Modernization of Industrial Machines ebook sample

  • 2,780 views
Uploaded on

This is a sample of Modernization of Industrial Machines (full version can be downloaded at http://bin95.com/modernization-of-industrial-machinery.htm ) …

This is a sample of Modernization of Industrial Machines (full version can be downloaded at http://bin95.com/modernization-of-industrial-machinery.htm )

The full 217 page full eBook "Modernization of Industrial Machines", addresses the problem of what to do with the vast number of old conventional machines existing in good working condition but not meeting the new technological requirements. It touches on a broad range of industry segments for a good understanding of renovating or modernizing industrial equipment.

People who who may need this knowledge in their career are industrial maintenance and engineering. Those from process and manufacturing to those in the small CNC shops.

More in: Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
2,780
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Samples from ... ‘†‡”‹œƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
  • 2. †—•–”‹ƒŽ ƒ…Š‹‡• By Prof. Bhagwati Prasad Gupta This sample includes the detailed table of contents, the preface, some sample pages from eBook and the author bio. To download the entire eBook, please visit http://bin95.com/modernization-of-industrial-machinery.htm 1 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 3. ƒ„Ž‡ ‘ˆ ‘–‡–•      ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ʹ ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ ͳͲ   ͳ   
  • 4.  
  • 5.   
  • 6.  Ǥ ϭ͘ϭ   
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9.   ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ /EdZKhd/KE dK /Eh^dZ/ > D ,/E^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘Ϯ /Eh^dZ/ > D ,/E^ E DKd/KE^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘Ϯ͘ϭ D ,/E E D, E/^D^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘ϯ & />hZ K& D ,/E^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘ϯ͘ϭ t Z/E' WZK^^ K& D ,/E^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘ϰ h^&h> tKZ</E' >/& K& D ,/E ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘ϱ /Ed/&/ d/KE K& D ,/E^ &KZ ZEKs d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘ϱ͘ϭ d,E/ > , s/KhZ K& d, D ,/E ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘ϱ͘Ϯ Z/d/ > KE^/Z d/KE^ &KZ ZEKs d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘ϱ͘ϯ KEKD/ > KE^/Z d/KE^ &KZ ZEKs d/KE E DKZE/ d/KEͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭ͘ϱ͘ϰ D /Ed /E />/dz & dKZ^ Z> d dK ^/'E K& Yh/WDEd ͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ʹ  
  • 10.  Ǥ 
  • 11.  
  • 12.     
  • 13. 
  • 14.  ̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ   Ϯ͘ϭ K:d/s^ &KZ ZEKs d/KE K& D ,/E^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘Ϯ WhZWK^ K& DKZE//E' D ,/E^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϯ WZ/E/W > dZE^ /E DKZE//E' D ,/E^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϯ͘ϭ Zh/E' D Eh& dhZ/E' KWZ d/KE d/D ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϯ͘Ϯ /DWZKs/E' d, sZ^ d/>/dzͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϯ͘ϯ hdKD d/E' d, D ,/E/E' WZK^^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϯ͘ϰ /EZ ^/E' ^Zs/ >/& K& D ,/E ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϯ͘ϱ /EZ ^/E' d, KWZ d/E' ^W ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϯ͘ϲ ZdZK&/dd/E' t/d, > d^d ^z^dD^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϰ 'EZ > 'h/>/E^ &KZ DKZE/^ d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϰ͘ϭ Dd,K^ &KZ /EZ ^/E' ^W E WKtZ K& D ,/Eͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϰ͘Ϯ 'h/ >/E^ &KZ /DWZKs/E' Z/'//dz ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ 2 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 15. Ϯ͘ϰ͘ϯ /E' Et & dhZ^ &KZ /DWZKs/E' WZ&KZD E , Z dZ/^d/^ ͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϰ͘ϰ 'h/>/E^ &KZ >dZ d/KE^ ͬ /d/KE^ &KZ /EZ ^/E' ^Zs/ >/& K& D ,/E^ ͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϰ͘ϱ DK/&/ d/KE^ E ZdZK&/dd/E' &KZ Zh/E' hy/>/ Zz d/D ͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϰ͘ϲ /EZ ^/E' hdKD d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϱ ^dW^ K& DKZE/^ d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ Ϯ͘ϱ͘ϭ DK/&/ d/KE^ E ZdZK&/dd/E' &KZ Zh/E' hy/>/ Zz d/D ͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͵
  • 16.  Ǥ ϯ͘ϭ
  • 17. 
  • 18.    
  • 19.   
  • 20.  ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ    ^>d/KE K& ^W ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϯ͘Ϯ dZD/E d/KE K& WKtZ ZYh/ZDEd K& D /E Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϯ͘Ϯ͘ϭ hdd/E' &KZ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϯ͘ϯ  >h> d/KE^ &KZ & Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϯ͘ϯ͘ϭ & &KZ  >h> d/KE^ &KZ /&&ZEd D ,/E dKK>^ ͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϯ͘ϯ͘Ϯ  >h> d/E' dKZYh ZYh/ZDEdͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϯ͘ϰ WKtZ Z d/E' K& >dZ/ DKdKZ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   Ͷ
  • 21.  Ǥ   
  • 22.  
  • 23.    
  • 24.  ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ    ϰ͘ϭ DKZE/ d/KE t/d, d, Z/s K& WZK'Z DD > /EWEEd DKdKZ^ &KZ ^W^ E &^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘Ϯ ZYh/ZDEd^ &KZ ^W/E> Z/s^ E & Z/s^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘Ϯ͘ϭ ^^Ed/ > W Z DdZ^ &KZ dKZYh ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϯ KE^d Ed ^W >dZ/ DKdKZ Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϯ͘ϭ ^dWW Z/s^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϯ͘Ϯ KE^d Ed ^W ͘͘ DKdKZ^ t/d, ^dW >^^ Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϰ s Z/ > ^W DKdKZ Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϰ͘ϭ ͘͘DKdKZ E Z/s^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϰ͘Ϯ ^dWZ DKdKZ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϰ͘ϯ  Z/s^ Ͳ WZ/E/W>^ K& KWZ d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϱ DKdKZ ^>d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϲ ^ZsK KEdZK> ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϲ͘ϭ ^ZsK DKdKZ KEdZK> ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϰ͘ϲ͘Ϯ ^ZsK DKdKZͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ 3 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 25.   ͷ   
  • 26.     
  • 27.   
  • 28. 
  • 29.    
  • 30.  Ǥ 
  • 31.  ̴ Ǩ ϱ͘ϭ E &KZ ^W ZhZ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘Ϯ ' Z Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϯ dzW^ K& ^dWW ^W ' Z Ky^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϯ͘ϭ 'EZ > > zKhd^ K& ^W ' ZKy ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϯ͘Ϯ DK K& ^W , E' /E ' ZKy^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϰ WZ/E/W> K& W> Ed Zz ' Z Ky ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϰ͘ϭ ^/DW> W> Ed Zz ^z^dDͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϰ͘Ϯ KDWKhE W> Ed Zz ' Z dZ /Eͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϱ s Z/ > ^W ' Z DKdKZ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϱ͘ϭ dtK ^d ' ' Z Ky t/d, W> Ed Zz ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϲ ^dW>^^ s Z/ > ^W Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϲ͘ϭ W/s ' Z Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϲ͘Ϯ ^dW >^^  >> /^ Z/sͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϲ͘ϯ ,zZ h>/ Z/s^ &KZ ^dW >^^ Z'h> d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϳ ^/E'> ^d ' KE^d Ed ^W ZhZͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϳ͘ϭ z>K Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϳ͘Ϯ  <> ^,Ͳ&Z ' Z/E' ZZ E'DEdͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϴ >d Z/sͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϴ͘ϭ &> d >d ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϴ͘Ϯ sͲ>d dZ E^D/^^/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϱ͘ϴ͘ϯ d/D/E' >d Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͸  
  • 32.  Ǥ ϲ͘ϭ 
  • 33. 
