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Collins

  1. 1. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction Background of the problem Need and significance of the study Statement of the problem Objectives Operational definitions Hypothesis Conceptual framework
  2. 2. 2 CHAPTER 1 Introduction The house in which you and your family live needs to be clean and tidy as well as hygienic for the good health of your family. The Household Waste management promotes the safe use, storage and disposal of waste materials. By educating consumers, we can avoid potentially hazardous products and dispose waste in a safe manner. It will help the consumers to buy only what is needed, use it up completely or share leftovers with someone who can use it to avoid accumulation of waste around the home surroundings. Moreover, recycle those materials that can be recycled, and dispose of leftover or unwanted products through hazardous waste collection facilities. Waste is generated as a consequence of household activities such as the cleaning, cooking, repairing emptying containers, packaging and increased use of plastic carry bags. The main reason for this is there is no system for disposing the organic, inorganic and recyclable wastes at the household level. Furthermore, door-to-door collection is rarely practiced in rural community; collection bins are poorly managed and are usually found open and seen spilled around. Many times these waste are not properly segregated and get mixed, which contributes to a media for the nurturing of rodents and mosquito which in turn lead to health problems to the people of surrounding community. The improper handling and management of domestic waste pose threat to the, neighbours and the public at large, this deteriorates the health and resources of the society.
  3. 3. 3 Background of the problem A study on household waste management and environmental health consequences in Austria reveals that household waste does contribute to negative environmental and health consequences that cannot be neglected. The organic waste should also be regarded as a resource and several appropriate technologies exist for adequate treatment and resource recovery, including composting and anaerobic digestion1 . Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tons/day of Municipal solid waste, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000tonnes/day by the year 2021.Municipal solid waste management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated Municipal solid waste is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps2 . A study on management of solid waste on household basis, in Honduras states that many communities do not have access to organized public solid waste collection and disposal services. This study of waste management in two Garifuna communities on the north coast of Honduras reveals that, at the household level, people use a variety of management and disposal strategies. These pathways (places and practices) for solid waste disposal are guided by local perception that waste as harmless refuse, re-usable resources, or dangerous materials and the environment is the appropriate place for its disposal. The paper concludes that people manage household waste using diverse strategies that are both rational and effective3 . Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the most neglected aspects of India's environment; activities relating to municipal solid waste management are utter failure. Researcher explained the reasons for the failure of solid waste management system in
  4. 4. 4 India are: underestimation of generation rates and therefore, underestimation of resource requirements, lack of technical and managerial inputs, and lack of reliable and updated information to the public and practitioners4 . Need and significance of the study Community-based waste projects often fail because of low participation from households. If solid waste management is not a ‘felt need’, this will have consequences for their participation in the service and their willingness to pay5 . A study on community-based solid waste management systems in Indonesia, revealed that household waste separation and management are poorly handled by the people and government didn’t take any initiatives to control the communicable disease happened due to this improper management of household waste. The researcher recommended to encourage an established community based composting, burning like techniques to overcome this6 . Waste is a material that no longer serves a purpose and so is thrown away. In some cases what one person discards may be re-used by somebody else. All wastes are particularly hazardous if not carefully disposed of; it will have an impact on the environment7 . The output of daily waste depends upon the dietary habits, life styles, living standards and the degree of urbanization and industrialization. The per capita daily solid waste produced ranges between 0.25 to 2.5kg in different countries. There is a correlation between improper disposal of solid wastes and incidence of vector-borne diseases. Therefore, in all civilized countries, there is an efficient system for its periodic collection, removal and final disposal without risk to health.8
  5. 5. 5 The United States has the dubious distinction of being the world’s biggest solid waste producer. With only 4.6% of the world’s population, Americans produce 33% of the world’s solid waste 11 billion tons each year. Every day each person in every American household tosses away an average of 4.3 pounds of refuse. 9 The municipal workers are most affected people by the occupational danger of waste handling; they suffer from illness like eye problems, respiratory problems, gastro- intestinal and skin problems. Many times the animals like the cows, buffalos eat up the plastics along with the food and due it the death of animals ensues. Due to eating up of waste generated food it affect the quality and quantity of the milk products of the animals.10 The improper management and lack of disposal technique of the domestic waste pollute the environment. It affects the water bodies. It also changes the physical, chemical and biological properties of the water bodies. Uncollected waste is scattered everywhere and reaches to the water bodies through run-off as well as percolate to underground water. The toxics contain in the waste, contaminates water. It also makes soil infertile and decrease the agricultural productivity.11 Due to uncollected waste and improper disposal techniques drains also get clogged leading to mosquito breeding by which various diseases like malaria, chickun- gunya, viral fever, dengue etc. arise and affect the health of people adversely.12 Poor Domestic waste management also displays an ugly scenario of the environment. This can affect the tourism industry, as the tourist may not get attracted to visit the country.13
  6. 6. 6 The Composition of average domestic dustbin can be broken down as follows: 10% Glass 30% Paper/Cardboard 9% Metals 3% Textiles 4% Plastics 23% Vegetable Waste 21% Dust, Cinders, Miscellaneous Some of the waste on the other hand may also contain poisonous substances like Mercury, lead, cadmium from batteries, old medicines, household cleaning & Decorating chemicals and garden chemicals.14 In India we produce 300 to 400 gms of solid waste per person per day in town of Normal size but exceptionally about 500 to 800gms of solid waste is generated per capita per day in metro cities like Delhi and Bombay. 7 According to The Energy Research Institute (TERI). “Our limited analysis suggests that unclean air and water may be taking a toll in terms of over eight lakh deaths in the country each year and morbidity costs amounting to 3.6% of GDP,” the report said.15 The urban population of 285 million is concentrated in a few large cities and 32 metropolitan cities are accounting for 34.5 percent of the urban population that is expected to reach 341 million by 2010 (census of India, 2001). The waste quantities are estimated to increase from 46 million tonnes in 2001 to 65 million tonnes in 2010.The
  7. 7. 7 waste characteristics are expected to change due to urbanization, increased commercialization and standard of living. The present trend indicates that the paper and plastics content will increase while the organic content will decrease. In keeping with the present practices and estimates of waste generation, around 90% of the generated wastes are land filled requiring around 1200 hectare of land every year with an average depth of 3 m. Due to rapid urbanization, prevailing land use regulation and completing demands for available land, it is desirable that adequate land be earmarked at the planning stage itself for solid waste disposal. The larger quantities of solid waste and higher degree of urbanization will necessitate better management involving a higher level of expenditure on manpower and equipment.16 Man is behind every development endeavor. Today the world is facing the greatest threat from the activities of humans. Waste management is a key factor for a better environment and its initial step begins in the management of house hold waste. Reduction and recycling of household waste conserves resources and energy that would be expended in the production of more products. Proper disposal of waste prevent pollution that could endanger human health and environment. By this study the investigator aims to make awareness on proper waste disposal. Statement of the problem “Effect of a Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge and Practice of Household Waste Management among Women of Muhamma Gramapanchayath, Alappuzha District.”
  8. 8. 8 Objectives  Assess the knowledge on household waste management among women by using a structured questionnaire.  Assess the Practice on household waste management among women by using an observation check list.  Determine the effect of structured teaching programme on household waste management among women.  Determine the correlation between the knowledge and practice on household waste management among women.  Determine the association between the knowledge and selected demographic variable on household waste management among women.  Determine the association between the practice and selected demographic variable on household waste management among women. Operational definition 1) Structured teaching programme: It refers to a systematically developed instructional programme using instructional aids, designed to provide information on the house hold waste and its management. 2) Household waste management: Household waste management is the process of disposing waste materials such as, kitchen wastes, liquid waste and occupant’s wastes by various methods such as; burning, burying, closed pits and septic tank. 3) Women: It refers to the people who are ladies or females in the age group (25-50 yrs) who are holding the primary responsibility of the family.
  9. 9. 9 4) Effect: It refers to the change in knowledge and practice of house hold waste management among women after structured teaching programme on household waste management. 5) Knowledge: It refers to the facts and information acquainted by the women in the age group (25-50 yrs) who are holding the primary responsibility of the family has about house hold waste management 6) Practice: It refers to the methods adopted as a routine for disposing household waste materials by the women. Hypothesis  H1--There is a significant difference in knowledge scores on house hold waste management among women before and after intervention.  H2 -- There is a significant difference in practice scores on house hold waste management among women before and after intervention.  H3 --There is a significant correlation between knowledge and practice on house hold waste management among women. Theoretical frame work Theoretical framework is a set of defined concepts and relational statements among all major concepts to provide a systematic view of phenomenon. It is a theoretical approach to the study of problems that are significantly based and emphasizes the selection, arrangements and classification of its concepts. Present study aims at evaluating the effect of structured teaching programme on Knowledge and Practice of Household Waste Management among Women.
