Analysis is the process of organizing and
synthesizing the data so as to answer
research questions and test hypothesis.
Analysis referred as a method of organizing
data in such a way that research questions
can be answered and hypothesis can be
Analysis is the process of breaking a
complex topic into smaller parts to gain
better understanding of it.
STEPS OF QUANTITATIVE DATA
STEPS IN DATA
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE
Interpretations must be made in light of
Critical examination of the each element of
Careful consideration and recognition of the
limitations of the research study
Interpretations must be only based on the
Each part, aspect, and segment of the
analyzed result must receive close attentions
Measures to condense data (frequency and
percentage distribution through tabulation
and graphic presentations)
Measures of central tendency
Measures of dispersion
Measures of relationship (correlation
MEASURES TO CONDENSE
General principles of
The table should be precise, understandable,
Every table should have title, which is placed at
the top of the table. The title must describe the
content clearly and precisely.
Items should be arranged alphabetically or
according to size, importance, and causal
relationship to facilitate comparison.
Rows and columns are to be compared with
one another, and should therefore have similar
The contents of the table, as a whole as well as
item-wise in each column and row should be
defined clearly and fully.
The unit of measurement must be clearly
Percentage can be given in parenthesis or
can be worked out to one decimal figure to
draw the reader attention to the fact that the
figure is a percentage and not an absolute
Totals can be placed at the bottom of the
Explanatory cues can be placed directly
beneath the table for any explanatory
Two or three small tables are to be preferred
PARTS OF A TABLE:
Caption and stubs:
TYPES OF THE TABLES:
Frequency Distribution Table:
GRAPHS AND DIAGRAMS
The main uses
It is one of the most systematic and concise
ways in which statistical results may be
They give overall view of entire data.
The tabular appearance is easy to
assimilate and more appealing than the
same data presented in text.
The data becomes much more easy to
understand and memorize.
It facilitates comparison of data represented
in different columns and rows.
Types of diagram and graphs:
cumulative frequency curve
proportional bar diagram