  • 34.  
  • 35.   
  • 36.   
  • 37.  ̴̴ Ǩ   dzW/ > >/E Z DKd/KE ^z^dD^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘Ϯ Z < W/E/KE Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘Ϯ͘ϭ dZD/E/E' d, dKZYh /E Z <ͲW/E/KE Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘Ϯ͘Ϯ /E^d >>/E' WZ/^/KE Z <ͲW/E/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘Ϯ͘ϯ  <> ^,Ͳ&Z ' Z/E' ZZ E'DEdͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘ϯ tKZD E Z < Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘ϰ DK/&/ d/KE K& >  ^Zt E Ehd Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘ϰ͘ϭ >  ^Zt  Z/E'^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘ϰ͘Ϯ  < > ^, :h^dDEd K& > ^Zt ͲEhd Z/s ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘ϰ͘ϯ Z^dKZ d/KE K& > ^Zt E Ehd ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϲ͘ϱ WW>/ d/KE K&  >>Ͳ^ZtͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ 4 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 38. ϲ͘ϱ͘ϭ ϲ͘ϱ͘Ϯ ϲ͘ϱ͘ϯ ϲ͘ϱ͘ϰ ϲ͘ϱ͘ϱ ϲ͘ϱ͘ϲ ϲ͘ϲ ^>d/KE K&  >> ^Zt Ehd ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ >K   ZZz/E'  W /dz K&  >> ^Zt ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ^hWWKZd/E' ZZ E'DEd^ K&  >> ^Zt ^^D>z ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ hZ z K&  >> ^Zt ^^D>z ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ WZ>K /E' K&  >> ^Zt^Ͳ Ehdͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ /E^d >> d/KE K&  >> ^Zt ^^D>z ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ,zZK^d d/ dZ E^D/^^/KE K& >  ^Zt E Ehd ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͹      
  • 39.  Ǥ 
  • 40.    
  • 41. 
  • 42.  
  • 43. 
  • 44.  Ǩ ϳ͘ϭ dKKd, >hd,^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϳ͘ϭ͘ϭ dKKd, : t >hd,ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϳ͘Ϯ KDWZ^^/KE KhW>/E'^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϳ͘ϯ WZ/^/KE &>y/> KhW>/E'ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϳ͘ϯ͘ϭ ' Z KhW>/E'^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϳ͘ϯ͘Ϯ Dd > >>Kt KhW>/E'^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͺ
  • 45.   
  • 46.  
  • 47.     
  • 48.  Ǥ     
  • 49.   ̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ ϴ͘ϭ & dKZ^ &&d/E' ^/'E K& ^W/E> ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϭ͘ϭ Z/s/E' >DEd^ K& ^W/E> ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘Ϯ ^d E Z ^W/E> DKh> ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϯ Z^dKZ d/KE K& ^W/E>ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϰ ^>d/KE K& ^W/E>  Z/E'^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϰ͘ϭ ^>//E' &Z/d/KE  Z/E' ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϰ͘Ϯ ,zZK^d d/  Z/E'^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϰ͘ϯ /Z  Z/E'^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϰ͘ϰ  >> E ZK>>Z  Z/E'^ /E ^W/E> ^hWWKZd ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϱ ^>d/KE K&  Z/E'^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϲ  Z/E' ^h^d/dhd/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϲ͘ϭ ^>d/KE Z/dZ/ &KZ ^h^d/dhd/KE t/d, Kd,Z dzW^ K&  Z/E'^ ͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϳ WZ>K /E' K& ^W/E>  Z/E'^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϴ͘ϴ ^ > hE/d^ &KZ ^W/E>  Z/E'^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͻ  
  • 50.  
  • 51.     
  • 52.  Ǥ 
  • 53.  
  • 54.   
  • 55.  ̴̴̴ Ǩ 5 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 56. ϵ͘ϭ D ,/E ,Kh^/E' ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭ͘ϭ ^d d/KE Zz ,Kh^/E' ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘Ϯ ^>/ t z^ K& D ,/E dKK>^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘Ϯ͘ϭ dzW^ K& ^>/t z^ &KZ Zd/>/E Z DKd/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϯ Z^dKZ/E' 'h/t z^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϯ͘ϭ ^>d/KE K& Z&ZE ^hZ&  &KZ Z^dKZ/E' KD/E d/KE K& 'h/t z^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϰ Dd,K^ K& Z^dKZ d/KE K& 'h/^͘ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϱ &Z/d/KE , Z dZ/^d/^ K& ^>/t z^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϲ &&d K& D dZ/ > KD/E d/KE K& ^>/t z W /ZͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϳ 'h/t z^ t/d, W </E' W ^ Θ 'h/t z^ >/E/E'^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϴ DKZE/ d/KE K& ^>//E' &Z/d/KE 'h/t z^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϴ͘ϭ EKE Dd >>/ ^>/t z >/E/E'^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϴ͘Ϯ KDWE^ dKZ^ &KZ :h^d/E' > Z Eͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϴ͘ϯ Z^dZK/E' > DW/E' >K< E t'ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϵ 'ZKKs^ &KZ 'h/ >hZ/ d/KEͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭϬ 'h/t z^ WZKdd/KEͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭϬ͘ϭ KsZ/E' s/^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭϬ͘Ϯ Dd >>/ ^dZ/W KsZ/E' ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭϬ͘ϯ t/WZ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭϭ Zh/E' >K  KE 'h/^ z ^WZ/E' >K  ZK>>Z ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭϮ DKZE/ d/KE t/d, Ed/&Z/d/KE ZK>>/E' 'h/ t z^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭϮ͘ϭ E> ZK>>Z E &> d  ' ^^D>/^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϵ͘ϭϮ͘Ϯ >D 'h/^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͳͲ
  • 57.  Ǥ
  • 58. 
  • 59.   
  • 60. 
  • 61.   ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ    ϭϬ͘ϭ >hZ/ d/KE K& D ,/E dKK>^ E Yh/WDEd ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘ϭ͘ϭ >hZ/ d/KE K&  Z/E'^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘ϭ͘Ϯ ' Z >hZ/ d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘ϭ͘ϯ >hZ/ d/KE K& ^>/t z^ E > ^Zt Ehd ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘ϭ͘ϰ K/> &KZ ,zZ h>/ ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘Ϯ dzW^ K& >hZ/ d/KE ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘Ϯ͘ϭ D Eh > >hZ/ d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘Ϯ͘Ϯ ^W> ^, >hZ/ d/KEͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘Ϯ͘ϯ >hZ/ d/KE t/d, ^D >> WhDW^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘Ϯ͘ϰ WZ^^hZ /Zh> d/E' ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘Ϯ͘ϱ EdZ >/^ >hZ/ d/KE ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ 6 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 62. ϭϬ͘ϯ hdKD d/ EdZ >>/ >hZ/ d/KE ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘ϯ͘ϭ >hZ/ d/E' WhDW^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘ϯ͘Ϯ >hZ/ d/E' K/> /^dZ/hdKZ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϬ͘ϰ KWZ d/E' &hEd/KE^ K& hdKD d/ EZ >/ >hZ/ d/KE ^z^dD ͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͳͳ ϭϭ͘ϭ  
  • 63.  
  • 64.  
  • 65.    
  • 66. Ǩ   
  • 67.  Ǥ    
  • 68.   WWW>/ d/KE K& ,zZ h>/ /Zh/d^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘Ϯ ^z^dD^ E /Zh/d^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘Ϯ͘ϭ KDWKEEd ^>d/KE Z/dZ/ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘ϯ KE^dZhd/KE > & dhZ K& WKtZW < ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘ϰ DKh> ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘ϱ >dZK ,zZ h>/ ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘ϱ͘ϭ >dZK,zZ h>/ WZKWKZd/KE > s >s^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘ϱ͘Ϯ >dZK ,zZ h>/ ^ZsK s >s^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘ϲ WW>/ d/KE K& WEhD d/ ^z^dD^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘ϲ͘ϭ WZ^^hZ Z'h> d/E' KDWKEEd K& /Z ^hWW>z ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϭ͘ϲ͘Ϯ  ^/ WZ/E/W>^ K& WEhD d/ /Zh/d ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͳʹ  
  • 69. 