  10. 10. 10 The conceptual framework of the present study is based on General Systems Theory with input, process, output and feedback. This model was first introduced by Ludwig Von Bertalanffy in 1968. According to this theory, a system is a group of elements that interact with one another in order to achieve the goal. An individual is a system because he/she receives input from the environment. This input when processed provides an output. All living systems are open. There is a continual exchange of matter, energy and information. The system is cyclical in nature and continues to be so, as long as the four parts – input, process, output and feedback – keep interacting with each other. If there are changes in any of the parts, there will be alteration in all other parts. Feedback from within the system or from the environment provides information, which helps the system to determine its effectiveness. Input: Consists of information, material or energy that enters the system. In this study woman is a system with input from self and that acquired from the environment. The input includes age, type of family, religion, marital status, family income, educational qualification and occupation. Moreover, preparation of structured teaching programme, structured questionnaire and observation check list to assess the knowledge and practice of house wives regarding house hold waste management. Following this, structured questionnaire and observation check list is used to assess the awareness regarding knowledge and practice carried out by house wives on house hold waste management. Process: After the input is absorbed by the system, it is processed in a way useful to the system. In this study, it refers to the administration of structured teaching programme on knowledge and practice of household waste management for women. In order to achieve the desired output, i.e., to increase the knowledge and practice of the women.
  11. 11. 11 Output: It refers to energy, matter or information disposed of by the system as a result of its process. In the present study, Using the same structured questionnaire and observation check list, the knowledge and practice of women will be reassessed. This is assessed through a comparison between the pre-test and post-test knowledge and practice score of the subjects. Feedback: It is the process that enables a system to regulate itself and provides information about the system’s output and its feedback as input. In this study, it refers to the changes of knowledge and practice of household waste management in women. The higher knowledge and practice scores obtained by the women in the post-test indicate that the structured teaching programme was effective in increasing the knowledge. A low score in post-test indicates that the structured teaching programme was not effective and alternative measures may be needed to improve knowledge50 . This chapter dealt with the introduction about the study, background of the study, need and significance, statement of the problem objectives, Operational definition, hypothesis, and theoretical framework.
  12. 12. 12 Figure 1: Conceptual framework based on systems theory (LudwingVon Bertalanffy, 1968)
  13. 13. 13 CHAPTER 2 Review of literature Household waste and sources. Health and environmental problems due to household waste. Household waste management. Knowledge and practice on household waste management. Intervention for household waste management.
  14. 14. 14 CHAPTER 2 Review of literature Introduction Review of literature is an important step in the development of a research project. A literature is a compilation of resources that provides the groundwork for the study. The researcher carried out an extensive review of literature on the research topic in order to gain deeper insight into the problem and to collect maximum relevant information for building up the study in an organized manner so as to achieve the desired results. The literature review that was undertaken for the purpose of conducting this study has been presented under the following headings: 1. Household waste and sources. 2. Health and environmental problems due to household waste. 3. Household waste management. 4. Knowledge and practice on household waste management. 5. Intervention for household waste management. 1. Household waste and sources Disposal of waste is a major problem nowadays. Improper waste disposal causes many health problems which can even be life threatening. Whereas, if wastes are treated properly it can avoid the nuisance to the society as well as it can be used for varied purposes like, making fertilizers, biogas, manures etc.
  15. 15. 15 Definition Waste: Waste or refuse is an unwanted left over substance that have been discarded or thrown away after domestic use. Type of wastes: Solid wastes: It include wastes such as home sweepings, ash, fruits, vegetables, and their peelings, packing materials, rags, glass, metal parts, empty bottles(plastic and tin), electric goods, leaves, plastic containers, bags etc. Liquid wastes: This include house hold contaminated water from kitchen, bathrooms etc. Excreta wastes: This include wastes of occupants and animal Storage: The first consideration should be given to the proper storage of refuse, while awaiting collection. The galvanized steel dust bin with close fitting cover is a suitable receptacle for storing refuse. The capacity of a bin will depend upon the number of users and frequency of collection. The stored refuses should be disposed daily1 . In natural systems, there is no such thing as waste. Everything flows in a natural cycle of use and reuse. Living organisms consume materials and eventually return them to the environment, usually in a different form, for reuse. Solid waste (or trash) is a human concept. It refers to a variety of discarded materials, not liquid or gas that is deemed useless or worthless. However, what is worthless to one person may be of value to someone else, and solid wastes can be considered to be misplaced resources. Learning effective ways to reduce the amount of wastes produced and to recycle valuable resources contained in the wastes is important if humans wish to maintain a livable and sustainable environment.17
  16. 16. 16 A study on analysis of collection systems for sorted household waste in Spain analyses the separate collection systems used in Spanish towns with between 5000 and 50,000 inhabitants. The study looks at the systems and their efficiency by means of the indicators fractioning rate, quality in container rate and separation rate. The results obtained are compared with those from a similar study conducted earlier that was applied to towns and cities with populations over 50,000. It can be concluded that the most widely implemented system in Spain involves the collection of mixed waste from kerbside bins and picking up paper/cardboard, glass and lightweight packaging from drop-off points. Findings showed that the best system is the one that collects mixed waste, organic material and multiproduct waste door-to-door, and glass from drop-off points. The indicator separation rate made it possible to establish beta regression models to analyzed the influence of the following logistic variables: inhabitants per point (people/pt), time (years) and frequency of collection (freq). From these models it can be seen that people/pt has a negative effect on all the fractions, while freq and years have a positive effect in the case of paper18 . A survey to find out the results and experiences of sampling household waste at the source of generation in Gaborone, Botswana. The survey covered 47 households with different socio-economic characteristics over 21 days with 893 samples obtained. The results showed that the average waste generation rate for Gaborone was 0.33 kg capita (-1) day (-1). Contrary to common belief, the waste generation rate measured as in weight units was found not be directly related to household income. However, the packaging fractions of plastic and paper measured as volume had a direct relationship with household income. Across all income groups, the
  17. 17. 17 putrescible waste fraction constituted the highest proportion of the waste stream at approximately 68%. The main general conclusion is on the importance of practical considerations. 19 A survey conducted to assess the composition and generation of household wastes in Beijing, China. Sample communities were selected by the integration of five indices including family population, income, age, and education. Wastes were sampled on a daily basis from 113 households in six different districts of Beijing City for ten days. The results showed that the generation rate of household wastes was 0.23 kg/pers/day. Household waste consisted of kitchen waste, paper/cardboard, plastics, textiles, metals, glass and other wastes, the proportion of each waste was approximately 69.3%, 10.3%, 9.8%, 1.3%, 0.8%, 0.6% and 2.7%, respectively. An evaluation of the relationship between daily per capita generation of household waste and socio-economic factors indicated that household size and income both showed a negative relationship with household waste generation (kg/pers/day). As for the effect of education, families with a secondary educational level produced fewer household wastes (kg/pers/day) than those with a primary or advanced educational level.20 Based on an overview of waste disposal in Asian countries states that the annual waste generation increases in proportion to the rises in population and urbanization. Asian countries with greater rural populations produce more organic waste, such as kitchen wastes, and fewer recyclable items, such as paper, metals, and plastics. They suggest that a better classification system for landfills is needed to address inconsistencies in data for sanitary landfill sites versus waste dumps.21
  18. 18. 18 The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2 tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The household waste composition consisted primarily of bio-waste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper 8% (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of bio waste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of bio-waste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.22 Bio-waste makes up almost half portion of municipal solid waste. The characterization of household bio-waste is important in determining the most appropriate treatment method. The differences in composition and parameters of bio-waste derived from urban settlement (U-bio-waste) and family houses (F-bio-waste) during the four climate seasons are described in this paper. Twelve components and 20 parameters for
  19. 19. 19 bio-waste were evaluated. The composition of U-bio-waste was almost steady over those seasons, unlike F-bio-waste. U-bio-waste was comprised mainly (58.2%) of fruit and vegetable debris. F-bio-waste was primarily made up of seasonal garden components. The amount of variation among seasons in both type of bio-waste increased in sequence: basic parameters<macro-elements<potentially toxic elements.23 A study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City ,the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition.24 This paper presents one strand of the findings from a comprehensive synthesis review of policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention. Understanding what is achievable in terms of local household waste prevention intervention campaigns enables policy makers, local authorities and practitioners to identify optimum approaches to deliver effective behaviour change. Waste prevention measures adopted include home composting, reducing food waste, smart shopping, donating items for reuse, small
