TS. NGUV£N VAN HIEN
AUTOCAD
CHO TU OONG HOA THIET KE• •
Sach dung cM sinh vien cac trllilng kY thu(lt
(Tai bdn ldn flut ha...
Ngay nay khoa h9C kj thutjt phat triln rat nhanh chong, doi hoi m6i thanh vien
trang xii h~i phdi thudng xuyin njp nht)t k...
CHUONG J
? -' ....
MO DAU VE AUTOCAD
1.1. GIOI THI¢U AUTOCAD
Trang th~p ky 90, vi¢c khai thac di~n tmio ia van d~ hang dri...
vt!-c ley thu~t va trong silO xuilt. No thvc sv thay d6i v~ chilt trong cOng tac thii!t ki!, gia cOng
va mang l~i nang sua...
• Dill dIng
ACADI2 can may co 6 cling. Vai ACADI2 <Ii. cling can t6i thitu 20MB b(> nha, nhtmg
thea y~u cilu phai la 50MB....
utllitles loaded
Hlnh I-I: MrmhlnhACADl2.
CUsor menu button 6 - Pull-Down Menu
Pick bullon
I'
I I
Ilnh 1-2.
L
Enter button...
Donut
Ellipse
Polygon
Rectangle
Insert...
3D Surfaces
Hatch...
Text
Dimensions
Hlnh 1·3: Pull-Down Menu ellll ACADI2.
B<,l...
• Ctfc c6ch~""h~41lm
+ GO ~Ao'-tQa dQ tuy~t d6i ella diem
+ GO vllQ tQa dQ hrrmg d6i ella diem
+ DUng-phim chul)t, tablet ...
+ H~ f(j(j d¢ IIg/(oi dllllg UCS :
H¢ nay do b,!-n tl! t'!-o va co the d~t abal ky vj 11'1 nao b<;ln mu6n. No giup b~n ve ...
LENHNEW
U;nh NEW de bar dAu ban ve
maio Sall khi gQi I¢nh n ~y mQl hQp
tho<.ti "Create NCi Drawing" xua'
hien nhu hlnh 1-7...
_Trong d6 b<.tn chQn thl! rnl;lc chua t¢p ban ve dn matrong 0 "Directories". •
_0 hQp "Files" b<;tn dung con tro chuQt kfc...
Report formal: (Examples)
I. Decimal degrees 45.0000
2. Degree/Minutes/Seconds 45 d O' 0"
3. Grad 50.0000 g
4. Radiant 0.7...
Sa1,l khi cho diem g6c trlii duai, ACAD nhac b<;m cho di~m g6c phai tren cua mien chu
nh~t gi6i h'.l-n ve:
Upper right com...
CHUONG 2
, - - .,
CAC LI;NH VE CO BAN
2.1. POINT: YO di.!m
* each gQi I~nh POINT til Menu:
.-----------------,
Screen Menu...
• each gqi l~nh PLINE til Menu;
r-----------------~
Screen Menu> DRAW> Pline
Menu Bar > DRAW > Pline
• Go l~nh til blm phi...
('ro.100)
pi
p
P"
70
70
ffinh2-3
2.4. CIRCLE: VO duilng tron
P8
PS
'* each gQi l¢nh CIRCLE til Menu:
mnh 2·4
,------------...
Enter tangent spec:
Entersecondtangentspec:
Radius:
2.5. ARC: Vi! cung tron
<chi duemg thti: nh~t,PI>
<-chi va~ duemg thu ...
•Center/<Start pPint>: <coo di<!m PI>
Center/Encl/<Second point>: E
End poind: <cho diim cu6i P2>
Angle/Direction/Radius/<...
• G5 l~nh tir ban phim:
Command: polygon
Number of side<...>: <cho s6 c~nh da giac>
Edge/<Center of polygon>: <cho Him P, ...
- Ve.lip bOi Ill'" va 2 ban tr~c
Command: ellipse
<Axis endpoint I>/Center: C
Center of ellipse: <cho tam P clla elip>
Axi...
Mouse, Thb1et). Khi di chuyen thi~t bj chi ditm (~n phfm pick chuot vaJe) ACAD se t~o ra
lo~t cae do~ thlkg fill ngan nOi ...
* Go l¢nh til: bim phim:
Command: snap
Snap spacing or ON/OFF/AspeclRfttate/Style<...>:
B~n dap dong nhac nay bOi cac 1tpl...
De gqi l¢nh nay h'.'n- chi cful them dAu nh<iy "'" tnr6c ten l¢nh c~n ra .thVc hi¢n.
Vi dJ,t: Dang dung l~nh PLINE rna b""...
+ OSI/ap t(rc 111m: hf}l1 co the dung OSNAPMODE ttk Ihoi (1 Mn) blmg dch h[im phim chuQt giua (3)
hay lin phrm Shift+Niim ...
CHUONG3
cAc L~NH BIEN T~P vA TRA c(tu
Trong khi t~o l~p ban ve b~ thuOng xuy~n phai bien t~p: dy xoa, ph~c h6i d6i tuqng
b...
