quality management systems and processes by the people in the organisation.
Maintenance for Controlling Infant Mortality Given that with today’s technology infant mortality is a possibility for up to 70% of parts, what do you do to reduce the chance it will happen to your equipment? The Figure shows the infant mortality zone and asks the important questions that need to be asked by every company that uses equipment. What are the causes of premature failure when equipment is new? Why should up to 70% of brand new parts fail soon after they start into service? The answers are very embarrassing! I can tell you what I have seen, and sadly done myself, over the last twenty years of my maintenance and engineering career that explain a great part of infant mortality. First is that equipment and plant designers do not know what they don’t know. You will find that equipment designed by a novice engineer will have many more failures than equipment designed by an experienced engineer. Yet even a very experienced engineer will not know the true process conditions in which the equipment will be used, and will not know how the process conditions affects the equipment’s lifetime performance. They will not really know how the plant operators will use the equipment. Here then is the first maintenance strategy to adopt – review every equipment selection and design around a table with a team of experienced operators, maintainers, engineers and process people before building or buying it. Go into the design details, ask why it’s designed that way, look for compatibility problems, spot what problems you can and get them fixed! Part of the answer to the question of how to reduce and lessen the impact of infant mortality can be found in the difference between the results of curve ‘F’ for the airline industry and the naval industry. It is standard navy practice to specify in their equipment supply contracts that equipment must be tested to full specification before it is accepted. That allows most of the early failure causes to be fixed before the navy gets the equipment. That then is the second maintenance strategy to adopt – only accept equipment when it has been tested to full specification and duty for a good period of time. When equipment is built you do not know the skills and abilities of the fabricators and assemblers. Like the new design engineer mentioned above, a person new to fabrication or assembly will make more errors that one well experienced in their trade. People work to different levels of accuracy. Unless their work system proactively controls and rectifies variance you will get inaccurate parts assembled together. A machine or plant built of parts that do not fit together properly will soon fail. So your third maintenance strategy is to have a quality system that proves your equipment is made accurately, installed accurately and is rebuilt accurately. You might want to go further and only buy from manufactures and use installers that crave accuracy and live ‘quality’. You can tell them apart from the rest because they can show you records of proof that their parts are made right and went together right. New equipment has not yet proven itself. How do you know that it will behave as it was designed to perform when you have never seen it operating? When up to 70% new equipment first starts-up, the failure curves tell us that they are at much higher risk of failure than once they have been operated for some time. Your fourth maintenance strategy to reduce equipment infant mortality is to have a planned and complete commissioning process where each equipment item is individually checked and proven ready to go into operation. The fifth strategy to offer you at the moment for minimising downtime at the infant mortality stage is to be sure you have access to critical spares and replacements. Infant mortality is why manufacturers are forced to have a warranty period. Be sure that they can give you the parts you need if their equipment fails soon after start-up.
Parts that have no ‘age’ or ‘usage’ period and can go indefinitely if the right conditions are sustained, are condition monitored for the ‘tell-tale’ evidence of failure degradation . From the rate of degradation a planned maintenance date is decided so production is least affected by the outage.
The chart highlights the presence of two problems. The chart is a visual management tool to make clear to people that normal conditions are breached. It turns numbers into pictures that people can recognise. For production rate you could instead represent injury rate or serious audit findings, or another suitable performance parameter. Once a problem is identified it needs to be addressed. The key point about ‘a Problem’ is that in most organisations when it is resolved the plant simply returns to the previously expected performance norm. Nothing is progressed to prevent the problem. Clearly we cannot ignore problems. A problem is caused by a ‘defect’ and unless corrected it will reoccur. We must investigate them to prevent a recurrence, especially for safety incidents. RCFA is a formal method often used to identify the cause of failures and come up with answers to fix it permanently. Another, simpler way for use on the shopfloor, is the ‘5 Whys’. This is a great tool for getting the ‘shopfloor people’ to solve problems and come-up with the solutions. Identifying and eliminating the problems that are responsible for creating the gap between the status quo and the potential output of the plant is how to turn problems into OPPORTUNITIES ! Raising the normal or expected performance of any organisation is always worth more than recovering from a short-term problem because it pays you back 24x7.