  20. 20. 20 changes in the home, reducing junk mainland using cloth/reusable nappies. In terms of diverting biodegradable municipal waste from landfill, the biggest impacts can be attributed to food waste prevention (1.5kg) household (-1) week (-1)) and home composting (2.9kg) household (-1) week (-1)). Projects providing a package of other waste prevention interventions have shown a very wide range of impacts: a broad indication is that such a package could achieve around 0.5 to 1 kg household (-1) week (- 1) reduction at source. Disaggregating which waste prevention measures influenced uptake is generally not possible, but the evidence suggests that this does not matter behavior change has been supported by integrating a range of intervention tools and campaign promotions which have made a collective rather than isolated difference.25 A study conducted to assess the experiences and practices of household waste management of people in a barangay (village) in Manila, Philippines by using an open ended interview with household members. Interviews were also conducted with garbage collectors as well as scavengers. Results showed that the households generated an average of 3.2 kg of solid waste per day, or 0.50 kg/capita/day. The types of wastes commonly generated are food/kitchen wastes, papers, PET bottles, metals, and cans, boxes/cartons, glass bottles, cellophane/plastics, and yard/garden wastes. The respondents segregate their wastes into PET bottles, glass bottles, and other waste (mixed wastes). No respondents perform composting. The households rely on garbage collection by the government. Collection is done twice daily, except Sundays, and household members bring their garbage when the garbage truck arrives. However, there are those who dump their garbage in non-designated pick-up points, usually in a corner of the street. The dumped garbage becomes a breeding ground for disease-causing organisms. Some
  21. 21. 21 household respondents said that it is possible that the dumping in certain areas caused the dengue fever suffered by some of their family members. Mothers and household helpers are responsible for household waste management. Scavengers generally look for recyclable items in the dumped garbage. All of them said that it is their only source of income, which is generally not enough for their meals. They are also aware that their work affects their health. Most of the respondents said that garbage collection and disposal is the responsibility of the government.26 2) Health and environmental problems due to household waste. Health hazards due to improper waste management: Solid waste, if allowed to accumulate, is a health hazard because: It decomposes and favors fly breeding. It attracts rodents and vermin The pathogens which may be present in the solid waste may be conveyed back to man's food through flies and dust. There is a possibility of water and soil pollution, and heaps of refuse present an unsightly appearance and nuisance from bad odors. Health problems:  Malaria  Dengue fever  Typhoid  Chickenguniya  Dysentery  Cholera  Plague  Hepatitis  Cancer  Scabies  Diarrhea  Tetanus  Filarial  Viral fever  Conjunctivitis
  22. 22. 22 A symptom prevalence survey conducted to assess the health problems of the residents of a neighborhood contaminated by hazardous waste facility in Boston. The results revealed that the exposed group had more self-reported complaints referable to the respiratory system (wheezing, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, persistent colds, coughs), constitutional complaints (always fatigued, bowel dysfunction), and irregular heartbeat. There was a biological gradient for several of these effects. The results suggest either that the general population reacts to chemicals at levels much lower than the available occupational literature would indicate or that the effects are more long lasting than previously thought.27 A study in the Sao Paulo city of Brazil to examine environmental problems at the household and neighborhood levels and the respondents' perceptions with regard to the nature and cause of these problems and the best means for their resolution. The study findings was based on the 1000 surveys from the samples who were the representative of six socioeconomic strata (so that findings from high, middle and low-income households could be compared) and of different spatial locations. The paper reveals in detail the environmental problems and household perceptions that vary most and least between strata and suggests new bases for action in which both government agencies and citizens share responsibility.28 A study about the informal recycling and occupational health in Santo Andre, Brazil. An in-depth socio-economic survey of 48 informal waste collectors suggested that almost all workers reported body pain or soreness in the back, legs, shoulders, and arms. Injuries, particularly involving the hands, are frequent. Flu and bronchitis are common, and one recycler had contracted Hepatitis-B. Policy makers at all government levels need
  23. 23. 23 to address the pressing health issues affecting large numbers of informal recyclers in Brazil and abroad.29 A study on women’s management of the household health environment: responding to childhood diarrhea in northern areas of Pakistan. It draws upon qualitative data obtained from 65 in-depth interviews and other ethnographic field methods. The analysis shows that respondents were familiar with diarrhea control interventions carried out in the study site, and associated childhood diarrhea with oral–fecal transmission routes such as poor water quality, unhygienic behaviors, contaminated food, and inadequate sanitation practices. Findings also demonstrate the continuance of long- established cultural patterns of perception and behavior with regard to childhood diarrhea and the influence of socio-economic constraints to instituting new management practices.30 A descriptive survey design was conducted on problems of household disposal in Palampur, Himachal Pradesh. By multi-stage stratified random sampling, one hundred and eight female respondents were selected. Both the primary and secondary data were collected. The primary data were collected with the help of structured and pre-tested interview schedule through personal interview method. The result showed that a few respondents (nearly 29%) considered the improper disposal of garbage as a cause of disease. The separation of waste before disposing was done only by 33.9%.31 Solid waste management (SWM) includes all activities that seek to minimize health, environmental, and aesthetic impacts of solid waste. When the waste is not properly handled, stored, collected and disposed off, then it leads to have effect on
  24. 24. 24 environment (aesthetic, water pollution and air pollution) as well as human life (Cholera, Malaria, Fever, Diarrhoea, and Tetanus).32 The Household Waste management promotes the safe use, storage and disposal of hazardous materials by educating consumers to identify and avoid potentially hazardous products. Buy only what is needed, use it up completely or share leftovers with someone who can use it recycle those materials that can be recycled, and dispose of leftover or unwanted products through hazardous waste collection facilities. Studies indicate that on an average, each person in urban area produces half a kilogram of garbage each day. Ten percent of Indians live in urban areas. This calculates to more than 20 million tonnes of garbage each year in cities alone! This garbage takes up precious land and is a major source of disease. Just a few kilos of putrid garbage can cause a dangerous disease epidemic.40 A study on examined and reported household-level waste management and disposal practices in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana revealed that because of the solid waste infrastructure is inadequate, over 80 percent of the populations do not have home collection services. Only 13.5 percent of respondents are served with door-to-door collection of solid waste, while the rest dispose of their waste at communal collection points, in open spaces, and in waterways. Waste storage in the home is associated with the presence of houseflies in the kitchen (r = .17, p < .0001). The presence of houseflies in the kitchen during cooking is correlated with the incidence of childhood diarrhea (r = .36, p< .0001). Inadequate solid waste facilities result in indiscriminate burning and burying of solid waste. There is an association between waste burning and the incidence of respiratory health symptoms among adults (r =.25, p<.0001) and children (r=.22, p <
  25. 25. 25 .05). Poor handling and disposal of waste are major causes of environmental pollution, which creates breeding grounds for pathogenic organisms, and the spread of infectious diseases. Improving access to solid waste collection facilities and services will help achieve sound environmental health in Accra.45 3) Household waste management Part of living in a home is producing waste. It's unavoidable and often a hassle, especially if your home design doesn't create a streamlined process for getting this waste out of your home. Home waste management isn't one thing or one habit, but a set of home installations and diligence that aims to keep your home beautiful and protect the environment without spending hours and hours each week on a seemingly endless list of tedious chores. Methods of disposal: There is no single method of refuse disposal which is equally suitable in all circumstances. The choice of a particular method is governed by local factors such as cost and availability of land and labor. The principal methods of refuse disposal are:- Dumping Burning Composting Manure pits Burial. Feeding the animals Closed drainage system
  26. 26. 26 Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each1 . Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non- hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.33 A study to assess the public involvement in solid waste management in Himalayan trials in and around the Valley of Flowers, India. Since visitors and stall keepers are the major contributory participatory groups in generating and causing primarily solid waste problems, they were studied in detail. The local villagers as a host community by means of participatory interactions and meetings were assessed as an important participatory group along with assessments of their other problems. Three hundred and fifty one visitors and 40% of the stall keepers were thoroughly interviewed. Based on average results, some of the practical but small recovery packages of SWM options such as reuse and recycling were suggested to eliminate the problem completely from the religious–tourist sites in the Himalayas or from other similar mountain regions of the world.34
  27. 27. 27 The wastes may pose a potential hazard to the human health or the environment (soil, air, water) when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed of or managed in the light of a study conducted on the effect of hazardous wastes : its impact on health and environment for development of better waste management strategies in future in India. Currently in India even though hazardous wastes, emanations and effluents are regulated, solid wastes often are disposed of indiscriminately posing health and environmental risk. In view of this, management of hazardous wastes including their disposal in environment friendly and economically viable way is very important and therefore suggestions are made for developing better strategies. The study outlines the nature of the wastes, waste generating industries, waste characterization, health and environmental implications of waste management practices, steps towards planning, design and development of models for effective hazardous waste management, treatment, approaches and regulations for disposal of hazardous waste.35 A study on household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia. Revealed that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers.36 A study to analyze the waste disposal, recycling and composting in a municipality in southwest Sweden. This study had access to actual measured data on waste disposal at
  28. 28. 28 the household level for a residential area called Tvååker, in addition to survey data for the same households. The main finding is that economic incentives, although important, are not the only driving force behind the observed reduction in municipal waste: Given the proper infrastructure that facilitates recycling, people are willing to invest more time than can be motivated purely by savings on their waste management bill.37 A case study about the effectiveness of the Urban Environmental Management Project in the Côte d'Ivoire, Florida in which groups of young entrepreneurs were trained to collect household solid waste in small cities of 20,000–50,000 inhabitants located outside the capital region. The project was a joint collaboration of the US Peace Corps and the Ministries of Interior and Health in the Côte d'Ivoire. This project demonstrates the potential for innovative arrangements at lower levels of the urban hierarchy. The study also emphasizes the importance of formalizing public-private institutional arrangements in order to ensure their long term sustainability.38 A study to assess the Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities. This study has been carried out to evaluate the current status and identify the major problems. Various adopted treatment technologies for Municipal solid waste management are critically reviewed, along with their advantages and limitations. The study is concluded with a few fruitful suggestions, which may be beneficial to encourage the competent authorities/researchers to work towards further improvement of the present system.39 Three R s is used for effective waste management R's (reduce, reuse, recycle), but this hardly encapsulates effective home waste management. More than just good habits, think about installing and maintaining appliances such as garbage disposals and residential trash compactors that will reduce your trash load. Compost your outdoor trash