* each gc;>i l~nh ERASE til Menu:
,------------------,
* Go l~nh- tu ban phim:
Command:
Screen Menu> EDIT> Erase
Menu Bar ...
TRIM
Ch~t tia do~n thua ella d6i tuqng ve bdi cae c~nh dao dt (edge).
:I: each gQi l¢nh lRIM til Menu:
r-----------------~...
COpy
4nh nay de sao chep cae d6i tuqrtg Wi vi trl maio No gi6ng l~nh MOVE, chi ~hac Iil
d6i tugng ell vAn gift nguy~n.
• G...
Select object: <chQn doi tuqng de scale>
Base point: <cho diem cO' sCi>
<Scale factor>/Reference:
Di dap dong nba.c nay. b...
*' G6 I~nh tu ban phim:
Command:
Select object:
First point of mirIOr line:
Second point:
Delete old objeet?<N>:
mirror
<c...
ARRAY
B<:Ifl dung l¢nh nay de sao chep d6i tUQ'Ilg thanh I ming g6m nhieu d6i tuqng cung ml)t
la.n. Mimg do co the sap xep...
toan mang la 1600
va trong khi sao khong quay d6i hlqng, va hlnh sau co quay doi lUqng
(hlnh 3-12).
Hlnh goc Sao mang kh6n...
IDnh 3-14 minh hQa di~u do:
• • " •Jl
,0.,. • •
'.J '..J"
E
" E E
II
U.,.
'U 'U
.,. ~. .,.
Hinh 3-14.
CHAMFER
L~nh nay de ...
Tni loi P: de vat cho m~t da tuy~n Polyline.
Truimg hqp nay gi6ng nhu l¢nh FILLET.
Chu y: Neu bl,m Ilfy cll) dai vat bflng...
+ Nt'!u b<.1.fi tni Uri B: Truang hqp nay b<:tn da d~nh nghia cac kh6i (BLOCK) vi d~ nhll:
DIEM, DOAN, VUONG, v.v... rna m...
Chu thleh: ACADl2 con e6 l~nh DDCH-
PROP de bi.1n lhay d6i de d~e tinh ella d6i luqng qUH
hQp tho,!-i nhl1 hlnh 3- 19.
DDE...
. + S: st'ta Polyline thanh duemg cong trem c6 the dieu khitn dugc til cac dinh clla Polyline
nhl1 la cac di~m khung. B"lO...
NextiPreviouslBreaklinsertiMove/RegenlSlraighlenl
TangentIWilh/eXil<N>:
Ok h!a chQn d6 co y nghia nhu sau:
- N va P: de di...
ehU y: Nt!"u b~ ch9n dOl).n thiing hay cung tron khOng dugc 'Ie bCri I¢nh Polyline, ACAD siS nh.k
Entity selected is not a...
** ROTA1E **
<Rotate angle>! Base point/Copy/Undo!eXit: <cho gOc quay>
+ SCALE mode: B~ go "SC" dAp dong nhac ",** SfRETrn...
+ OtQn Group va End: hie la m~t nh6m l~nh tnrac do dugc coi la m~t l~nh khi dung
I~nh U hay UNDO. Group bM d!u, End I. kl!...
AREA (di~n lich)
L¢nh nay d~ doh di¢n ticb, chu vi eua hmh kin.
• C3ch gQi I~nh AREA til Menu:
rl-Sc-ree-n-M'-e-n-U->-IN-Q...
CHrfONG4
-" ~ - -DIEU KHIEN MAN HINH
4.1. Li!:NH ZOOM
L¢nh ZOOM cho phep thu, phong hioh anh tren mall hlnh rna vAn gill n...
+ Dinamic (D): IlJa ch9n nay thuemg de ZOOM vm t6c d¢ cao. Sau khi chqn "D" tf~n
man hlnh xuat hi~n dau "x" d dung tim cua...
4.3. LtNH VIEW
Nhi~u khi b~ phili "tnrqt" di. l~ nhieu lin dt xern anh cae philo eua ban ve Ian. Nh~
v~y b",n phai si'r dv...
.... each gQi l~nh VIEWRES ti'r Menu:
,--------------------,
Screen Menu> DISPLAY> Viewres
• Go l¢nti til ban phim:
Comman...
,
CIWONG5
G.I;CH M~T CAT. GHI KicH THlJOC._i _ . , _
VIET CHO CHO BAN VE
5.1. GACH MAT ckr
ACAD su dung J¢nh HATCII hOflC ...
+ 6 Pattern Type (m~u
S<,lch): Irong 0 nily e6 2 dong
Iva chQn :
- Stored ',latch Pattern:
ch<;>n dc m~lI g'.lch da duac
J...
0).Normal b).O...ler • c).lgnore
Hinh 5-4
+ () exploded Hatch: (phan ra kh6i gl,lch sQc)
Tilt d cac duang g~ch sQc duqc xe...
baa cua mi~n g<;lch sQc, b<;tJl dung dc each chQn d6i tuqng de tra 10i dong nhi1c "Select
object:".
d. View sellections
Nh...
Angle for cross hatch line<...>: <cho gOc nghieng>
Spacing between Line<...>: <cho khming each cac duemg g~ch>
Double hatc...