  • 70.  
  • 71. 
  • 72. 
  • 73.         ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ   
  • 74.  Ǥ ϭϮ͘ϭ /E' Et & dhZ^ &KZ /DWZKs/E' WZ&KZD E , Z dZ/^d/^ ͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϭ͘ϭ /DWZKs/E' sZ^ d/>/dz z /E' Et KWZ d/KE > & dhZ ͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘Ϯ ZdZK&/dd/E' t/d, dd ,DEd^ &KZ d, /d/KE > y^ ͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘Ϯ͘ϭ & /E' ,  &KZ ΗhΗ y/^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘Ϯ͘Ϯ ZdZK&/dd/E' t/d, d/>d/E' ZKd Zz d > &KZ ΗΗ E ΗΗ y^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘Ϯ͘ϯ WZKs//E' hE/sZ^ > D/>>/E' ,  &KZ /d/KE > y^ ͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϯ Zh/E' hy/>/ Zz d/D z ZdZK&/dd/E' t/d, /d/KE > dd ,DEd^ ͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϯ͘ϭ /E^d >>/E' ^>&ͲEdZ/E' ^d z Z^dͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϯ͘Ϯ /E^d >>/E' Dh>d/ dKK> dhZZd ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϯ͘ϯ WZKs/^/KE &KZ Dh>d/ WK^/d/KE :K ^dd/E'ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϯ͘ϰ ,/W D E 'DEd ^z^dD^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϰ WZKs//E' hdK dKK> , E'Z ; dͿ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϰ͘ϭ dKK> ^>d/KEͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ 7 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 75. ϭϮ͘ϰ͘Ϯ ϭϮ͘ϰ͘ϯ DKsDEd^ /EsK>s t/d, d ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ /&&ZE dzW^ K& d ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϱ ZdZK&/dd/E' t/d, WZKdd/s KsZ^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϱ͘ϭ d>^KW/ KsZͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϱ͘Ϯ >>Kt KsZ^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϱ͘ϯ Kd,Z WZKdd/s KsZ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϲ ,zZ h>/ KWz/E' dd ,DEd ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϲ͘ϭ ^/E'> Ͳ /DE^/KE > KWz/E' s/^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϳ /E^d ϭϮ͘ϳ͘ϭ ϭϮ͘ϳ͘Ϯ ϭϮ͘ϳ͘ϯ >>/E' ^z^dD &KZ hZ d /Ey/E' E D ^hZDEd^ ͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ^>^zE s/^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ KWd/ > /s//E' , ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ >/E Z &Z/E' 'EZ dKZ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϴ EKZ^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϴ͘ϭ ZKd Zz KWd/ > EKZ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϵ >/E Z ^ > EKZ KZ ZKͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϭϬ WK^/d/KE D ^hZDEd t/d, >/E Z ^ > E ZKd Zz EKZƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϭϭ /EKZWKZ d/E' / 'EK^d/ ^z^dD /E d, D ,/E ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϭϭ͘ϭ >hZ/ d/KE DKE/dKZ/E' ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϭϭ͘Ϯ DKE/dKZ/E' ^ &dz s/^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϮ͘ϭϭ͘ϯ WZK/E' ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͳ͵
  • 76.  Ǥ ϭϯ͘ϭ  
  • 77.  
  • 78.      ̴ Ǩ    D ,/E KEdZK> ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘Ϯ D, E/ > KEdZK> &KZ , E'/E' ^W^ Θ &^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘Ϯ͘ϭ ZYh/ZDEd^ K& hdKD d/ ^W , E'/E' D, E/^D ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϯ KEdZK> K& d, DKsDEd K& dZ sZ^/E' >DEd^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϯ͘ϭ D, E/^D^ &KZ /DWZKs/E' D ,/E KEdZK> ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϯ͘Ϯ hdKD d/ ^t/d,/E' KsZ D, E/^D^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϰ DKZE/ d/KE K& >dZ/ > KEdZK> ^z^dD^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϰ͘ϭ >K'/ KEdZK> ^z^dD^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϰ͘Ϯ >K'/ > ^t/d,/E' KEdZK>^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϰ͘ϯ WZK'Z DD > >K'/ KEdZK>^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϱ W/ KEdZK>>Z ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϲ EhDZ/ > KEdZK> ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϲ͘ϭ , Z t/Z KZ KEsEd/KE > Eͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϯ͘ϲ͘Ϯ KDWhdZ/ EhDZ/ > KEdZK> ;EͿͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ 8 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 79.   ͳͶ  Ǧ  
  • 80. 
  • 81.  ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ   
  • 82.  Ǥ ϭϰ͘ϭ /Eh^dZ/ > D ,/E^ E E ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϭ͘ϭ ZdZK&/d K& EtZ D ,/E t/d, ,/',Z sZ^/KE K& E ^z^dD ͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϭ͘Ϯ ZdZK&/d K& K> D ,/E t/d, ^h/d > Eͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘Ϯ /DWZKs/E' d, D ,/E dK D d, &KZ E ZdZK&/dd/E'ͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘Ϯ͘ϭ KWZ d/KE > ^dW^ &KZ E ZdZK&/dd/E'ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϯ Z/s^ &KZ E ZdZK&/dd/E'ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϰ E ^z^dD ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϰ͘ϭ EdZ > WZK^^/E' hE/d ;WhͿ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϰ͘Ϯ ^W KEdZK> hE/d E ^ZsKͲKEdZK> hE/d ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϰ͘ϯ ^ZsKͲZ/s^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϰ͘ϰ KWZ dKZ KEdZK> W E> ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϰ͘ϱ D ,/E KEdZK> W E> ;DWͿ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϰ͘ϰ͘ϲ d, E KEdZK> ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘   ͳͷ  
  • 83. 
  • 84.      
  • 85.  Ǥ 
  • 86.    