  29. 29. 29 and, even some indoor trash, such as non-animal kitchen scraps and paper. With worms, as odd as it sounds, you can even compost indoors with virtually no residual odours. Home composting helps to keep the high volume of organic material out of landfills and turns it into a useful product. On-site composting reduces the cost of hauling materials and is generally exempted from solid waste regulations. Large scale facilities can handle more material and potentially produce a more consistent product, Composting, nature's own way of recycling, is the controlled decomposition of organic material such as leaves, twigs, grass clippings, and vegetable food waste. Compost is the soil amendment product that results from proper composting.41 The documented experiences and practices of household waste management of people in Abarangay (village) in Manila, Philippines. The data were gathered through an interview with household members using open-ended questions. Interviews were also conducted with garbage collectors as well as scavengers. Results showed that the households generated an average of 3.2 kg of solid waste per day, or 0.50 kg/capita/day. The types of wastes commonly generated are food/kitchen wastes, papers, PET bottles, metals, and cans, boxes/cartons, glass bottles, cellophane/plastics, and yard/garden wastes. Some household respondents said that it is possible that the dumping in certain areas caused the dengue fever suffered by some of their family members. Most of the respondents said that garbage collection and disposal is the responsibility of the government. The results of the study showed that RA 9003, also known as the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, is not fully implemented in Metro Manila.42 A household survey was conducted in Mekelle (Ethiopia) to assess the effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, and waste and environmental
  30. 30. 30 attributes on household solid waste disposal. Household solid waste disposal is investigated using data from Household level data and is then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results showed that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides in relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to Communal containers.43 A direct analysis study amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 tons of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 tons if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 tons per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicine. 44
  31. 31. 31 A study to assess the current practices and perceptions of domestic and personal hygiene in Indian communities revealed that problems of the environment and of domestic hygiene are always related to poverty of population and the sanitation of settlements. Most cities and towns in developing countries, like India, are characterized by over-crowding, congestion, inadequate water supply and inadequate facilities of disposal of human excreta, waste water and solid wastes. Personal and domestic hygiene practices cannot be improved without improving basic amenities, such as water supply, waste water disposal, solid waste management and the problems of human settlements.. There is a reluctance to acknowledge the home as a setting of equal importance along with the public institutions in the chain of disease transmission in the community. Managers of home hygiene and community hygiene must act in unison to optimize return from efforts to promote public health.46 When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new Greenfield settlement with carbon-neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralized waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention.47
  32. 32. 32 In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The results showed that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability.48 A literature review was undertaken to evaluate the informal waste management system and formal waste management system in Nigeria and other developing countries with similar settings. Nine databases were searched and 34 studies met the following inclusion criteria: evaluation of the role of informal waste collectors, recycling and solid waste management in developing countries. Most of the evaluated studies (97%, n = 33) acknowledged the significant environmental and socio-economic roles played by the informal waste collectors and scavengers in developing countries. The studies identified the following as barriers to inclusive waste management in Nigeria: repressive policy, unhygienic waste collection methods, lack of evidence to support activity, and low quality and quantity of secondary materials.49 A study undertaken to evaluate the quantity and composition of household
  33. 33. 33 Solid waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling in Can Tho city, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into 10 physical categories and 83 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 285.28 g per capita per day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for 80.02% and 11.73%. The household solid waste generation rate per capita per day was positively correlated with the population density and urbanization level, although it was negatively correlated with the household size.50 This paper presents one strand of the findings from a comprehensive synthesis review of the policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention. The focus here is on how to measure waste prevention: it is always difficult to measure what is not there. The evidence reveals a range of methods for monitoring and evaluation, including self- weighing; pre- and post-intervention surveys, focusing on attitudes and behaviours and/or on participation rates; tracking waste arising via collection data and/or compositional analysis; and estimation/modeling. There appears to be an emerging consensus that no single approach is sufficient on its own, rather a 'hybrid' method using a suite of monitoring approaches - usually including surveys, waste tonnage data and monitoring of campaigns - is recommended.51 This paper reports a synthesis of policy-relevant evidence on household waste prevention, based on a UK portfolio of primary research and a broad international review. Waste prevention was defined as strict avoidance, reduction at source(e.g. home composting) and reuse (for the product's original purpose) – recycling was excluded. Waste prevention is not one but many behaviours; the review revealed a general
  34. 34. 34 hierarchy in their popularity, from donating goods to charity at the top; through small reuse behaviours around the home; to activities involving changes in consumption habits at the bottom;one estimate is that 60% of the public does at least one of these activities,some of the time. The public can be engaged through local or national campaigns, with a wide range of interventions and communications approaches available. The main opportunities are to ensure more strategic planning for reuse by local authorities and better co-ordination and joint working with the third sector.52 A case study conducted to understand how recycling programmes affect the quantity of waste and sorting activities in Sweden. A set of waste flow indicators is proposed, which together with generic system descriptions can facilitate comparisons of different collections systems. The evaluation of collection systems depends on the system boundaries and will always be site-specific to some degree. Various factors are relevant, e.g. environmental objectives, technical function, operating costs, types of recyclable materials collected separately, property-close collection or drop-off systems, economic incentives, information strategies, residential structure, social codes, etc. Kerb side collection of recyclables and weight-based billing led to increased waste sorting activities in the case study.53 Waste legislation in the United Kingdom (UK) implements European Union (EU)Directives and Regulations. However, the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in household or municipal situations, household hazardous waste (HHW), does not occur in UK, or EU, legislation. The EU's Hazardous Waste Directive and European Waste Catalogue are the principal legislation influencing HHW, although the waste categories described are difficult to interpret. Other legislation also have impacts on
  35. 35. 35 HHW definition and disposal, some of which will alter current HHW disposal practices, leading to a variety of potential consequences. This paper discusses the issues affecting the management of HHW in the UK, including the apparent absence of a HHW-specific regulatory structure. Policy and regulatory measures that influence HHW management before disposal and after disposal are considered, with particular emphasis placed on disposal to landfill.54 4) Knowledge and practice on household waste management A study on secondary school students’ understanding and practices on waste management, examined the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of secondary schools students with regard to waste management, using a structured, self-administered questionnaire, 650 students were surveyed from six secondary schools. Findings revealed that secondary school students from the sampled zones were aware of waste problems on their school compounds, but possessed poor waste management practices. The study showed that propensity for waste management practices differ by sex, class and age of students. Significant relationships were observed between student’s sex, age and class and their level of awareness, knowledge and practices of waste management.55 A study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practices regarding Waste Management in Selected Hostel Students, The study was conducted aiming to find knowledge attitude and practices of University students with respect to waste management. Total 300 students were included in this study. Data collected by self-administered questionnaire, results revealed that knowledge attitude and practices of University students regarding waste management was low, less favorable and moderate respectively and correlation
  36. 36. 36 between knowledge and attitude, attitude and practices was not found, but significant correlation was found between knowledge and practices.56 A study on knowledge and attitude of general population regarding waste management, results shows that, sanitary and environmental conditions are deplorable, Surveyors estimated that 50 percent of the population understood proper solid waste management practices, as well as the environmental and health problems associated with improper management of solid waste.57 A study on Residents Knowledge, Behaviour and Practices of Municipal Solid Waste Management, Results shows that household waste management practices may be influenced by the person who handles the waste. In Chennai one fourth households’ maids dispose the household waste in the bin, Most of the residents in both the cities were using the dustbin or some container for waste collection as was the case with most of the Indian but dustbin was covered in 1/3rdof the household’s only.58 A study on waste management awareness, knowledge, and practices of secondary school teachers, knowledge and practice questionnaire was administered on 240 teachers, The results showed that teachers are aware and knowledgeable about waste management in their schools. However, they possess negative waste management practices. Significant differences were found in teachers’ sex, age, educational qualification, teaching experience, subject of specialization and their knowledge and practice of waste management. According to sex, class taught, and school location. Sex, age, subject specialization, class taught, school location and educational qualification were found to be related to teachers waste management practices.59