Dimension text <...>: 40
+ ANG: de! ghi kich thl1ac g6c. p,
Dim: ANG
Select are, circle, line or RETURN:
- Nell g6c do cuu...
First angle endpoint: <chQn mut c<;lnh thu 1>
Second angle endpoint: <ch<;>n mut qInh thu 2>
Dimension arcc line location(...
To point: .J
Dimension text<....>: <cho chii so kich thuoc van>
Vi d~: (hlnh 5-14)
Dill): LEA
Leader start: P1
To point: P...
5.2.2. Cae I~nh hi~u ehlnh kich (huac
+ OBL (Oblique): dung M chinh duang
d6ng nghi~ng di so voi khoang each can ghi
kich ...
+ UPDATE: c~p nh~t.
L~nh nay Qung de c~p nMt cae kkh thUC1c dang t6n t<.ti. thea ki~u, bien, chu so kfch
nlac dang t6n ~i....
+ DirnDLI: - kholmg each - dinh khoing each giii'a cac duang kfch thuoc song song
nhau. (Default = 0.3800).
+ DirnEXE: - k...
* Go 19nh IiI bim phfm:
Command: dim
Dim: <el1O len bien vao>
Current value<...>. New value: <eho gift II'! bien>
Chu Ihic...
- Extention Above Line: djnh khoang vlrqt
ctm dlfo:ng dong qua duong kfch thuac (DimEXE)
- Feature Offset: djnh khoimg ha ...
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744
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4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744

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4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744

  1. 1. TS. NGUV£N VAN HIEN AUTOCAD CHO TU OONG HOA THIET KE• • Sach dung cM sinh vien cac trllilng kY thu(lt (Tai bdn ldn flut hai) AUTODESK NHA XUAT BAN GlAo Dl,IC ..
  2. 2. Ngay nay khoa h9C kj thutjt phat triln rat nhanh chong, doi hoi m6i thanh vien trang xii h~i phdi thudng xuyin njp nht)t kiin thuc mCri, c6ng ngh? mCri. Tin h9C dang dUf1c ung dlfng r~ng riii va co hi~u qud cao trong cae linh v¥c cua dlii s6ng, trong khoa hqe kj thutjt va quan [y, kinh doanh. Trang vi~c tl! dqng hoa thiet_ ke'va dilu khie"n san xuat, -tin hqc cung dang dU{1c ling dlfng nhie'u. Phon mbn AutoCAD cua hang Autodesk dang dU{1c sri dlfng ngay cang r~ng r{ii, diJc bi~t trong thilt kl cac ban vi' kiln true, xdy d1fng, ve ca khi, di~n tu, hdng kh6ng, bdn dd, sa d6 v.v... 6 Vi4t Nam nhie'u lfnh VIfC san xmit, khoa hqc ky thUtjt va doi sling dang doi hoi cac ky thutjt vien sri dl!ng ttIt phon me'm AutoCAD trong cong vi?c cua minh. CU6'n sach nay t{lO dieu ki~n cho b{ln dflc khai thac AutoCAD mt)t each de dang, co phucmg phap. No dUf/e duc kit III nhilng niim giang dflY cho sinh vien cac truang ky thutjt va cae ca quan thilt ke~ Tiii li¢u L·O 3 phon: - Phon mt)t: tll chucmg 1 den chuang 8, trinh bay cach ltjp ban vi' phJng (2D); - {'han hai: tll chuang 9 den chucmg 12, trinh bay cach t{lO ban vi'm6 hlnh kh6ng gian (3D); each xudt m~t ban vi'ma hl'nh sang phdn mem khac va ra giay; ngoai ra huimg dan blJn dflC each tflo hinh anh dqng. - Phon ba: huimg dan thlfC hanh cac bai ttjp t6ng hqp dl b{ln dqe tlf hqc m~t each de dang. Cuan sach nay nhu m~t giao trinh rna Cae b{ln t6 thl dung dl II! h'lc va tham khao ling dl:'ng rat thutjn /¢ trong thiet klcae /Jan ve. Tuy nhien do trinh dq co hlJn, sach edn co thie" 501. mong b{ln dqc dong gop y kUn. Thu gop yxin gw ve dia chi: Nhd ':coo, ban diao dlf.c· - 81 Tran HUng D{lO - HiJ Nri. HOfle theo di?n tho{li cua tac gid : 8693418. TACGIA 3