PLC Training by Business Industrial Network 12/29/03 www.bin95.com Business Industrial Network www.BIN95.com
Copyright 2009 Business Industrial Network www.BIN95.com Sample of … Reliability and Maintenance Management These are sample slides from complete 3 day course presentation available for download at http://www.bin95.com/ebooks/index.htm#powerpoints (235 slides) See www.BIN95.com to learn more about our PLC training.
Bill Masters Reliability and Maintenance Management Presented by Mike Sondalini Travel ‘the Journey’ to Reliability and Maintenance Management Mastery Part 2 – Maintenance Management: Profit Centred Maintenance
Hi Walt, can I get a few minutes today in your busy CEO schedule to talk to you? Hello Bill, in fact do you want to talk now? Yes, now is good. Last week I meet Professor Miles, a reliability expert at the university, and discussed what we need to do to improve our operating plant performance. He convinced me to refocus our strategies toward what he called ‘plant wellness and equipment health’. I’ve never heard of wellness and health applied to machinery. Is it the same as human well-being? Bill talks to Walter about the future… Pretty much. The professor convinced me that we need to make machinery well-being the maintenance department’s primary objective. And as a consequence production performance naturally improves because the equipment is available to run at full capacity. I can see the sense of that. Is that why you want to see me? I want to develop a proposal for a new way to run the maintenance department so it brings more profit to the operation. It’ll take a few weeks to detail, but I believe it will bring great benefits. You have me enthralled Bill. Your timing is perfect, there is a Board meeting in a month’s time at which I wanted to present the members with a plan to revitalise the operation. What you are doing is just what we need. Please get your plan to me the week before the Board meeting.
Make Maintenance Profit Focused Reduce Costs Make Profits
Improve the Maintenance Systems and Equipment to :
prevent equipment failures,
reduce the need to do maintenance, and
optimise the use of resources
Improve the Business Systems and Equipment to :
make more product,
make better quality product, and
make lower cost product
The 6 Purposes of Maintenance Maximum Production Equipment Reliability Failure Avoidance Defect Elimination Risk Reduction Least Operating Costs Maintainer The job of maintenance is to provide reliable plant at least operating cost – we don’t just fix equipment, we improve it!
The Benefits of Profit Centered Maintenance Organization and Control Reliability Fewer equipment failures; less spare parts. Maintainability Cheaper, more rapid repair and return to operation. Availability More time available for profitable production or service. Quality Cost savings from fewer rejects, defects, rework, scrap, complaints. HSE Fewer safety and environmental hassles. Profitability Smooth running at full production capacity; machinery improvements boost productivity.
Using Failure Patterns to Select Maintenance Practices – ‘Infant Mortality’ Time – Age of Equipment Strategies for the Infant Mortality Maintenance Zone Chance of Failing How to Drive the Height of the Curve Down? How to Pull the Position of the Curve Lower? How to Push the Length of the Curve Back?
Classical Risk Analysis Method Targets, Criteria Equipment Identification of Failure Causes Frequency Analysis Consequence Analysis Risk Determination Evaluate Business Case, Recommendations Work Order History
Selecting PdM Frequency (How often to monitor equipment condition?) When parts fail randomly you cannot predict which part will fail, or when it will fail. Unlike parts with ‘wear-out’ failure, which can be observed and replaced, the ‘random failure’ part can only be observed at defined intervals and monitored for evidence of developing, or impending, failure. … for random failure zone Smooth Running Time (Depending on the situation this can be from hours to months.) Operating Performance Failed Impending Failure Change in Performance is Detectable Do Maintenance & Condition Monitor Equipment Unusable Repair or Replace The Failure Degradation Sequence Airline 3 - 4% Naval 2 - 3% Airline 1 - 2% Naval 10 - 17% Airline 4 - 5% Naval 3 - 17% Airline 7 - 11% Naval 6 - 9% Airline 14 - 15% Naval 42 -56% Airline 66 - 68% Naval 6 - 29% The Six Failure Curves and the Percentage Of Equipment Types They Apply Too .
How RCFA Contributes To Improvement Production Rate Time Expected NORMAL Operation Potential Maximum Performance Most plants would regard this as a problem … … and miss this one! RCFA RCFA RCFA RCFA
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