  • 87. ̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ Ǩ ϭϱ͘ϭ hdKD d/ KEdZK> D, E/^DͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϭ͘ϭ KDD E ^/'E > t/d, KZZ^WKE/E' dZ E^hZ ͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϭ͘Ϯ DW>/&/Z^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϭ͘ϯ KWZ d/sͲDDZ^ KZ dh dKZ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘Ϯ dZ s> dZ E^hZ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘Ϯ͘ϭ D, E/ > dZ E^hZ^ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘Ϯ͘Ϯ >dZKD, E/ > dZ E^hZ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘Ϯ͘ϯ >dZKE/ ^E^KZ^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϯ > ^^/&/ d/KE K& hdKD d/KE ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϰ /Eh^dZ/ > ZKKd/^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϰ͘ϭ ZKKd , Zt Z ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϰ͘Ϯ ZKKd^ /Ed>>/'Eͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϱ &>y/> D Eh& dhZ/E' ^z^dD ;&D^Ϳ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϱ͘ϭ KWZ d/KE WZ/E/W> K& d, &D^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ϭϱ͘ϱ͘Ϯ &D^ KDWKEEd^ ͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺͺ ƌƌŽƌ͊ ŽŽŬŵĂƌŬ ŶŽƚ ĚĞĨŝŶĞĚ͘ ABOUT THE AUTHOR:̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴̴ ͳ͵ 9 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 88. PREFACE In a competitive environment, the growth of a business depends upon well-developed industries. The industry operations must be efficient requiring the use of well-maintained and state-of-the-art machines and equipment. On an average, for an engineering industry, 15 years can be safely considered as the useful working life for a medium and heavy machine. Moreover, during this period, technology of the product and process are very likely to also change. Replacement of old plants and machinery is an expensive proposition. The life of a machine can be extended to a great extent by reconditioning before it is discarded as useless scrap. But the problem is what to do with the vast number of old conventional machines existing in good working condition but not meeting the new technological requirements. Retrofitting and modernization is the only solution. This is what I have experienced while working in maintenance of plants and machines rebuilding field in engineering industries for more than 35 years. In this book, effort has been made to compile, in brief, the experience and the relevant information in the machine modernization area gathered during this period. The modernization of a machine means an introduction of changes into the design of machines which improve their performance and capacity and prolong their service life. But before initiating the modernization effort, one needs to study the operating cycle of the machine in order to be aware of the technical behavior of the machines. Modernization of equipment is one of the principal trends in comprehensive mechanization and automation of production processes. It permits conversion of obsolete machines into semiautomatic and completely automatic machines with low expenditure in terms of labor, time and money. The first and second chapters of this book have been written to cover these topics explaining the modernization trends and guidelines. The first two chapters form the basis for the subsequent chapters. Operational regime varies depending on the material of the job, tooling and technology followed. Chapter 3 discusses different parameters including cutting speed, feed, cutting 10 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 89. forces involved and power required for improving the operational regime and the drives required for ensuring the same from the machine have been explained in chapter 4. Selection of drives is the most important consideration for any modernization. An overview of different options have been given for motors and drives, including servo-drives, and their selection criteria for various technological needs. A drive can serve its purpose only when the desired motion, providing appropriate torque and speed, is available. This may mean a change of speed with a corresponding change in torque, a change in output direction or position, or more commonly, a combination of the above. So, there is a need for proper selection of rotary motion transmission devices. But, for feed mechanism usually a linear motion is required. Since devices used in old conventional machines are not very efficient, modernizing linear motion mechanism is therefore essential. In order to couple the transmission devices with the drive, suitable clutches and couplings are required. Details for such transmission devices and selection of clutches and couplings for precision applications are given in Chapters 5, 6 and 7, respectively. By improving the drives and transmission devices, speeds and feeds can be increased and appropriately regulated. But without smooth rotary motion of the spindle and linear motion of slides on guide-ways, desired results cannot be achieved. Improvements in spindle assembly have been described in chapter 8. This chapter describes not only the methods for the restoration of old spindle, but also the standard (readily available) spindle and different types of bearings including substitution by other types of bearings. Modernization of housing guides and slide-ways have been explained in chapter 9. This chapter explains not only about the restoration of different types of conventional guide-ways but also different types of lowfriction slide-ways for retrofitting during modernization of the machines. Chapter 10,'Improving lubrication system', gives the complete details of lubrication arrangements both for rotary as well as sliding motion units. In order to equip the machines with the latest features available in the modern machines, it is necessary to be aware of the systems, devices and facilities that can be applied during the modernization. Chapter 11, 'Modernization with hydraulic and pneumatic system', includes the details of different types of hydraulic and pneumatic circuits and the components involved in them. It also provides a brief explanation of electro-hydraulic system like proportional valve and servo-valves which enable machines to perform complicated operations. A machine can be made versatile if it can be equipped with features that enable it to perform the subsequent operations also in the same setting without the need of taking the work-piece on the other type of machine. An example is key-way cutting on the shaft after turning on lathe machine in the same settings. Similarly, performance can be improved if time for the auxiliary operations can be reduced by providing self-cantering arrangements, multi-tool turrets, multi-position job setting as in pallet changer, provision of auto tool changer, on job digital measuring devices like DRO, etc. This is the topic of chapter 12, 'Retrofitting with additional features and attachments'. Performance of a machine can be further improved by incorporating copying attachments. Other arrangements including protective coverings and fitting of chip conveyors have also been discussed in this chapter. Operations on a machine can be performed only through its control system. This means the performance of a machine can be improved to the best possible level by modernization of the control system. Controls can be manual or automatic depending upon the frequency of changing operations required. Chapter 13 discusses almost all types of popular controls 11 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 90. applied in the industrial equipment including PLC, NC and CNC. Chapter14 exclusively focusses on CNC retrofitting and the steps followed by the author on the shop floor while modernizing the old conventional machines. Automation in manufacturing operations is the ultimate objective of modernization. All operations need to be performed and controlled through an automatic control mechanism. Programmable automation is achieved by incorporating CNC system, Robotics, and PLC. Effort has been made in this direction in chapter 15 concluding with flexible manufacturing system (FMS). By installing FMS in a manufacturing industry, automation can be increased to such an extent that the dependence on operators can be reduced and so, reliability of the operations can be improved to a great extent. This book has been written keeping in mind the requirements of engineers, managers and investors with technical background and working in an engineering industry. Technical students seeking employment in an engineering industry will also find this book useful. After going through the text, a lot of ideas will be generated to modernize machines and save capital by reducing fresh investment in new expensive equipment. I welcome feedback and suggestions from the readers. Bhagwati Prasad Gupta January 2014 12 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 91. VXFK DV GHVLJQ GHJUHH RI PHFKDQL]DWLRQ DQG DXWRPDWLRQ WKH FXWWLQJ WRROV XVHG WKH PRGH RI FXWWLQJ WKH QXPEHU RI SULQFLSDO RSHUDWLQJ PHPEHUV HWF ͳǤ͵
  • 92.   
  •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ͳǤ͵Ǥͳ  
  • 94.     
  • 95.   ,Q WKH ILUVW VWDJH WKH SURFHVV RI ZHDU LV FKDUDFWHUL]HG E WKH LQLWLDO ZRUN RI MRLQW DQG PD EH WHUPHG DV UXQQLQJLQ SHULRG IRU WKH PDWLQJ PHPEHUV ,Q WKLV VWDJH WKH DPRXQW DQG UDWH RI ZHDU GHSHQG RQ WKH VXUIDFH FRQGLWLRQ RI WKH PDWLQJ SDUWV 7KH EHWWHU LV WKH VXUIDFH ILQLVK RI WKH UXEELQJ SRUWLRQ RI WKH SDUWV PDFKLQHG DQG ILWWHG WR WKH MRLQW VHUYLFH FRQGLWLRQV WKH OHVV WKHLU LQLWLDO ZHDU ZLOO EH 7KH MRLQWV SHUIRUPV QRUPDOO LQ WKH VHFRQG VWDJH 7KH DPRXQW RI ZHDU GHSHQG RQ WKH GXUDWLRQ RI WKH MRLQW RSHUDWLRQ 1H[W FRPHV WKH WKLUG VWDJH ZKHQ WKH UDWH RI ZHDU LV KLJK DQG WKH LQFUHDVH RI FOHDUDQFHV LQ MRLQWV DUH VHYHUH 7KH MRLQWV DW WKLV VWDJH VWDUWV RSHUDWLQJ ZLWK XQDFFHSWDEOH QRLVH DQG UDWWOH $V ZHDU LV EXLOGLQJ XS WKH QRUPDO RSHUDWLRQ RI WKH PHFKDQLVP LV XSVHW DQG HYHQWXDOO LW IDLOV $W WKLV VWDJH LW LV QHFHVVDU WR FRPSHQVDWH IRU WKH ZHDU WR UHVWRUH WKH MRLQWV WR WKHLU QRUPDO FRQGLWLRQ DQG WKH PHFKDQLVP WR LWV RULJLQDO FDSDELOLW RI SHUIRUPLQJ WKH MRE LW KDV EHHQ GHVLJQHG IRU ,I WKH PDFKLQH KDV EHHQ DOORZHG WR EH RSHUDWHG IRU D FRQVLGHUDEOH SHULRG LQ WKH WKLUG VWDJH ZLWK D KLJK UDWH RI ZHDU UHSDLUV LQYROYH UHFRQGLWLRQLQJQ RU UHQRYDWLRQ UHTXLULQJ . FRQVLGHUDEOH PDWHULDO DQG ODERXU LQSXW Book e nes hi 
  • 96.  ͳǤͶ   
  • 97.  