  3. 3. CHUONG J ? -' .... MO DAU VE AUTOCAD 1.1. GIOI THI¢U AUTOCAD Trang th~p ky 90, vi¢c khai thac di~n tmio ia van d~ hang driu d~ nang cao nang sufit, .hi~u qu{' cang vi¢c (1 c;ic dan V! kinh te, ky thu~t. M¢t trang nhung l"inh VL!C (juan tn;mg eua Tin h9c Ii! ky thu(11 do hQ<l Iren may tfnh ullg dl,mg trong de 110h VL!C khoa hQc ky thu~t (d~c hi¢t III b'lil vc 'hie! ke). Co ohieu h~ thong chuang Irinh da duqc xtlY d'!I1g eho tl! d¢ng haa thiet ke. Nam 19X5 c6 cUQc Irico Jam v~ "Ky thu(11 may tfoh eha thiet ke xay dL!ng" t....i thanh ph6 Chicago da gioi thi¢u ohieu h¢ thong phi'in mem eho thiel ke Irq giup bang may tfnh kha mo.toh. VI dl,lllhu: - H¢ thong SAP (Structural Analysis Programs) cua My, de C(lp den phuong phap philo lu hilu h•.1n va ky thu<~t kct cau trang nganh x[ty dl,Ing. - H¢ CHARVITE ella hang Le Mousieur Consultant eua Phap M thiet ke, tfnh toan va ve de mai khung nhiL Di).e bi~t h¢ nay co th~ "dQe" ban ve. - H¢ SSCAD eua hang Space Structure Internation Corporation cua My de tfnh tmin, thiet ke va II! d¢ng hoa ehuydn IU giai do""n thiet ke den dieu khien cac thiet bi che t<,to (CAD/CAM). - HG AUSTIN (Automated Structural Design lntergrated System) cua NhQ.t dung de thiet kc eho nh~l 100 tdng. - H¢ BUILDS (Building Design System) eua NamTrieu Ti~n dung de t1nh toan ket c:iu thep, be-tong, nen mong va, tfrih,kh6i luqng. gla thanh, 've ban ve. - H~ MICROFEAP cola lMiLan dung trohg thi€t k~ ktt cau h~thanh. dam. "im. - H~ phan m~m CADKEY eua hang CADKey vll h¢ AutoCAD eua hang AutoDesk elLa My duqe su dl,lng rAt n)ng rai tr~n.the gi6LNhung h¢ AutoCAD Iii. hang dang dan dau v~ h~ th6ng thiet ke trq gi6p bang rnaY tlnh. No Ia phan mem rii'l m<,tnh, cung cfip cac IGnh M t<;lo l~p ban ve chinh xae, nhanh eh6ng va sua dOi dugc ngay. AutoCAD con cho pticp nguoi thiet k€ d!ch ehuyen, sao ehep, tay x6a. lhu phong va sap d~t cae d6i tuqng ve. No co the xufft ban ve ra gifiy qua lTI"l.y ve (Piotter) hay may in (Printer) bang d.e C[1lI l~nh dan gUm. D[ly In. h¢ thong ma cho phep nguoi' su dl:mg 11,1' 1<;'.0 them cae tiGn feh. cae ung dl;lng rieng va giao tiep vai cae phan mem khac. Cho nen kha nang (mg dl;lng ella AutoCAD la rat r¢ng rai. C6ng ngh~ thiet kc va gia eong duqe trq giup eua may tfnh (CAD_Computer Aided Design. CAM_Computer Aided Manufacturing) dang duqe sir dl,lng nhi~u trong cae I1nh 5
  4. 4. vt!-c ley thu~t va trong silO xuilt. No thvc sv thay d6i v~ chilt trong cOng tac thii!t ki!, gia cOng va mang l~i nang sua"t lao d¢ng cao h<1I1, chilt lUQIlg t6t h<1I1. •AutoCAD thuOng duqc ling d~ng trong cac finh V1!c sau: ve kien trUc, xay dvng, ve ky thu~t ca khi, -di¢n tir, O-t6, h~mg khOng, ve ban d6, thitt kt studio nha hat, quay phim, ve cae '~itu trang ,tri, thiep mai v.v... AutoCAD dii duqc nghi~n cUu nhi~u u) nhiing nam 80, wi nam 1987 phitn ban 10 (Release 10) eq ban daqc hoan thi¢n. Cho toi nay dii co phi~n ban 12, 13, 14 duqc ph6 bii!n khfip the giOi. 0 Vi¢t Nam AutoCAD cGng dang duqc Urig d1ng trong nhi~u finh V1!c; nhu du sii d;lng AutoCAD dang tra thanh ca"p thiet d6i voi nhieu ngam. 1.2. MO DAU vt AUTOCAD 1.2.1. So db quan h~ ngulri . may trong to d(lng bOa YO thiet ke I nhi¢m Vt;I thiet ke I J I ngum thiet ke I JI giao di~n ngum - may (inteface) + - philn om!m h~ th6ng - ph:in mem chuyen dmg ~ ca sa d6 hQa MAYTiNH W. dii' li~u , ket qua 1.2.2. Yeu du thi€t bi de' ch~y AutoCAD .. May tinh (Computer) - m~y vi!! (Plotter) - may