  37. 37. 37 In order to characterize household waste management system in Mashad (Northeastof Iran) and evaluate factors which effect on demand for waste collecting services, a field survey was conducted. One hundred ninty eight families were selected according to classified randomized sampling system and data on their socio-economic characters including home area, type (apartment versus other types) and tenure (private versus rental), education, separating solid and organic wastes, family size and income were gathered using questionnaires and direct interview. Results showed that three variables including staying at home during day, home type and family size explained 21% of variations of demand for waste collecting services. The study emphasized on components of pricing and economic motivations as well as education and socio- economic factors for decreasing of household waste production.60 It is a challenge to reduce the ever-increasing flow of waste. In Norway the systems for recycling of organic waste, paper, glass, metals, etc. differ between municipalities, both with regard to organizational and to technological structures. People's behaviour and attitudes regarding (organic) waste recycling were investigated in two municipalities with differing technical and organizational systems. Data came from interviews with municipal employees, questionnaires, focus groups and multi-criteria mapping. People seem to be better informed and more positive about organic waste recycling in one of the municipalities (MH, which has recycling of organic waste) than in the other (MS, which has no such recycling). The institutional context seems to be important for people's behaviour and attitudes towards waste management. This implies that people's recycling behaviour does not only depend on technical and organizational aspects, but also on institutions. On an individual basis, the different systems in the two
  38. 38. 38 municipalities seem to affect people's stated attitudes. These differences diminish when they are in a common setting where process and dialogue stimulate new thoughts and encourage people to act more altruistically.61 A study conducted to investigate per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (rxy=0.236, p<0.05), education level (r xy=0.244, p<0.05) and monthly income (rxy=0.671, p<0.01) of the households. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the amount of waste generated.62 A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2002 on 1365 households in two prefectural-level cities in the Pearl River Delta, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. Three groups of issues are covered in this paper: 1) waste management literacy,concerns, and public participation; 2) waste recycling practices and the potential for waste avoidance; and 3)
  39. 39. 39 public environmental literacy. Data from the previous and the present studies indicate that such voluntary but largely economically driven waste recovery behavior diverts at least 10% of the household waste from the waste stream. Education and income levels are the chief factors affecting littering behavior and the potential for waste avoidance. Contrary to general belief, the local Chinese community is active in microwaste management.63 A study on awareness among urban inhabitants about waste management and its impact on environment was conducted. One hundred and fifty mothers of Punjab were randomly selected to identify their waste management practices. The data were collected through personal interview in which satisfaction from existing waste disposal facilities, perceived effect on health and environment were studied. The result revealed that in 26% families, children were throwing waste here and there, 18.6% households foul smelled from the waste and 14. 6% families did not clean bins regularly. Most respondents were aware of adverse effect of waste material on environment. Majority of the respondents (83.2%) were aware about Malaria. 65.3% reported most annoying problem was accumulated waste in the streets. 86% respondent thought waste disposal was a problem64 A study was conducted to identify the city resident’s current attitude and behaviour related to waste revealed that most perceived garbage as a big problem but there was little awareness on the ways one could contribute to solve it.65 Another study on randomly selected six hundred and sixty two subjects, from the four socio-economic groups within the area to detect real differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to proper solid waste management. The main tool was a standardized questionnaire in which necessary revisions were made. Result revealed
  40. 40. 40 that 83% of those interviewed knew the meaning of the term ‘solid waste’. Only 8% of the residential houses were found to separate the waste. Approximately, 88.6% of those interviewed knew at least one environmental problem attributable to improper management of solid waste. 47% of the respondent stated that uncontrolled heaps of waste posed a health hazard. 40%, 27% and 18% of the respondent were aware that improper management of waste causes air pollution, water pollution and land pollution respectively. 90% of the time, they discard waste indiscriminately.66 Another study on perception on effect of environmental pollutants (polluted air, polluted water and solid waste) on health in Hyderabad city of Andhra Pradesh. 520 respondents were selected by random sampling method. A structured questionnaire was developed to collect data. Questions were focussed on improper disposal of solid waste. Both initial response and response after probing were recorded. The result indicated that 162(31.2%) were illiterate and 358(68.2%) were literates among the respondents, in which only 28.3% were initially aware of the ill effects of the improper disposal of solid waste.67 5) Intervention for household waste management. In another study, a planned teaching programme on environmental health for 54 Anganwadi teachers was conducted, using convenience sampling technique from Udupi district of Karnataka. The research design was an evaluator approach with one group pre- test post-test pre-experimental design. Data collection instruments were developed. Reliability of structured knowledge questionnaire was 0.9. In the pre-test, 32% had good level of knowledge and 68% had average level of knowledge. In the post-test score, 100% had good level of knowledge.68
  41. 41. 41 A study conducted to analyze the information of people possess in relation to hazardous waste and to the use of available equipment, and conducting a post-evaluation of the effectiveness of an environmental communication campaign conducted by the Madrid City Council and aimed at providing awareness of the existence of new fixed recycling centers (FRC) and mobile recycling centers (MRC). Qualitative data was categorized using content analysis followed by chi-squared tests, considering some socio- demographic characteristics of the sample, such as age or place of residence (district). Communication campaigns influenced citizen awareness of what constituted hazardous waste, of how to properly separate waste and of the existence of FRCs and MRCs. However, few citizens actually used FRCs or MRC (18% across four districts), a fact that might be related to a lack of knowledge of downstream waste treatment issues, or to self- limiting hindrances to householders, such as distance to recycling centers.69 Open burning for waste disposal is, in many countries, the dominant source of Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PCDD/PCDF/PCB) release to the environment. To generate emission factors for open burning, experimental pile burns of about 100 kg of household waste were conducted with emissions sampling. From these experiments and others conducted by the same authors it is found that less compaction of waste or active mixing during the fire--"stirring"--promotes better combustion (as evidenced by lower CO/CO(2) ratio) and reduces emissions of PCDD/PCDF/PCB; an intuitive but previously undemonstrated result. These experiments also support previous results suggesting PCDD/PCDF/PCB generation in open burning - while still highly variable - tends to be greater in the later (smoldering) phases of burning when the CO/CO(2) ratio increases.70
  42. 42. 42 A system with property-close source-separation of thirteen different solid household waste fractions in a residential area in southern Sweden, including the implementation of new systems for source-separation of food waste, waste electric and electronic equipment, hazardous waste and fat, oils and grease was monitored over a 2- year period. Continuous weighing of disposed waste and repeated waste composting analyses were used to investigate recycling behaviour of households in the area and to monitor the composition of disposed waste. Results show that 34% of the total amount of generated waste was currently diverted to material recycling. The removal of recyclables from residual waste could be significantly increased, as more than 80% of all waste in the area (bulky waste excluded) was either covered by the Producer Responsibility Ordinances on packaging and newspaper or constitutes food waste suitable for biogas production. Food waste still represented almost 30% of all residual waste in the study area and was thus the fraction with the greatest potential (on weight basis) for increased source-separation.71 The hypothesis of this research was that attitudes about the management of Bio-degradable municipal waste (BMW) are spatially variable, even within a city of modest (1.2 million) population. For a select number of representative electoral districts in the Dublin, Ireland region, residents were surveyed regarding attitudes towards waste management in general and BMW management in particular. A total of 850 survey responses were collected. Door-to-door interviews produced 688 responses in the residential sector; these were supplemented by 162 responses to a web-based survey. The surveys revealed that the majority of households use local authority, rather than private, waste collection services (both are available). The majority of residents, regardless of the
  43. 43. 43 local authority in which they live, were satisfied with their waste management service. Statistical analyses of the survey responses showed that the local authority in which respondents resided significantly influenced most responses (including waste collection service used, waste service satisfaction and backyard composting activity). The survey responses suggest that targeted intervention strategies would lead to improved diversion rates of BMW.72 Solid waste is considered an urgent environmental health issue in the Palestinian Territory. The aim of this paper was to analyze the current status of residential solid waste (RSW) management in the Palestinian Territory, with the objective of identifying windows for improvement. The results of this study revealed that 90% of households in the Palestinian Territory receive solid waste collection service, about 50% of the households receive this service three times per week or less, leaving a chance for waste pile-up and litter generation. Organic waste (including food waste) was found to account for more than 90% of RSW, providing an opportunity for waste utilization through composting or biogas generation. Additional efforts are required, and some were suggested in this paper, in order to improve the current situation of Palestinian residential solid waste management.73 A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice about solid waste disposal and recycling among students, were carried out. 237 students were included in the study. The instrument of research was a self administered questionnaire containing four sections, were analyzed using SPSS. Knowledge level of 66% of male students was good while 34% was low. The knowledge of 51.4% of females was low. The difference between the knowledge of males and females was significant (p<0.016). Pertaining to
  44. 44. 44 the method of segregation and separation of solid waste, 72.1% believed that the best method was segregation at home and 9.6% deemed that the segregation must be done in the place of disposal. More than 66% of them did not have any action in segregating and recycling of solid waste.74 This chapter dealt with reviews on household waste, health and environmental problems, household waste management, knowledge and practice on household waste management and intervention for household waste management.