  • 98. ac M ial ,Q RUGHU WR LGHQWLI WKH PDFKLQH IRU UHFRQGLWLRQLQJ LW LV HVVHQWLDO WR VRUW OLVW EDVHG RQ XVH IXOO str u ZRUNLQJ OLIH 1RUPDOOd DIWHU HDUV RI XVHIXO OLIH UHSODFHPHQW RI D PDFKLQH PD EH f In o on FRQVLGHUHG QHFHVVDU 'HSHQGLQJ XSRQ WKH VHYHULW RI ZRUNLQJ FRQGLWLRQ DQG LQ EXLOW GHVLJQ ati niz RI WKH HTXLSPHQW WKH SHULRG PD EH OHVV RU PRUH 7R D JUHDW H[WHQW IROORZLQJ IRUPXODV FDQ der Mo EH DSSOLHG IRU LGHQWLILQJ PDFKLQHV WR EH FRQVLGHUHG IRU UHSODFHPHQW om r ef pag  le mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 99. ,PSURYLQJ SHUIRUPDQFH FKDUDFWHULVWLFV E DGGLQJ RSHUDWLRQDO IHDWXUHV (QKDQFLQJ VHUYLFH OLIH RI PDFKLQH 5HGXFLQJ DX[LOLDU WLPH ,QFUHDVLQJ DXWRPDWLRQ ʹǤͶǤͳ     
  • 100.   
  • 101.       
  •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ok Bo e ʹǤͶǤͳǤͳ ‹‹–ƒ–‹‘• ‹
  • 103. …”‡ƒ•‹‰s’‡‡† † ‘™‡” e hin ac $OORZDEOH ,QFUHDVH ,Q 3RZHU 33 :LWK 7KH ,QFUHDVH ,Q 6SHHG al M i str du f In no io zat rni de Mo L
  • 104. rom VKDIW XQKDUGHQHG JHDUV VORZ VSHHG ZRUP GULYH EHOW GULYH HWF )RU ef g a le p  mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 105. ͷǤͷǤͳǤͳ –ƒ†ƒ”† ™‘ ’‡‡† ’Žƒ‡–ƒ”› ‡ƒ”„‘š ˆ‘” ƒ ••‡„Ž›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ͷǤ͸     
  • 106.   
  • 107.  7KH XVH RI LQILQLWHO YDULDEOH VSHHG XQLW KDV SURYHG LWV ZRUWK LQ FRXQWOHVV LQGXVWULDO DSSOLFDWLRQV )RU EHVW SHUIRUPDQFH RI PDFKLQH WRROV UHTXLULQJ VWHSOHVV VSHHG FKDQJLQJ ZLWK SUHFLVH FRQWURO IROORZLQJ WSHV RI XQLWV VWDQG XQPDWFKHG ͷǤ͸Ǥͳ 
  • 108.   
  • 109.  ,W LV SRVLWLYH LQILQLWHO YDULDEOH GULYH ZKLFK LV FRXSOHG ZLWK D FRQYHQWLRQDO LQGXFWLRQ PRWRU WR REWDLQ VWHS OHVV YDULDWLRQ RI RXWSXW VSHHG ,Q WKH VVWHP DQ HQGOHVV FKDLQ LV PRXQWHG RQ EHYHO GLVF SDLUV E VOLGLQJ WKH GLVFV LQ D[LDO GLUHFWLRQ WKH GLVWDQFH EHWZHHQ WZR GLVFV RI HDFK SDLU LV YDULHG 7KH FRQWURO VVWHP LV PDGH VXFK WKDW ZKLOH RQH GLVF SDLU VOLGHV FORVH WRJHWKHU WKH RWKHU GLVF SDLU PRYHV DZD IURP HDFK RWKHU :LWK WKLV FKDLQ UXQQLQJ GLDPHWHU RI WZR GLVF SDLUV FRXOG EH YDULHG 'HSHQGLQJ XSRQ WKH SRZHU WUDQVPLVVLRQ DSSOLFDWLRQV YDULRXV WSHV RI FKDLQV DUH XVHG . 5LQJ UROOHU FKDLQ ,W FRQVLVWV RI VWHHO OLQNVook FUDGOH MRLQWV MRLQHG ZLWK HDFK RWKHU 2YHU ZLWK eB WKHVH OLQNV UHOLDEOH ULQJ UROOV DUH IDVWHQHG 7KLV WSH RI FKDLQ LV VXLWDEOH IRU FKDLQ VSHHG XSWR es hin cSRZHU  PHWHU SHU VHFRQG DQG  .: Ma l ria ust,Q WKLV WSH RI FKDLQ FUDGOH MRLQWV WUDQVPLW IRUFH RYHU WKH EHYHO 5RFNHU SUHVVXUH SLQ FKDLQ Ind of OLJKW GHVLJQ PDNHV LW SRVVLEOH WR KDYH FKDLQ VSHHG XSWR  PHWHU SHU GLVF SDLUV 7KH UHODWLYH ion zat VHFRQG 6XFK iFKDLQ FDQ WUDQVPLW SRZHU XSWR  .: ern od M m fro age e p  l mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 110. %DFNODVK IUHH JHDULQJ DUUDQJHPHQW LQFUHDVHV ORDGLQJ RQ JHDUV FDXVLQJ DGGLWLRQDO SRZHU FRQVXPSWLRQ DQG HDUO ZHDU RI WKH JHDU SURILOH 6R ZKHUH UDSLG DQG IHHG PRWLRQV DUH WR EH WUDQVPLWWHG WKURXJK VDPH JHDU WUDLQ D VVWHP KDV WR EH SURYLGHG WR HQVXUH EDFNODVKIUHH PRWLRQ GXULQJ IHHG DQG ZLWK EDFNODVK PRWLRQ GXULQJ UDSLG PRYHPHQW 7R DYRLG EDFN ODVK LQ WKH GULYH WZR SLQLRQ RQH PRXQWHG RQ WKH RWKHU
  • 111. DUH XVHG VR WKDW RQH SLQLRQ WRRWK IDFH LV WRXFKLQJ RQH VLGH RI WRRWK JDS LQ WKH UDFN DQG WKH RWKHU SLQLRQ WRRWK LV WRXFKLQJ WKH RWKHU VLGH RQ WKH WRRWK JDS GXULQJ IHHG PRYHPHQW 7R DFKLHYH WKH VDPH WKH WZR SLQLRQV DUH JLYHQ PRWLRQ LQ WKH RSSRVLWH GLUHFWLRQ )RU UDSLG PRWLRQ WKH WZR SLQLRQV DUH JLYHQ WKH URWDWLRQ LQ WKH VDPH GLUHFWLRQ WR UHGXFH ORDGLQJ )LJ  6KRZLQJ WKH WZR SLQLRQV GXULQJ UDSLG PRWLRQ ͸ǤʹǤ͵Ǥͳ ”‡Ž‘ƒ†‡† ƒ… ƒ† ‹‹‘ ”‹˜‡ ›•–‡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ok RSSRVLWH WRRWK IODQN DQG WDNH XS WKH EDFNODVK 3UHORDGLQJ Bo e es FRXOG EH DFKLHYHG E D[LDOO VKLIWLQJ WKH GULYLQJ VKDIW hin c PDNLQJ WZR KHOLFDO SLQLRQV WXUQa LQ RSSRVLWH GLUHFWLRQ WR al M i st HOLPLQDWH EDFNODVK EHWZHHQr GULYHQ JHDU DQG WZR PHVKLQJ du f In KHOLFDO SLQLRQV no )LJ  3UHORDGLQJ LQ KHOLFDO UDFN tio izaSUHORDGHG VVWHPV XVH WZR PRWRUJHDUER[ DVVHPEOLHV ZLWK GXDO SLQLRQV (OHFWURQLFDOO ern odRQ WKH VDPH UDFN LQ D PDVWHUVODYH VHWXS 2QH SLQLRQ GULYHV WKH D[LV WKH ³PDVWHU´
  • 112. M RSHUDWLQJ rom ef ag le p  mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 113. )LOWHUV DQG VWUDLQHUV UHPRYH FRQWDPLQDQWV IURP WKH RLO 6WUDLQHU RI  PHVK VL]H LV SURYLGHG LQ VXFWLRQOLQH DQG OHVV WKDQ WKDW RI VPDOOHU VL]H LV SURYLGHG LQ UHWXUQ OLQH 6WDQGDUG FRQWURO DSSDUDWXV VWDQGDUG SLSH ILWWLQJV DQG FRQQHFWLRQV DQG VWDQGDUG VHDOV DQG SDFNLQJ VKRXOG EH XVHG WKURXJK RXW LQ GHVLJQLQJ KGUDXOLF FLUFXLWV 7KH KGUDXOLF FLUFXLW GLDJUDP RI LQGXVWULDO PDFKLQHV VKRXOG EH DV LOOXVWUDWLYH DV SRVVLEOH DQG HDV WR UHDG ͳͳǤ͵  
  • 114.        3RZHUSDFN JHQHUDOO FRQVLVWV RI D UHVHUYRLU IRU VWRULQJ DQG VXSSOLQJ WKH ZRUNLQJ IOXLG D VWUDLQHU XVXDOO RI  WR  ȝP VL]H