in (Printer) VaiAutoCAD release12 (viet tfit laACAD12) doi hoi may I01,li IBM ho~c tuang thich, co b¢ nho RAM t6i thieu 4MB, nhmg thea y~u cau la phai 8MB, d6ng thai may phai co b~ d6ng xii ly toan thl!C sv Co-processor 8087. Cho n~n co the dung may AT 386 dllqc cai th~m Co-processor 8087. ho~c may AT486. AT586 thi t6t han. V"i ACADl4. may can t6i thi.!" 8MB RAM. may AT586 va chay trong WINDOWS-95 hay WINOOWS-NT4.x. .. Man hinh V6i ACAD12 nen dung card man hlnh c6 b¢ nho 1MB tra Jen, ho~c c6 th~ dung 2 man hinh: m¢t man hinh Graphics va mQt man hlnh lext. 6
  5. 5. • Dill dIng ACADI2 can may co 6 cling. Vai ACADI2 <Ii. cling can t6i thitu 20MB b(> nha, nhtmg thea y~u cilu phai la 50MB. Ngoai ra vi~c xit 15' thea ch€ dQ b" nha ao (Virtual ',Memory) cho n~n doi hoi dung h.tQ'Og dia tr6ng cang nhi~u cang t6t. • 6tfia mem: dn co 6 dia mem m~t dQ cao. • Thilt b! vao: chUQt (mouse) ho~c b!lO di~n tit (Tablet). * H~ dieu hanh: h~ dieu hanh PC_DOS, MSJ)OS (Version 3.3 ho~c mai hem). • Thill bi xuat ban vi'ra: co thi dung may ve (Plotter) ho~ may iu (Printer). 1.2.3. Giao di~n AutoCAD a. KhOi diing AU/DeAD co 2 cach d6 khiri d~ng AutoCAD : 1- Khffi dQng bang file acad.exe: Gia sit AutoCAD duqc cai d~t vao 6 ctffig C: vai t~n thu mlc la ACAD, b~n hay go tu ban phim 4i dau nhac cua DOS: C:> CD ACAD ',J <vao thu m~c ACAD> C: ACAD > acad,J <ch~y file .cad.exe> 2- KhiJi dOng bang file b61~nh (Batch file) c6 duOi .BAT; VI d~ .el2.b.t; b~n chi vi~c go t~n "ac12" t~i defu nhAc h¢ th6ng: C:> acll ,J Chu y: Khi b<).n dii t!).o Batch file dlchl,lY ACAD. thi ACAD dn khbi d{)ng bang ten Batch file d6. Dtra; day la m~t VI d~ ~o n~i dung file b.tch viri ten "ACI2.BAT' de khai d~ng ACADI2: SET ACAD=C:'ACA1JI.SUPPORT;C:ACAD FONTS;C:'ACAIJADS SET ACADCF(M;:ACAD SET ACADDRV=C:ACAJN)RV C:ACADACAD.EXE 1% 2% SET ACA[):= SET ACADCFG= SET ACADDRV:::: DOng thu 1,2, 3 d~t cac bien mOi troang cho AutoCAD. DOng thtl 5,6,7 de x6. cae bien.mOi truUng da cM d~t sau khi thoat khbi AutoCAD. b. Man hinh Au/oCAD' D6i vOl ACADI2 man hloh la man blnh graphics, xem hlob I-I. Man hlnh do h9' AutoCAD bao g6m cac pMn s.u day: 1· Viing dol h<)a (Graphics area) 2 - Dong I~nh (Command line): 11 no'i ~ao l¢nh' va hi¢n cae nhAc nha. No nam adum day man hlnh. . 3 - Dong tr~ng th.U (Status line): lJ tr!n diJ;ih man hlnh. N6 thOng bao tn:mg thai hi~n thai cua ban ve. Vi dl,l t~n lap hi~n thail cac mode xac dinh t93 dQ con tro (Cross hair). 4 ~ UCS icon: H bieu tuqng v6cta h~ th6ng t(;la ~. N6 n~m ag6c duai - trni cua man hlnh. S -,Screen Menu: nam ben ph3i m~n hlnh, dung-d~ vao l~nh bang con chuQt (Mouse) h~~c bang bang di~n tu (Tablet). Mu6n g9i l¢nh. ~ dua con tro chu¢t t6'i kich sang I~nh cin ch9n va bam phim tnii chu¢t (pick button, hlnh 1-2), ho~c in Enter. 7
  6. 6. utllitles loaded Hlnh I-I: MrmhlnhACADl2. CUsor menu button 6 - Pull-Down Menu Pick bullon I' I I Ilnh 1-2. L Enter button V" UI thl!e dcm trilj xu6ng va cae hl)p tho<;li, Khi b""n dua con tro chul)t len dong tr'.lng thai (status line), man hlnh hj~n ra dong Menu Bar, bt),Jl chc,m m(lt menu se hi~n ra bllllg menu Inii xu6ng (hlnh 1,-3), Tll menu lraJ xu6ng b""n chon J¢nh bfmg each di con tro chu,,' kfch sang ten l¢nh va btlm phfm trili chu(lt (Pick button) ho.)e 5n Enter. - Th~/c don con lro (cursor menu) D6i vai chul)t 3 mit