  45. 45. 45 CHAPTER 3 Methodology Research approach Research design Schematic representation of the study Setting of the study Population Sample and sampling technique Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria Tools Development of tools Description of the tool Content validity Reliability of the tool Pilot study Data collection process Plan for data analysis
  46. 46. 46 CHAPTER 3 Methodology A system of models, procedures and techniques used to find the result of a research problem is called a research methodology.75 Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It includes the steps, procedures and strategies for gathering and analyzing the data in a research investigation.76 The methodology of the study includes research approach, research design, variables, setting of the study, population, sample and sampling technique, sampling criteria, Tool and Technique, content validity of the tool, reliability of the tool, ethical considerations, pilot study, data collection process and plan for data analysis. This chapter deals with the methodology that was selected by the investigator in order to assess the effect of Structured Teaching Programme on Knowledge and Practice of Household Waste Management among Women Research approach In order to accomplish the main objective of assessing the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on household waste management, a quantitative approach was adopted. A quantitative research is concerned with measurement of phenomena, characteristics, concepts or things. It seeks to describe how much of a characteristic is present. This research method is used to describe variables, examine relationships among variables and determine cause and effect interactions between variables. Its goal is to assess the
  47. 47. 47 effectiveness of structured teaching programme on household waste management in a selected community based on the independent and dependent variables. Research design A research design is the blueprint for conducting a study. The research design guides the researcher in planning and implementing the study in a way that is most likely to achieve the intended goal.77 The research design for this study is one group pre-test post-test design. Quasi experimental study designs were developed to provide alternative means of examining causality in situations not conducive to experimental controls. These designs have been developed to control as many threats to validity as possible in a situation in which at least one of the three components of true experimental design (randomization, control, and manipulation) is lacking. This study was intended to ascertain change in knowledge and practice by women who are subjected to structured teaching programme. Here only one group is observed twice, i.e., before and after introducing the structured teaching programme. The effect of the treatment would be equal to the level of the phenomenon after the treatment minus the level of phenomenon before treatment. So only one group is observed before and after introducing the independent variable and can be represented as: Group Pre test Intervention Post test I O1 X O2 O1: Pre-test before administration of structured teaching programme
  48. 48. 48 X: Administration of structured teaching programme O2: Post testing of the women after administration of structured teaching programme. Using this design, the cause effect relationship between the structured teaching program (independent variable) and knowledge and practice of women on household waste management (dependent variable) to be assessed which is essential for testing the effect of the teaching program. Variables Variables are the conditions or characteristics that the experimenter manipulates controls or observes56. Three types of variables were identified in this study: 1. Independent variable 2. Dependent variable 3. Extraneous variable 1. Independent variable The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher. It is the intervention or treatment that the researcher performs to see the resulting change in the dependent variable. The independent variable is the presumed cause for the resulting effect on the dependent variable. In the present study the independent variable is the individualized structured teaching programme by the investigator. 2. Dependent variable
  49. 49. 49 The dependent variable usually is the variable that the researcher is interested in understanding, explaining or predicting. It is the outcome variable, which is measured or observed following the intervention of the independent variable. In the present study, knowledge and practice scores of pre-test and post-test are the dependent variables. 3. Extraneous variables Extraneous variables are uncontrolled variables that influence the finding of the research study. It confounds the relationship between independent and dependent variable. In the present study the extraneous variables are age, education, religion, income, occupation, marital status and housing and previous knowledge.
  50. 50. 50 Schematic representation of the study Fig 2: Schematic representation of the study Day1 Pretest was done for 160 women using structured questionnaire to assess knowledge on hold waste management. Observation check list to assess the practice on house hold waste management Administration of Structured Teaching Programme to all the samples in the pre-test regarding Household Waste Management On day14 post-test was done for 160 women using the same structured questionnaire to assess knowledge on house hold waste management. Observation check list to assess the practice on house hold waste management
  51. 51. 51 Setting of the study The physical location and conditions in which data collection takes place in a study.78 The study was conducted in wards of Muhamma Gramapanchayath. Population The entire set of individuals or objects having some common characteristics; sometimes called universe.79 Population includes all the possible elements that could be included in research. In the present study the population is Women in age group (25-50) who are holding the primary responsibility of the family of Muhamma Gramapanchayath. Sample and sampling technique Sample is the subset of population that is selected for the study.80 In the present study sample is 160- Women in age group (25-50) who are holding the primary responsibility of the family in Muhamma Gramapanchayath. Sampling technique is the process of selecting cases to represent an entire population so that inferences about the population can be made.81 Stratified random sampling is a probability sampling technique where the researcher divides the entire population into different homogeneous subgroups or strata, and then randomly selects the final subjects proportionately or disproportionately from the different strata.82 The strata divided according to selected traits of the population such as age, gender, religion, socio economic status, diagnosis, education, geographical region, type of institution, type of care, specialization, site of care etc.
  52. 52. 52 In the present study stratified random sampling technique was used to select the samples i.e., the entire Muhamma Gramapanchayath has 16 wards which were divided into 16 strata based on geographical land marks and 10 samples were selected randomly from each strata using lottery method. Inclusion criteria  Women in the age group (25-50yrs) who are holding the primary responsibility of the family.  Women who are willing to take part in the study. Exclusion criteria  Women who are health professionals Tool/Instruments Data collection tools are the procedures or instruments used by the researcher to observe or measure the key variables in the research problem.83 Tool 1: Structured questionnaire to assess the knowledge of house wives regarding house hold waste management. Tool II: Observation check list to assess the practice of house wives regarding house hold waste management. Development/selection of the tool The tool was developed by reviewing the literature from books, journals, periodicals, published and unpublished studies and newspaper article which provided adequate content area and information regarding particular topic. Consultation and discussion with experts from nursing and medicine were also done to prepare the tool.