  • 115. DW WKH SXPS LQOHW WR ILOWHU RXW WKH ODUJH VL]H SDUWLFOHV IURP HQWHULQJ LQWR WKH SXPS D SXPS GULYHQ E D SULPH PRYHU D UHOLHI YDOYH D SUHVVXUH JDXJH DQG D JDXJH GDPSHU 'HSHQGLQJ XSRQ WKH VVWHP UHTXLUHPHQW VRPH SRZHUSDFN HYHQ FRQVLVW RI D SUHVVXUHUHWXUQ OLQH ILOWHU RLO OHYHO FRQWUROV DQG DFFXPXODWRU )LJ VKRZV WKH VFKHPDWLF UHSUHVHQWDWLRQ RI SRZHUSDFN       0       . ok )LJ 6FKHPDWLF UHSUHVHQWDWLRQ RI KGUDXOLF SRZHUSDFN Bo e es in ach M &RPSRQHQWV RI WKH SRZHUSDFN lVKRZQ LQ WKH ILJXUH DUH OLVWHG EHORZ tria us  6WUDLQHU io zat rni  3XPS de Mo om r ef pag  le f no Ind mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  •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ok Bo WUDQVGXFHU DW WKH VXPPLQJ SRLQW DQG HUURU LV IHG e e WR WKH DPSOLILHU 7KH DPSOLILHU SURYLGHVsD FRQVWDQW RXWSXW LQ UHIHUHQFH WR LWV HUURU VLJQDO 7KH hin ac VHUYR YDOYH FRQYHUWV WKH RXWSXW IURP WKH DPSOLILHU WR WKH YDOYH VSRRO PRYHPHQW ZKLFK LQ al M WXUQ FRQWUROV WKH IORZ RI ustriWR WKH DFWXDWRU 7KH DFWXDWRU PD EH MDFN RU PRWRU UHVSRQGV WR RLO Ind QXOO WKH HUURU 7KXV ZLWK DOO FORVHG ORRS FRQWURO VVWHP SRZHU WR FRUUHFW WKH GLIIHUHQFHf DQG o on RSHUDWH WKH RXWSXW TXDQWLW LV VXSSOLHG E WKH H[WHUQDO VRXUFH DQG QRW E WKH SURJUDPPHU ati niz 7KLV FRPSOHWH VHTXHQFH WDNHV SODFH LQ YHU EULHI WLPH VSDQ $ WSLFDO VHUYR YDOYH FDQ der Mo UHVSRQG DW D UDWH RI KXQGUHG FFOHV SHU VHFRQG 7KLV LV RQH RI WKH PDLQ UHDVRQV IRU WKH om r ef pag  le mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 117. D
  • 118. E
  • 119. )LJ7LOWLQJ URWDU WDEOH ZLWK  D
  • 120. %D[LV DQG &D[LV E
  • 121. $ D[LV DQG &D[LV ͳʹǤʹǤ͵ 
  • 122.  
  • 123.    
  • 124. 
  • 125.  
  • 126. 
  • 127.     6WDQGDUG 8QLYHUVDO PLOOLQJ KHDGV DUH PDQXIDFWXUHG QRZ D GDV WKDW FDQ EH UHDGLO EH ILWWHG ZLWK WKH VSLQGOH TXLOO RU VSLQGOH UDP RI WKH YHUWLFDO PDFKLQLQJ FHQWHU 7KXV D[LV PDFKLQLQJ RSHUDWLRQ FDQ EH SHUIRUPHG ZLWK WKH D[HV PDFKLQH . ok o eB es in ch a lM ria t us d f In m fro Mo o on ati niz )LJ 'LIIHUHQW WSHV RI 8QLYHUVDO 0LOOLQJ +HDGV der age e p  l mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 128. 7KHQ WKUXVW EHDULQJ RI WKLV VKDIW ZLOO EH VXEMHFWHG WR DQ D[LDO IRUFH SURSRUWLRQDO WR WKH WRUTXH$[LDO IRUFH PD EH PHDVXUHG E VWDLQ JDXJH IL[HG RQ GUXP ͳ͵ǤͶ 
  • 129.  
  • 130.    
  • 131.     (OHFWULFDO FRQWURO VVWHPV DUH XVHG RQ HYHU HTXLSPHQW IURP VLPSOH SXPS FRQWUROV WR FDU ZDVKHV WR FRPSOH[ FKHPLFDO SURFHVVLQJ SODQWV &RQWURO FLUFXLWV SURYLGH WKH ORJLF IRU WKH RSHUDWLRQ RI WKH FRPSRQHQWV LQ WKH SRZHU FLUFXLW &RQWURO FLUFXLWV DUH WSLFDOO D ORZHU VDIHU YROWDJH VXFK DV  9 DF RU  9 GF &RQWURO SRZHU WUDQVIRUPHUV &37V
  • 132. DQG SRZHU VXSSOLHV DUH XVHG WR WUDQVIRUP RU FRQYHUW WKH SRZHU FLUFXLW YROWDJH WR WKH FRQWURO FLUFXLW YROWDJH )RU HYHU RSHUDWLRQ RI D PDFKLQH WKHUH KDV WR EH DQ LQSXW VLJQDO WKDW PD FRPH GLUHFWO IURP WKH RSHUDWRU RU IURP D VHQVRU LQGLFDWLQJ WKH FRPSOHWLRQ RI WKH SUHYLRXV RSHUDWLRQ DQG SUHSDULQJ WKH VVWHP IRU WKH QH[W RSHUDWLRQ 7KHVH LQSXW VLJQDOV DUH IXUWKHU SURFHVVHG LQ D SURFHVVLQJ GHYLFH DQG JHQHUDWH DQ RXWSXW VLJQDO IRU VWDUWLQJ WKH RSHUDWLRQ RI WKH DFWXDWRUV LQ WKH VSHFLILHG VHTXHQFH (DUOLHU DOO WKHVH IXQFWLRQV ZHUH FDUULHG RXW ZLWK WKH KHOS RI HOHFWURPDJQHWLF FRQWDFWRUV UHODV DQG HOHFWURQLF YDOYHV /RJLFDO FRQWURO VVWHP LV PDGH UHVSRQVLEOH IRU WKH IXQFWLRQLQJ RI WKH RSHUDWLQJ VVWHP ͳ͵ǤͶǤͳ 
  •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k oo eB ns $ UHOD FRQWURO VVWHP IRU WKH VLPSOH e chi VVWHP RI )LJXUH /& LV DOVR VKRZQ 7KLV VFKHPDWLF a GLDJUDP UHSUHVHQWV D WSH RI M l SURJUDPPLQJ IUHTXHQWO UHIHUUHG WR DV ODGGHU ORJLF E ria LQGXVWULDO HOHFWULFLDQV dust f In no i SDVVLQJ WKURXJK WKH FRLO RI WKH UHOD WKH FRQWURO UHOD
  • 134. FORVHV RQH RI WKHVH (OHFWULFDO FXUUHQWo zat rni &5%
  • 135. ZKLFK DOORZV FXUUHQW WR IORZ WKURXJK WKH SQHXPDWLF YDOYH VROHQRLG VHWV RI FRQWDFWV de Mo 62/$ $QRWKHU VHW RI FRQWDFWV &5$ LQ )LJXUH /& LV XVHG WR KROG WKH FRQWDFWV FORVHG rom ef ag le p  mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 136. &1& VVWHP 6HUYR 'ULYH 3 / & 6HUYR 0RWRU (QFRGHU 1 & &RPPDQG YDOXH 9HORFLW )HHGEDFN 7DFKR *HQHUDWRU /HDG 6FUHZ 7DEOH 3RVLWLRQ )HHGEDFN 7DSH 5HDGHU 7DSH 3XQFK 2WKHU 'HYLFHV ,QSXWV 2XWSXWV :RUN SLHFH 0DFKLQH (OHPHQWV x x x x x 3UR[LPLW VZLWFKHV /LPLW VZLWFKHV 5HOD FRLOV 3UHVVXUH VZLWFKHV )ORDW VZLWFKHV )LJ 6FKHPDWLF GLDJUDP RI D &1& PDFKLQH WRRO 6WUXFWXUH RI D &1& VVWHP EDVLFDOO FRQVLVWV RI WKH IROORZLQJ       &HQWUDO SURFHVVLQJ XQLW &38
  • 137. 6SHHG FRQWURO6HUYRFRQWURO XQLW 2SHUDWRU FRQWURO SDQHO 0DFKLQH FRQWURO SDQHO 2WKHU SHULSKHUDO GHYLFH 3URJUDPPDEOH ORJLF FRQWUROOHU 3/&
  • 138. ͳͶǤͶǤͳ    
  • 139.  