bam, b5m nut gina (ho~c rin Shifl+nut phai) se hi¢n ra h"p cursor menu. c. each )'lio 1~llh diA lIloeAD IJ",lc hi~n Khi b duai day mall hlnh hi~n ra lai nhAc "Command:" tlre la AutoCAD dang san sang ti€p nh~n It;nh ella b<;lll dua ra. B<,ln c6 the V30 l~nh bfing 2 each sau day: I - Vao l~nh tu ban phim: bf,m go ten l¢nh tll ban phfm sau d6 an Enter ho~c Space-bar de AutoCAD thlfc hi~n. 2 - Vilo I~nh tit Menu: bq.n dung chuQt ho~c lh.blet chi cho AutoCAD bi€t bf,m mu6n ve b duu va vc di gl. oci Hl.In dieu d6 bq.n hay chuyen con tro laj Screen Menu fJ ben phai m~m hlnh, di con Iro kich sang I~nh va bt"m phfm Imi chu(ll (Pick). 8q.n cung c6 the dua con tro tai dong menu-bar b tren dinh man hlnh, kich sang m"t menu b'.ln mu6n, nhay phfm Pick ehu", sc hi¢n ra Pull-Down Menu de bq.1l chqn J¢nh. Neu dung phfm ehu", thu 3 (gifra) ella ehu(lt ho~c A'n Shifl+phfm phai ChUQI, AutoCAD se dua ra Ihlfc dcm con Iro (Cursor menu) de b'.ln gQi I~Jlh OSNAP (xem chucmg 2, li€12-12). 8
  7. 7. Donut Ellipse Polygon Rectangle Insert... 3D Surfaces Hatch... Text Dimensions Hlnh 1·3: Pull-Down Menu ellll ACADI2. B<,ln c6 th~ l~p l~i mQt I~nh vtra Si'l d~mg b~ng each an phlm chuQt ben phai ho~c Enter, ho~c Space-bar. d. Sil' d(lflg cac ky t(t lUlu khid'n, cac phim chrlc nang, go tilt l¢nh Ngoai cae phfm Enter, Space/wr hay phfm chuQt, cae eh{rc nang dieu khi6n con g6m 2 phfm: Ctrl+ mQt phim khac. Ctrl + C : M huy bo 1 l~nh; Ctrl + G = F7 : M b~t/dl ch€ di) hi~n l..oi (GRID); Ctrl + 0 ::: F8 : b~t/tat eh€ d¢ ve th~ng dung/nam ngang (Orlho mode); Ctrl + B = F9 : M b,H/'," ch€ d6 lao l..oi (SNAP); Ctrl + 0 ::: Fl : chuy~n Itl man hlnh Text sang mim hlnh Graphics va nguqe If,li; F6 : b~t/tat vi~c hi¢n tQa do t~i di6m con Iro dt'mg. * Cac l¢nh co the' go tat A::: l¢nh are C :::: Circle E :::: Erase L:::: Line LA:::: Layer e. Cach vdo dii: lieu M::: Move P:::: Pan PL:::: PLine R::: Redraw Z:::: Zoom SU dl;lng h¢ don vj do chieu dai va do g6e deu cho adl..mg Ih~p phan. Trj s6 dua tir ban phfm vao Ht s6 nguyen hay s6 c6 mang dtlu cham th~p ph1)n. G6c co g6c 0 huang sang phili va ehieu tang ella g6e theo chieu nguqc veti chicu quay kim dOng hO. C6 th~ vao dO' li¢u til ball phim, vao b~ng phfm ehuQI, tablet va eae phlm djeh chuytn sqi t6c (Cross hair). 9
  8. 8. • Ctfc c6ch~""h~41lm + GO ~Ao'-tQa dQ tuy~t d6i ella diem + GO vllQ tQa dQ hrrmg d6i ella diem + DUng-phim chul)t, tablet chi diem + DUng phim di chuyen tr~n b~m phim + Diing Object snap (bilt d6i tuqng) d~ neo con tro vai d6i tuqng dii ve. Duai day trlnh bay cae each cho diem hang t<;>a d¢ thuang dung trong thi¢'t k€: • T(}a dl) tuy~t d61 T<;>a d¢ tuy~t d6i til tr~ 56 thl!c ella cae t<;>a d¢ x,Y,z so ~Oi gae o. B~n co the bb qua tq s6 z, hie c1y AutoCAD them van gia tri z bang tQa d¢ hi¢n thai Vi d~ : 3, 12.5 (x=3, y=12,5) • T(}a dt) tuong d(j'i TQa d¢ wang d6i Hl tQa d¢ so vOi diem dii chi d!nh truuc do. De cho tQa d¢ tlIang d6i b~n phai them dau @ (At-sign) phfa tnlOc tQa d¢: @X2,Y-2 so vai diem trl16c do (Xl,Yl) lam goc. Vi d1,l: 010 P2: @S.S, -to, n~u diem chi d~nh tnIac dola Pl(lOO, 50), lhi tQa dQ luang d6i do llIang dUo'I1g vai tQa d¢ tuy~t d6i la (105.5, 40). • TiJa dt) clfC tuang dOl TQa d¢ C,!C dlIqc cho biing ban kinh p va g6c quay <po TQa dl) c,!c tlIang d6i dlIqc cho nhlI sau: @ p < <p Vi d1,l: @ 