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Formative evaluation


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  • 1. FORMATIVE EVALUATION Dr. Bincy R Principal Govt. College of Nursing, Alappuzha
  • 2. ` Govt .College of Nursing,Alappuzha, Kerala.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Evaluation is an integral part of teaching. It can be used as an ongoing teaching tool to improve the effectiveness of education. Evaluation is the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are being realised. (Ralph taylor,1950)
  • 4. The Education Commission (1964-66) says that examination reform has become crucial to all progress and has to go , hand in hand with improvements in teachings.
  • 5. Present day examination System Various educationists and Education Commissions appointed by Govt.of India have pointed out the defects of the present exam system in our universities. Dominance of final end of the year exam gives the impression to students that they do not have to study through out the year.
  • 6. In nursing, evaluation is meant for effective strengthening of instruction for attaining the goals of educational system.
  • 7. Evaluation is a value judgment on an observation ,“performance test” or indeed any “data” whether directly measured or inferred. (International Dictionary of Education,1977) EVALUATION
  • 8. In India, we use several words for these measuring devices like unit tests, final exam. The Sanskrit term “Pareeksha” refers to all these words. “Eeksha” is to observe and “pari” means comprehensively, hence “Pareeksha” means comprehensive observation.
  • 10. Identifying the parameters of the subject of appraisal Developing criteria specific to the topic within the parameters Data gathering Measuring the data against the criteria Basic Components
  • 11. TYPES Formative Summative
  • 12. FORMATIVE EVALUATION Synonymous with Continuous assessment Educative assessment Diagnostic assessment Classroom assessment
  • 13. FORMATIVE V/S SUMMATIVE EVALUATION Formative evaluation is typically conducted during the development of a program or product and it is conducted , often more than once, for in-house staff of the program with the intend to improve. Summative evaluation provides information on the product’s efficacy ( it’s ability to do what it was designed to do).
  • 15. ORIGIN OF THE TERM  Scriven coined the term formative evaluation in 1967.  Scriven (1967) first suggested a distinction between formative and summative evaluation. when describing two major functions of evaluation.
  • 16. CONTD…  Scriven described formative evaluation was intended to foster development and improvement within an ongoing activity.  Benjamin Bloom took up the term in 1968 in the book Learning for Mastery to consider formative assessment as a tool for improving teaching learning process for students.
  • 17. FORMATIVE EVALUATION A formative evaluation is a method for judging the worth of a program while the program activities are forming (in progress). .
  • 18. CONTD… “Formative Evaluation include all those activities undertaken by teachers , and/or by students , which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged,” (Black and Wiliam )
  • 19. CONTD… Cowie and Bell defined formative assessment as “the process used by teachers and students to recognize and respond to student learning in order to enhance that learning , during the learning”.
  • 21. PURPOSES  To provide feedback for teachers to modify subsequent learning activities and experiences.  To identify and remediate group or individual deficiencies.  To move focus away from achieving grades and onto learning processes, in order to increase self efficacy and reduce the negative impact of extrinsic motivation.
  • 22. CONTD…  Major purpose of formative evaluation is to make adjustments in an educational activity as soon as they are needed.  Students find opportunity to revise and refine their thinking by means of formative assessment.
  • 23. FEEDBACK IS THE CENTRAL FUNCTION Principles of good feedback practice  Clarifies what good performance is  Facilitates the development of self assessment  Provides high quality information to students about their learning  Encourages teacher and peer dialogue around learning
  • 24. CONTD..  Encourages positive motivational beliefs and self esteem  Provides opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance  Provides information to teachers that can be used to help shape teaching.  To employ formative evaluation in the class room , the teacher has to make sure that each student participates in learning process.
  • 25. EXAMPLE OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT A faculty member looks at the previous year’s student test results to help plan teacher workshops, to address the areas of weakness in student performance.
  • 26. EXAMPLE Theory  Eg. Medical Nursing for 2nd year BSc  Annually 3 internal exams  Evaluation of assignment
  • 27. Practical  Eg. Medical Nursing for 2nd year BSc  Evaluation of care plan  Evaluation of clinical presentation
  • 28. EXAMPLE A teacher asks her students to write down , in a brainstorm activity , all they know about prevention of communicable diseases so that she can discover what students already know about the levels of prevention that she is intended to teach.