  • 140.  ȋ Ȍ 7KH &38 LV WKH KHDUW DQG EUDLQ RI D &1& VVWHP ,W DFFHSWV WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ VWRUHG LQ WKH PHPRU DV SDUW SURJUDP 7KLV GDWD LV GHFRGHG DQG WUDQVIRUPHG LQWR VSHFLILF SRVLWLRQ FRQWURO DQG YHORFLW FRQWURO VLJQDOV ,W DOVR RYHUVHHV WKH PRYHPHQW RI WKH FRQWURO D[LV RU VSLQGOH ZKHQHYHU WKLV GRHV QRW PDWFK WKH SURJUDPPHG YDOXHV D FRUUHFWLYH DFWLRQ LV WDNHQ $OO WKH FRPSHQVDWLRQV UHTXLUHG IRU PDFKLQH DFFXUDF OLNH OHDG VFUHZ SLWFK HUURU WRRO ZHDU RXW EDFNODVK HWF
  • 141. DUH FDOFXODWHG E WKH &38 GHSHQGLQJ XSRQ WKH FRUUHVSRQGLQJ LQSXWV PDGH DYDLODEOH WR WKH VVWHP 7KH VDPH ZLOO EH WDNHQ FDUH RI GXULQJ WKH JHQHUDWLRQ RI FRQWURO . ok VLJQDOV IRU WKH D[LV PRYHPHQW $OVR VRPHBo VDIHW FKHFNV DUH EXLOW LQWR WKH VVWHP WKURXJK WKLV e nes XQLW DQG WKH &38 XQLW ZLOO SURYLGHhiFRQWLQXRXV QHFHVVDU FRUUHFWLYH DFWLRQV :KHQHYHU WKH ac VLWXDWLRQ JRHV EHRQG FRQWUROl M WKH &38 LW WDNHV WKH ILQDO DFWLRQ RI VKXWWLQJ GRZQ WKH a RI i str VVWHP LQ WXUQ WKH PDFKLQH du n fI no o ͳͶǤͶǤʹ  zati 
  • 142.    Ǧ  
  • 143.  rni LQ XQLVRQ ZLWK WKH &38 IRU WKH PRYHPHQW RI WKH PDFKLQH D[HV 7KH &38 VHQGV 7KLV XQLW de DFWV Mo VLJQDOV JHQHUDWHG IRU WKH PRYHPHQW RI WKH D[LV WR WKH VHUYR FRQWURO XQLW DQG WKH WKH m FRQWURO ro ef ag le p  mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 144. ͳͷǤͳǤʹ 
  • 145.  (OHFWULFDO (OHFWURQLFV KGUDXOLF SQHXPDWLF DPSOLILHUV DQG PHFKDQLFDO OHYHU ZHGJH HFFHQWULF HWF FRPHV XQGHU WKLV FDWHJRU ͳͷǤͳǤ͵   
  • 146.  Ǧ      $Q DFWXDWRU DFFHSWV HQHUJ DQG SURGXFHV PRYHPHQW DFWLRQ
  • 147.  7KH HQHUJ VXSSOLHG WR DQ DFWXDWRU PLJKW EH HOHFWULFDO RU PHFKDQLFDO  6HUYRPRWRUV DUH XVHG WR WUDQVIRUP LQSXW FRPPDQG VLJQDO LQWR PHFKDQLFDO PRWLRQ )ROORZLQJ WSHV RI PRWRUV FDQ EH HPSORHG WR DFW DV 6HUYRPRWRU       $& HOHFWULF PRWRULQGXFWLRQ PRWRUV ZLWK D FDJH URWRU DQG WZR VWDWRU ZLQGLQJV FRQWURO ZLQGLQJV DQG H[FLWRU ZLQGLQJV
  • 148.  '& (OHFWULF PRWRU 6WHSSHU PRWRU +GUDXOLF VHUYRPRWRUV 3QHXPDWLF PRWRUV &OXWFKHV VXFK DV HOHFWUR PDJQHWLF SDUWLFOH FOXWFKHV DUH DOVR VRPH WLPHV XVHG LQ WKH RSHUDWLQJ VVWHP ͳͷǤʹ        7UDYHO WUDQVGXFHUV FDQ EH PHFKDQLFDO KGUDXOLF RU SQHXPDWLF HOHFWULFDO HOHFWURPHFKDQLFDO RU HOHFWURQLF WSH $ IHZ FRPPRQO XVHG WUDQVGXFHUV DUH JLYHQ EHORZ ͳͷǤʹǤͳ  
  •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ͳͷǤʹǤʹ   
  • 150.      (OHFWURPHFKDQLFDO WUDQVGXFHUV DUH GHYLFHV LQWHQGHG WR PDNH RU EUHDN HOHFWULF FLUFXLWV FRQWUROOLQJ VWDUW DQG VWRS IXQFWLRQV DQG VSHHG RI LWV PRYDEOH FRPSRQHQWV 7KHVH DUH SULPDULO FRQWDFW OLPLW VZLWFKHV PLFURVZLWFKHV SUHVVXUH VZLWFKHV HWF &RQWDFW /LPLW VZLWFKHV 3XVKURGV RI WKH VZLWFK H[LVW LQ VHYHUDO PRGLILFDWLRQV WR SHUPLW ERWK WKH WUDQVODWLRQDO DQG VZLQJLQJ PRWLRQV ,W LV JHQHUDOO GHVLUDEOH WR KDYH D KLJK VSHHG GXULQJ . PDNH RI FRQWDFW WR PLQLPL]H WKH GXUDWLRQ ookDQ DUF RU IODVK RYHU DQG VORZHU VSHHG GXULQJ BRI e EUHDN RI D FRQWDFW WR PLQLPL]H WUDQVLHQWV SDUWLFXODUO IRU '& DQG LQGXFWLYH FLUFXLWV nes chi MaVHQVHV WKH SRVLWLRQ RU GLVSODFHPHQW RI DQ SDUW ,W LV XVHG 0LFUR VZLWFK 7KH PLFUR VZLWFK ial str uVHQVLQJ WKH GLVSODFHPHQW RI IORDW ,W FDQ EH XVHG FRXQWLQJ SRVLWLRQ IRU OHYHO PHDVXUHPHQW IE nd of DQG DXWRPDWLRQ n VHQVLQJ LQ PDFKLQH WRROV tio iza rn 3UHVVXUH e od VZLWFK 7KH SUHVVXUH VZLWFK VHQVHV LI GHVLUHG WKH SUHVVXUH LV UHDFKHG RU QRW ,W LV M m DYDLODEOH LQ GLIIHUHQW SUHVVXUH UDQJHV IURP YDFXXP WR YHU KLJK SUHVVXUHV fro age e p  l mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 151. 