10< 30.5, nghia la p=lO, goc d~nh hlICmg c.p=30030''so voi di~m vira chi d~nh lrU6c do. • T!Ja dt) tr~: vi d1,l cho 8<45, 20 nghia ta p=8, c.p=45° va z=20. • TfJa til! cci'u,: vi d1,l cho 8<'45<30 nghia ia p=8, <p=45° va goc so voi m~t phfuJg (x,y) 11130°. • H~tfJa~ co 2 h~ th6ng toa d~: wes (World Coordinate System)10 h~ toa d~ tM gi&i bay h~ toa d~ chuiln; h¢ thu hai lit ues (Usre Coordinate System) lit h~ tQa d~ ngum dung "10 ra. + Hf t9a dr) the'gim WCS: la h¢ tQa dt) chmin c6 dinh. Do 1; h¢ tQa dl) D~-cac thang g6c, trong d6 tfl:lc 'X nam ngang, trI,lc y thang dUng so v(ri man hinh, con m,.c z vuOng goc voi x,y. M~t ph~ng (xy) dlIqc gQi la mi).t ph1lng kic!n t~o (Constuction Plane), xem hlnh 1-4. y Y(jt pha,q kien tQo Hlob 1-4 Mloh 1-5 10
  9. 9. + H~ f(j(j d¢ IIg/(oi dllllg UCS : H¢ nay do b,!-n tl! t'!-o va co the d~t abal ky vj 11'1 nao b<;ln mu6n. No giup b~n ve die d6i tlCQl1g 3 ehi6u (3D) mqt each de. dang. S6 luqng cae UCS HI kh6ng hqn chc'. Cho nen tren m6i ni~t elJa v~t th~ 3 chi6u bZ.1n d~t mQt UCS rieng de dua v6 ve trong 2 chi6u (2D) mqt deh d~ dang. H~ tQa d6 duqc djnh huang bang bi~u tltqng (Coordinate System Icon). Bl;In hay xem vi d~1 hinh J-50 tren. Chi cluj: D~ xJ.c dinh huang dU'O'ng lr~lc z, nglfoi ta dung LJuy Ittl: b~n lay phi'li. Hay d~l1 bim lay phai 0 vi tri sao cha ng6n cUi dqc theo chieu du'ang tryc x, ng6n Iro d<;IC chi6u dU'O'llg y, va ng6n giiJa g~p l~i vuOng g6c v6i ng6n cui va ng6n fa sc chi lmOng dU'O'llg ln~c z . 1.2.4. Cae I¢nh ti¢n ich (Utility Commands) LENH HELP HAY ? Trong ACAD co ho'Tl 100 l~nh vai nhieu ll!a ch9n (Options). ACAD cung cap l ~nh HELP de eho b<;ln ro chi tiet ve tUng 1~l1h hOi!-c danh sach to~m b¢ cae I¢nh cua ACAD. Vi dlr De xem chi tiet ve l¢nh ZOOM, b~n go vao dong l¢nh sau: Command: help Command name (Return for List): zoom Sau khi vao l¢nh, man hinh xufft hi¢n hqp tho,!-i HELP. Trong do co cac m~c: + Help Item (nwc can trq glup): h<.lIl c6 the g5 ten l¢nh vao. + Index: khi b<;ln barn vao phfm Ihdex ACAD li¢t ke ra tat d. dc I¢nh va d.c bien. B,!-n cJ1Qn ml,lc dn xem va nilan vuo OK. Li;:N H FILES L¢nh nay d~ hi¢n ra dc FILES trang tllu rnl,lc, ho~c de x6a, dOi ten, sao chep cac files: Command: files Sau khi vao l ~nh se hi¢n ra hQp Iho~i co nQi dung nhu tren (hlnh 1- 6). File Utilities List files ... ] I Copy tile... II Rename file... I IDelete tile... I IUnlock file..] I E~it I H'inh 1-6: Ifl)p Iho<.li ti9n fch FILE ctm ACAD12 _ Li;:NH SHELL (SH) L¢nh nay eho phcp b:~m tht!c hi~n e<l.c li¢n Ich eua h¢ di6u hlmh DOS lrong khi van con dang 0 t['ong m6i truang ACAD. Command: sh DOS command: (b~n vao ten l~nh cua DOS) De tro ve ACAD b,!-n hay go EXIT. Li;:NH STATUS (TRANG THAI) L¢nh nay th6ng bao tr~ng thai hl9n thai cua blm vi!: klch thtroc bim ve, kieu dUOng net, lap ve vv... II
  10. 10. LENHNEW U;nh NEW de bar dAu ban ve maio Sall khi gQi I¢nh n ~y mQl hQp tho<.ti "Create NCi Drawing" xua' hien nhu hlnh 1-7.. D~ d~t ten eho ban ve m6"i b~n g6 ten bim ve vao 6 "New Drawing Name", duOi t¢p tin ban ve ".DWG" ACAD tu them vao. Neu b~n danh da'u "x" VaG 6 "No proto~ type" rue la b~n kh6ng dlmg b~m ve mftu rieng nao, ACAD se It! dQng dua vao eho ban vi! mai mt)t ban ve m&u theo aead.pat. Nell b~n mu6n ban ve mai co slr d~mg bim ve mau rieng da: e6, bi.lI1 can nhan phfm ehllQt