  • 29. CONTD… Formative evaluation supports teachers and students in decision-making during educational and learning processes while summative evaluation occurs at the end of a learning unit and determines if the content being taught was retained.
  • 30. PRINCIPLES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT 1. Be part of effective planning of teaching and learning. 2. Focus on how students learn. 3. Be recognized to as central to classroom practice. 4. Be regarded as a key professional skill for teachers.
  • 31. Be sensitive and constructive because any assessment has an emotional impact. Take account of the importance of learner motivation. Promote commitment to learning goals and a shared understanding of the criteria by which they are assessed. Enable learners to receive constructive guidance about how to improve.
  • 32. Develop learners capacity for self assessment so that they can become reflective and self managing. Recognize the full range of achievement of all learners.
  • 33. BENEFITS OF FORMATIVE EVALUATION It encourages the students to learn from mistakes and is not linked to grading practice or other forms of judgment. Faculty encourage a mastery goal orientation(growth focus) over a performance goal orientation (competition goal). Faculty provides models and instructions to help students connect formative feed back with meta cognitive practice.
  • 34. BENEFITS FOR TEACHERS  Teachers are able to determine what students already know and to what degree.  Teachers can decide what minor modifications or changes in instruction they need to make so that all students can succeed in upcoming instruction.
  • 35. BENEFITS FOR STUDENTS Students are motivated to learn. Students take responsibility for their own learning. Students can become users of assessment alongside the teacher. Students learn valuable life long skills such as self evaluation , self assessment and goal setting.
  • 36. DRAWBACKS OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT  Formative assessment can endanger the relationship between a teacher and a student.  Difficulty in relating and comparing the standards between institutions/ colleges.  It can give rise to suspicions in the mind of users on the validity and reliability of the results of assessment.
  • 37. `
  • 38. “When the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative; when the guests taste the soup, that is summative.” ( Robert Stakes)
  • 39. FEATURES  It monitors how well the instructional goals and objectives are being met.  Formative evaluation in an educational program is useful in analyzing learning materials, student learning and teacher effectiveness.  Formative evaluation is to catch deficiencies so that proper learning interventions can take place.
  • 40. CONTD…  Formative evaluation is primarily a building process which accumulates a series of components of new materials , skills and problems into an ultimate meaningful whole.  Formative assessment is a range of formal and informal assessment procedures employed by teachers during the learning process in order to modify teaching and learning activities to improve student attainment.
  • 41. CONTD…  It typically involves qualitative feedback for both student and teacher .  The students are encouraged to think critically and develop analytical skills.
  • 42. Introduction of internal assessment will enable a teacher to assess certain intellectual abilities and skills that are not tested by the external and examinations. The data obtained through internal assessment should be used not just to rank the students, but to improve the program me.
  • 43. CONTD…  Main purpose of introducing internal assessment is to integrate teaching and evaluation and to test those skills and abilities which cannot be tested through a written exam at the end of the course.  Teachers can create appropriate lessons and activities for groups of learners or individual students.  Teachers can inform students about their current progress in order to help them set goals for improvement.
  • 44. TECHNIQUES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT  Written or Oral Quiz  Short duration objective type tests  Short answer questions  Essay type questions  Practical exercises  “Point in time” using one minute paper method  National Standardised testing system. Each semester students take a test that identifies the student’s competencies and their placement nationally.
  • 45. RESEARCH FINDINGS  Meta analysis of studies into formative assessment have indicated significant learning gains where formative assessment is used, across all content areas.  Black and William (1998) reviewed 250 studies. Formative assessment produced more powerful effect on students.
  • 46. PRACTICAL TIPS FOR CONDUCTING FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT  Pleasant experience  Planned evaluation  Patience for both teachers and students  Challenging and motivating experience  Uniformity in the assessment policy of colleges/university  Principals of colleges must be involved in decision making.  Proper guideline for evaluation
  • 47. CONT’D……………  Teachers should be trained through workshops/ follow-up activities, to conduct internal assessment programmes.  Preparation of teachers and students  Copy of syllabus  General description  Sample questions  Implications for teaching
  • 48. CONCLUSION Evaluation is an integral part of teaching. Both formative and summative evaluation are important. Formative evaluation is useful in analyzing learning materials, student learning , achievements and teacher effectiveness.
  • 50.  Internal assessments enable the teacher to diagnose the students’ difficulties in the clinical area and classroom so that teacher can take remedial measures to improve the learning process.