  • 152. 3URFHVVLQJ RSHUDWLRQV HJ VSRW ZHOGLQJ DUF ZHOGLQJ VSUD SDLQWLQJ PDFKLQLQJ 
  • 153. $VVHPEO DQG LQVSHFWLRQ SURFHVV 
  • 154. 3URJUDPPDEOH PDQLSXODWRUV WKDW IROORZ VSHFLILHG SDWK ZRUNLQJ EHWWHU WKDQ KXPDQV ZLWK UHVSHFW WR KRVWLOH HQYLURQPHQWV IRU ORQJ KRXUV ZLWK FRQVLVWHQF LQ RSHUDWLRQV ͳͷǤͷ  
  • 155.    )LJ 5RERW RSHUDWLQJ LQ D KXPDQOHVV IDFWRU 
  • 156.    ȋ Ȍ &RQYHQWLRQDO PDQXIDFWXULQJ VVWHPV KDYH EHHQ PDUNHG E RQH RI WZR GLVWLQFW IHDWXUHV   7KH FDSDELOLW RI SURGXFLQJ D YDULHW RI GLIIHUHQW SURGXFW WSHV EXW DW D KLJK FRVW HJ MRE VKRSV
  • 157.  7KH FDSDELOLW RI SURGXFLQJ ODUJH YROXPHV RI D SURGXFW DW D ORZHU FRVW EXW YHU LQIOH[LEOH LQ WHUPV RI WKH SURGXFW WSHV ZKLFK FDQ EH SURGXFHG HJ WUDQVIHU OLQHV
  • 158.  $Q )06 LV GHVLJQHG WR SURYLGH ERWK RI WKHVH IHDWXUHV )OH[LELOLW LQ PDQXIDFWXULQJ PHDQV WKH DELOLW WR GHDO ZLWK VOLJKWO RU JUHDWO PL[HG SDUWV WR DOORZ YDULDWLRQ LQ SDUWV DVVHPEO DQG YDULDWLRQV LQ SURFHVV VHTXHQFH FKDQJH WKH SURGXFWLRQ YROXPH DQG FKDQJH WKH GHVLJQ RI FHUWDLQ SURGXFW EHLQJ PDQXIDFWXUHG $ IOH[LEOH PDQXIDFWXULQJ VVWHP )06
  • 159. PDNHV LW SRVVLEOH WR DXWRPDWH SURGXFWLRQ ZLWK PDFKLQH WRROV DQG WKXV HQDEOH XQPDQQHG SURGXFWLRQ DQG LQFUHDVH WKH SURGXFWLRQ FDSDFLW DQG XWLOL]DWLRQ UDWH RI WKH PDFKLQH WRROV $Q )06 LV D ³UHSURJUDPPDEOH´ PDQXIDFWXULQJ VVWHP FDSDEOH RI SURGXFLQJ D YDULHW RI SURGXFWV DXWRPDWLFDOO $ )OH[LEOH 0DQXIDFWXULQJ 6VWHP )06
  • 160. LV D SURGXFWLRQ VVWHP FRQVLVWLQJ RI D VHW RI QXPHULFDOO FRQWUROOHG PDFKLQHV FRQQHFWHG WKURXJK DQ DXWRPDWHG WUDQVSRUWDWLRQ VVWHP (DFK SURFHVV LQ )06 LV FRQWUROOHG E D GHGLFDWHG FRPSXWHU )06 FHOO FRPSXWHU
  • 161.  ͳͷǤͷǤͳ   
  • 162.  
  • 163. 
  • 164.     0DFKLQLQJ FFOHV DUH EDVHG RQ MRE VHTXHQFHVk.DVVLJQHG $ MRE VHTXHQFH GHILQHV WKH ORDGLQJ o Bo MREV PDFKLQLQJ MREV DQG XQORDGLQJ MREVeIRU D PDFKLQLQJ FFOH DV ZHOO DV WKH RUGHU WKH MREV nes DUH SHUIRUPHG LQ 7KH VSHFLILF IL[WXUH WR EH XVHG IRU FODPSLQJ WKH SDUW DQG WKH SDUW ,' DIWHU chi a WKH PDFKLQLQJ FFOH DUH DOVRial M r VSHFLILHG LQ WKH MRE VHTXHQFH 7KH RSHUDWRU FDQ FUHDWH DQG HGLW st MRE VHTXHQFHV DQG VDYHdu In WKHP DV PDVWHU GDWD 7KH MRE VHTXHQFHV RI D SDUW FRPSULVH WKH f RSHUDWLRQ SODQ IRU n o SDUW io WKH m fro Mo zat rni de age e p  l mp Sample page from Modernization of Industrial Machines eBook. Sa
  • 165. About the Author: Bhagwati Prasad Gupta, a Professor in Deptt.of Mechanical Engineering at Inderprastha Engineering College near Delhi, has spent more than 35 years in the field of maintenance, and has been exposed to various industries in India, Russia, Germany and Switzerland. As General Manager (Facility Rebuilding Division) in Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd, he has been responsible for Machine-rebuilding and Modernization of the plants and machinery. He has organized several training workshops, made presentations at seminars and published papers on various topics of Operation and Maintenance of Machine-tools and Equipment in different technical journals. His book on “Machinist Handbook on Precision Machining and Equipment Maintenance” was published in electronic format by Feed Forward Publications and is available on website www.FeedForward.com.au. His other book "Industrial Hydraulic Systems and Circuits" is available on website http://www.feedforward.com.au/hydraulic_control_system.htm. His third book on "Industrial Maintenance" was published by S. Chand & Co. New Delhi. He is Fellow of Institution of Engineers and Member of All India Management Association. As consultant, recently, he visited machine-tool manufacturing industries in Taiwan and South Korea for technical discussions on latest trend followed in designing and manufacturing of industrial machines. http://bin95.com/modernization-of-industrial-machinery.htm Keywords: modernization of industry, modernization of industrial machinery, equipment modernization, machine tool retrofit, retrofitting machines, industrial machinery design, industrial design, machine design book pdf 13 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com
  • 166. The previous pages where just a sample of … ‘†‡”‹œƒ–‹‘ ‘ˆ
  • 167. †—•–”‹ƒŽ ƒ…Š‹‡• By Prof. Bhagwati Prasad Gupta To download the entire eBook, please visit http://bin95.com/modernization-of-industrial-machinery.htm Other related titles by Prof. Gupta Industrial Hydraulic Control Systems, component and Circuits By Prof. Bhagwati Prasad Gupta See http://www.bin95.com/ebooks/Industrial_Hydraulic_Systems.htm Machinist Handbook for precision machining equipment maintenance By Prof. Bhagwati Prasad Gupta See http://www.bin95.com/ebooks/machining_equipment_maintenance.htm (Business Industrial Network provides industrial related eBooks and Software.) 14 Reprint permission required for any content in this sample. Contact http://bin95.com