  53. 53. 53 Description of the Tool In the study the investigator used the following tools: Tool 1: The structured questionnaire consist of two sections Section A consists of Socio-demographic variables-age, type of family, religion, family income, educational qualification and housing. Section B consist of 21 multiple choice questions with 3 alternative responses including one correct answer to assess the knowledge level of samples regarding house hold waste management among women Scoring interpretation of knowledge assessment questionnaire Each right answer will get 1 mark and wrong answer carries 0 marks. Total score is 21. The respondents were required to select the best possible option by marking [] against the acceptable answer. The answer key was formulated for scoring. Each question scored one for correct answer and zero for wrong answer. The highest possible score was twenty-one and the lowest score was zero. Tool -II: Observation check list to assess the practice of house wives regarding house hold waste management. The investigators by visiting each family observe the house hold premises, their practice of household waste management and mark accordingly in the check list yes or no. Total score is 15. Content validity Content validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to be measured.84
  54. 54. 54 The structured questionnaire was prepared by the investigator and was sent to subject experts for validity. In Section A, there was 100% agreement for 7 items. For Section B, 100% agreements for 21 items were made accordingly. The check list was prepared by the investigator and was sent to subject experts for validity. In this there was 100% agreement for 15 items out of 20. The structured teaching programme was prepared by the investigator in English and was given to subject experts for content validity using the criteria given to them. The criteria check list included content coverage, appropriateness, adequacy, sequence, relevance, logical order, and simplicity of language. And corrections were made accordingly as per the suggestions given by the experts. Reliability of the tool Reliability of research instrument is defined as the extent to which the instrument yields the same result on repeated measure. It is then concerned with consistency, accuracy and homogeneity.85 Reliability of the questionnaire was established by split half method. The test was administered to 5 women after obtaining informed consent. Correlation was found using Karl Pearson’s, Correlation coefficient r=0.87, which indicate that the tool is reliable. Reliability of the observation check list was established by inter rated method. The check list was given to two of my colleagues and they observed five houses each and the Correlation coefficient s =0.97, which indicate that the tool is reliable.
  55. 55. 55 Pilot study Pilot study is a miniature of the main study.86 Research proposal including the data collection tool was presented before the Institutional Ethical committee. After making corrections suggested by the ethical committee the investigator got the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical committee. After obtaining permission from the Gramapanchayath president of Thanneermukom Gramapanchayath a pilot study was conducted among 16 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All the samples were collected by stratified random sampling method. After getting the informed consent, structured questionnaire was given to all samples, they took 20-30min to answer the question and also practice on waste management was assessed by the investigator using observation check list. Then structured teaching programme was given to the whole samples. The post test was conducted on the 14th day with the same questionnaire and check list. The data was analyzed with inferential and differential statistics. The study was found to be feasible and practicable Data collection process After getting permission from Gramapanchayath President of Muhamma gramapanchayath the data was collected in two phases. In Phase I, the 16 wards of the panchayath were selected as 16 strata using Stratified random sampling and 160 samples were selected from the setting i.e., 10 women were selected from each strata using lottery method. The investigator established rapport with the samples and obtained an informed written consent after explaining the importance and the purpose of the study. Pre-test questionnaire was served to each one at
  56. 56. 56 home and instructed to read and answer the questions and practice level was assessed by the investigator using observation check list. The duration taken for conducting pre-test was 1 week. In phase II the samples were provided with a structured teaching programme. Structured teaching programme was given in group for each stratum using instructional aids on house hold waste management. The average time taken was 30 minutes. A post -test was conducted on the 14th day by administering the same questionnaire and observation check list. Plan for data analysis The data was analyzed in terms of objectives of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of data involves translation of information’s collected during the course of study into interpretable and meaning full.87 The data was entered in the master sheet. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage) and inferential statistics (chi-square test and‘t’ test) is used for data analysis. Descriptive statistics88 Frequency and percentage distribution was used to analyses the socio- demographic data of the subjects. Inferential statistics89 Chi – square test was used to find out the association between knowledge and practice level of women and selected socio demographic variable and‘t’ test was used to find out the effect of structured teaching programme.
  57. 57. 57 CHAPTER 4 Analysis and interpretation Section 1: - Description of sample characteristics Section 2:- Distribution of women according to the knowledge on household waste management Section 3: - Distribution of women according to practice of household waste management Section 4: - Correlation between the level of knowledge and Practice on household waste management Section 5:- Effect of structured teaching programme in terms of knowledge scores on household waste management. Section 6: - Effect of structured teaching programme in terms of Practice scores on household waste management. Section 7: - Association between the level of knowledge on household waste management and selected socio demographic variables. Section 8: - Association between Practices on household waste management and selected socio demographic variables.
  58. 58. 58 CHAPTER 4 Analysis and interpretation Introduction Analysis of data is defined as the systematic organization and synthesis of research data and the testing of research hypothesis using those data.90 This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data collected to determine the effect of structured teaching programme on household waste management among women in Muhamma gramapanchayath. The data has been analyzed and synthesized in the light of objectives and hypothesis of the study using descriptive and inferential statistics (chi-square test and paired t test) The data collected is organized and presented under the following headings: Section 1: Distribution of sample based on Socio demographic data. Section 2: Distribution of sample according to the knowledge on household waste management Section 3: Distribution of sample according to practice of household waste management Section 4: Correlation between the level of knowledge and Practice on household waste management Section 5: Effect of structured teaching programme in terms of knowledge scores on household waste management Section 6: Effect of structured teaching programme in terms of Practice scores on household waste management
  59. 59. 59 Section 7: Association between the level of knowledge on household waste management and selected socio demographic variables. Section 8: Association between Practices on household waste management and selected socio demographic variables. SECTION I: Distribution of sample based on Socio demographic data 160 women were selected randomly based on the inclusion criteria from wards of Muhamma Gramapanchayath. Pre-test was conducted for 160 women and were given structured teaching programme followed by post-test. The women’s characteristics are described under the sub headings of age, educational qualification, occupation, family income, marital status, religion, housing and family.
  60. 60. 60 Table 1 Frequency distribution and percentage of Sample according to age (n = 160) Age Frequency Percentage <30 yrs 41 25.6 30-40 yrs 56 35.0 > 40yrs 63 39.4 Total 160 100.0 Table 1: Shows that majority of them (39.4%) belongs to the age group >40years.
  61. 61. 61 Table 2 Frequency distribution and percentage of Sample according to family (n = 160) Family Frequency Percentage Nuclear family 127 79.4 Joint 33 20.6 Total 160 100.0 Table 2: Depicts that majority of them (79.4%) were living in nuclear family and 20.6% were living in joint family. There was no one from extended family.
  62. 62. 62 Table 3 Frequency distribution and percentage of Sample according to religion (n = 160) Religion Frequency Percentage Christian 37 23.1 Hindu 114 71.3 Muslim 9 5.6 Total 160 100.0 Table 3: Reveals that majority of them (71.3%) were Hindus, 23.1 were Christians and 5.6% were Muslims.
  63. 63. 63 Table 4 Frequency distribution and percentage of Sample according to marital status (n = 160) Marital status Frequency Percentage Married 154 96.3 Single 5 3.1 Divorced/widower 1 .6 Total 160 100.0 Table 4: Depict all most all were married 96.3%.
  64. 64. 64 TABLE 5 Frequency distribution and percentage of Sample according to income (n = 160) Income Frequency Percentage <5000 Rs 128 80.0 5001-10000 Rs 30 18.8 >10000 Rs 2 1.3 Total 160 100.0 Table 5: Depicts that majority 80% had income less than 5000.
  65. 65. 65 TABLE 6 Frequency distribution and percentage of Sample according to education (n = 160) Education Frequency Percentage Up to SSLC 117 73.1 Pre-degree 38 23.8 Graduate 5 3.1 Total 160 100.0 Table 6: Reveals that majority of them (73.1%) studied up to SSLC, 23.% of them studied up to pre degree.
  66. 66. 66 TABLE 7 Frequency distribution and percentage of Sample according to occupation (n = 160) Occupation Frequency Percentage Unemployed 114 71.3 Laborer 24 15.0 Self employed 22 13.8 Total 160 100.0 Table 7: Shows that majority of them (71.3%) were unemployed.
  67. 67. 67 TABLE 8 Frequency distribution and percentage of Sample according to type of house (n = 160) Housing Frequency Percentage Pucca 130 81.3 Kutcha 23 14.4 Terraced 7 4.4 Total 160 100.0 Table 8: Shows that majority (81.3%) was living in pucca house, 14.4% were living in kutcha house and 4.4% were living in terraced house.
