Concrete language grabs
attention by appealing to the
Stronger imagery creates
deeper impressions on a
Need Details? Use the RENNS Model
Yau Hoong Tang
Why did something happen? Why did someone do
How did it happen? How did someone do something?
Who was involved? Where did it happen?
When did it happen? How many were involved?
light and dark, shades and hues,
visible shape and appearance
The restaurant was shaped like a big bottle, though squatter than a
real bottle, and on its cap was a revolving ﬁgure of a grinning
boy holding a hamburger aloft.
--Joyce Carol Oates, “Where are you Going, Where have you Been?”
Often used metaphorically
Andrew Morrell Photography
...I remembered clearest of all...how the bedroom smelled of
the lumber it was made of and of the wet woods whose scent
entered through the screen. --E.B. White, “Once More to the Lake”
Gustatory, detecting ﬂavor--related to smell
...the walking boots that taste
of Atlantic and Paciﬁc salt...
--Robert Frost, “A Record Stride”
...there came to my ears a low,
dull, quick sound, such as a
watch makes when enveloped
in cotton.... It was the beating
of the old man's heart.
--Edgar Allan Poe, “The Tell Tale Heart”
alvaro tapia hidalgo
Tactile experience and
emotion (tension, reactions)
You grasp the bark by a rugged pleat,
And look up small from the forest's feet.
--Robert Frost, “On Going Unnoticed”
Ira Glass: A Story’s Building Blocks
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