  68. 68. 68 SECTION II: DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE ACCORDING TO THE KNOWLEDGE ON HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT (n = 160) Fig 3: Distribution of sample according to level of knowledge on household waste management Fig 3: Depicts that (65.6%) of the women had average knowledge regarding house hold waste management, 28.1% had poor knowledge and 6.3% had good knowledge regarding house hold waste management 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0-7 poor 8-14 average 15-21 good 28.1 % 65.6 % 6.3 % Knowledge Level
  69. 69. 69 SECTION III: DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLE ACCORDING TO PRACTICE OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT (n = 160) Fig 4: Distribution of sample according to level of practice on household waste management Fig 4: Reveals that majority (86.9%) of the sample were not practicing the house hold waste management. 86.9 % 12.5 % 0.6 % Practice Score
  70. 70. 70 SECTION IV: CORRELATION BETWEEN KNOWLEDGEAND PRACTICE OF SAMPLE ON HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT. TABLE 9 Knowledge and practice (n = 160) Knowledge Practice Total Chi- Square Df P value Poor Average Good Poor 45 0 0 45 Average 93 11 1 105 62.273a 4 .000 Good 1 9 0 10 Total 139 20 1 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 9 shows that the obtained value is greater than the table value. So there is association between knowledge and practice levels of sample regarding household waste management at 0.00 level of significance. Moreover, the correlation between knowledge and practice revealed (0.767788628) positive correlation.
  71. 71. 71 SECTION V: EFFECT OF STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME IN TERMS OF KNOWLEDGE SCORES. TABLE 10 (n = 160) Knowledge scores Mean Standard Deviation T Pre test Post test 8.8688 18.7938 2.48548 1.70864 70.577** df = 159 ** significant at .000 The Mean column in the paired- t test table displays the average difference between the pre and post-tests of the study. The mean difference in pre-test and post test score is 9.925. The Standard Deviation column displays the standard deviation of the average difference score which is 1.77881. The 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference provides an estimate of the boundaries between which the true mean difference lies in 95% of all sample participated in this study. The t value is 70.577and it is significant at P <.000.This indicate that the average increase of 9.925 score is not due to chance variation, and is because of the effect
  72. 72. 72 of the Structured teaching programme on household waste management. SECTION VI: EFFECTOF STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME IN TERMS OF PRACTICE SCORES. TABLE 11 (n = 160) Practice Mean Standard Deviation T Pre test Post test 3.8750 6.9500 1.46124 7.32859 5.253** df = 159 ** significant at 000 The Mean column in the paired- t test table displays the average difference between the pre and post-tests of the study. The mean difference in pre-test and post test score is 3.075. The Standard Deviation column displays the standard deviation of the average difference score which is 5.86735. The 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference provides an estimate of the boundaries between which the true mean difference lies in 95% of all sample participated in this study. The t value is 5.253 and it is significant at P <.000.This indicate that the average increase of 3.075 score is not due to chance variation, and is because of the effect of the Structured teaching programme on household waste management.
  73. 73. 73 SECTION VII: ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELECTED SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AND THE LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE OF SAMPLE REGARDING HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT. TABLE 12 Knowledge and Educational status (n = 160) Educational status Knowledge score Total Chi- Square df P value Poor Average Good Up to SSLC Pre-degree Graduate 41 69 7 117 3 32 3 38 11.074a 4 .026 1 4 0 5 Total 45 105 10 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) =9.49 Table 12 depicts that the obtained value is greater than the table value. So there is association between knowledge levels and educational status of sample regarding household waste management at 0.026 level of significance.
  74. 74. 74 TABLE 13 Knowledge and Occupation (n = 160) Occupation Knowledge Total Chi- Square df P value Poor Average Good Unemployed 38 69 7 114 Laborer 3 20 1 24 3.232a 4 .520 Self employed 4 16 2 22 Total 45 105 10 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 13 reveals that the obtained value is less than the table value. So there is no association between knowledge levels and occupation of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance.
  75. 75. 75 TABLE 14 Knowledge and Type of house (n = 160) χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 14 depicts that the obtained value is less than the table value. So there is no association between knowledge levels and type of house of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance. Type of house Knowledge Total Chi- Square df P value Poor Average Good Pucca 39 83 8 130 Kutcha 6 16 1 23 3.571a 4 .467 Terraced 0 6 1 7 Total 45 105 10 160
  76. 76. 76 TABLE 15 Knowledge and Age (n = 160) Age Knowledge Total0-7 8-14 15-21 Chi- square df P value <30 yrs 9 30 2 41 3.232 4 0.520 30-40 yrs 18 36 2 56 > 40yrs 18 39 6 63 Total 45 105 10 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 15 reveals that the obtained value is less than the table value. So there is no association between knowledge levels and age of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance.
  77. 77. 77 TABLE 16 Knowledge and Religion (n = 160) Religion Knowledge Total0-7 8-14 15-21 Chi- square df P value Christian 12 23 2 37 Hindu 28 79 7 114 5.283 4 0.259 Muslim 5 3 1 9 Total 45 105 10 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 16 reveals that the obtained value is less than the table value. So there is no association between knowledge levels and religion of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance.
  78. 78. 78 TABLE 17 Knowledge and Type of family (n = 160) Type of family Knowledge Total0-7 8-14 15-21 Chi- square df P value Nuclear family 36 83 8 127 Joint 9 22 2 33 .020 2 0.990 Total 45 105 10 160 χ2 (2, 0.05) = 5.99 Table 17 reveals that the obtained value is less than the table value. So there is no association between Knowledge levels and Type of family of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance.
  79. 79. 79 SECTION VIII: ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELECTED SOCIO DEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES AND THE LEVEL OF PRACTICE OF SAMPLE ON HOUSEHOLD WASTE MANAGEMENT. TABLE 18 Practice and Educational status (n = 160) Educational status Practice Total Chi- Square df P value Poor Average Good s Uptosslc 107 10 0 117 Predegree 30 8 0 38 39.533 4 .000 Graduate 2 2 1 5 Total 139 20 1 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 18 shows that the obtained value is greater than the table value. So there is association between practice levels and educational status of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance.
  80. 80. 80 TABLE 19 Practice and Occupation (n = 160) χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 19 shows that the obtained value is lesser than the table value. So there is no association between practice levels and occupation of women regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance. Occupation Practice Total Chi- Square df P value Poor Average Good Unemployed 101 12 1 114 Labourer 21 3 0 24 2.873 4 .579 Self employed 17 5 0 22 Total 139 20 1 160
  81. 81. 81 TABLE 20 Practice and Type of house (n = 160) Type of house Practice Total Chi- Square df P value Poor Average Good Pucca 112 18 0 130 Kutcha 22 0 1 23 10.870 4 .028 Terraced 5 2 0 7 Total 139 20 1 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 20 clearly shows that the obtained value is greater than the table value. So there is association between Practice levels and Type of house of sample regarding household waste management at 0.028 level of significance.
  82. 82. 82 TABLE 21 Practice and Age (n = 160) Age Practice Total0-5 6-10 11-15 Chi- square df P value <30 yrs 35 6 0 41 30-40 yrs 51 5 0 56 2.600 4 0.627 > 40yrs 53 9 1 63 Total 139 20 1 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 21 shows that the obtained value is lesser than the table value. So there is no association between age and practice levels of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance.
  83. 83. 83 TABLE 22 Practice and Religion (n = 160) Religion Practice Total0-5 6-10 11-15 Chi- square df P value Christian 33 4 0 37 Hindu 98 15 1 114 0.579 Muslim 8 1 0 9 4 0.965 Total 139 20 1 160 χ2 (4, 0.05) = 9.49 Table 22 shows that the obtained value is lesser than the table value. So there is association between practice levels and religion of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance.
  84. 84. 84 TABLE 23 Practice and Type of family (n = 160) Type of family Practice Total0-5 6-10 11-15 Chi- square df P value Nuclear family 112 14 1 127 Joint 27 6 0 33 1.456 2 0.483 Total 139 20 1 160 χ2 (2, 0.05) = 5.99 Table 23 shows that the obtained value is lesser than the table value. So there is no association between practice levels and Type of family of sample regarding household waste management at 0.05 level of significance.
  85. 85. 85 CHAPTER 5 Results Objectives Hypothesis Results
  86. 86. 86 CHAPTER 5 Results This chapter gives a brief account of the present study and results Objectives  Assess the knowledge on household waste management among women by using a structured questionnaire.  Assess the Practice on household waste management among women by using an observation check list.  Determine the effect of structured teaching programme on household waste management among women.  Determine the association between the knowledge and practice on household waste management among women.  Determine the association between the knowledge and selected demographic variable on household waste management among women.  Determine the association between the practice and selected demographic variable on household waste management among women. Hypotheses H1--There is a significant difference in knowledge scores on house hold waste management among women before and after intervention. H2 --There is a significant difference in practice scores on house hold waste management among women before and after intervention.

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