vao 6 "Prototype", rai dua Create New Drawing lJololype:;; ] Ic"'c::d_______---' oNo Prolotype oRetain as Default INe. Orowing N,med ,,=11=c-==,---------' W iCancel1 Hlnh 1-7: H¢p tho'.li voi I~nh NEW cila ACADt2. ten t~p mfill (d 6 rna va dUOng dAn neu dn) va~. San vB mau nay da: duqe djnh d~ng ve doo vi do, giai h~n ve, khung ban ve, d~t cae lap ve, die tham s6 kfeh thucre ... ehn thich: Khi eho bien FILEDIA gia trj 0, ACAD12 kh6ng dltd r:I h(Jp thol)i. Khi d6 b,!n vao ten ban ve moi eho dong nh~c snu: 12 Enter NAME of Drawing: 8l)n eh(;m I lrong 3 deh tra lai sau: a. Go ten bim ve van (tlee Iii dung bim vi; m~lI m~e djnh trong acad.pnt) b. GOlen ban vi! mm = len ban ve lmiu (VI d~: True 1= MAU2) c. Go Itn han vi; m6i = (IUC la b'.1Il khong dung ban ve mau nito. vi d~. Trucl=). LENHOPEN L¢nh nay d~ 111& mQt bim ve dfi co ra dci so~n thao. Sau khi gQi I~nh OPEN, hi~n ra hQp tho'.!i nhu hlnh 1-8. File t:!ame: 1··dWg engine.dwg housepln.dwg nozzle3d.dwg pentagon.dwg planplOf.dwg psfilpal.dwg psglobe.dwg uhadow.dw • • Open Drawing Q.irectOlies: d:acadsampfe I. OK I, Cancel.. !Jpe II find File... I I Lisl Files 01 Type: Oriyes: ",IO",ra",wi",ng"'·,,.Oc:W..:G,--)_""Ihl 1121 d: graph Ipu DRead Onl/ Mode Ii.] D~elecllnilialView H1nh 1·8: H¢p tho,!-i l~nh OPEN ell<! ACADI2.
  11. 11. _Trong d6 b<.tn chQn thl! rnl;lc chua t¢p ban ve dn matrong 0 "Directories". • _0 hQp "Files" b<;tn dung con tro chuQt kfch sang ten t¢p va bam phfm pick chuQt de chQn t¢p can ma. Ho~c b<.tn cGng co the g5 ten t~p vao 0 nho "Filcs"a phfa du6'i . _ Ban danh dau "x" vao 0 "Select initial view" d~ hien anh bim ve ra xem tntoc. _N6u b<.tn danh dffu "x" vao 0 "Read Only Mode" th1 ban ve duqc rna ra chi d~ xern m~l khOng sua d6i duqc. _ Cu6i clll1g b~n bam vao OK t~p tin b~m ve do se dUQ'c ma ra. _Tntang hqp b"-l1l khOng rnu6n rna ban ve ra nu-a, hay nhay chuQt vao 0 "Cancel". LENH CAT BAN vii (GHI LEN DIA) Co 2 each cat bim ve khac nhau nlm sau: 1- Command: save cat ban ve vai ten cO Illc gQi ra. 2- Command: save as HQp tho<.ti hi¢n ra b<.ln eho ten file va duang d§.n moi de cat bun ve. LENH THOAT KHOI ACAD (L~NH QUIT) Command: quit Sau khi v~o I¢nh QUIT mall hlnh xufit hi¢n hQp tho;:ti de b<.ln Il!a chQIl (hlnh 1-9). Drawing Modilication + Save changes...: c6 cat nhling thay d6i ella ban ve khong. r:o""'"""7,...",Th';'C';'CU"1rrent drawing has been ~ch.:.:a~ng~e.:.:d.__-, lliscard Changes I£.n~el.Command I+ Discard changes: bo qua cac thay dOi, khOng cat. + Cancel command: hi'ly bo I¢nh QUlT LENH UNITS Hlnh 1-9: HQp thO'.li l¢nh QUIT ella ACADI2. L¢nh nay d€ xac d!nh don V! ve (do chieu dai, do goc, dQ chinh xac). Command: units Units report formats: (Examples) 1. Scientific 1.55E+01 2. Decimal 15.50 3. Engincaring 1'_3.50" 4. Architectual l' 3.1/2" 5. Fractional (h6n sO) 15.1/2 Enter choice, I to 5<...>: 2 D6i voi tieu chuan Vi¢t Naill (TCVN) ch9n 2 (h¢ met). V6'i eac h!a chQn 1,2,3 thl xuat hi¢n dong nh~c sau day de b"tn ch9n ti€p s6 so e sau da"u phay (dau cham trong ti€ng Anh): Number of digits to right of decimal point (0 to 8)<...>: (cho s6 s61e sau dau phfiy thap phan, til I den 8). Neu chQn chuc nang 4, 5 lh. nhl'ic nho tiep Sf Iii: Denominalor of smallest fraction to display(l, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16,32 or 64)<...>: (b'.ln chQn mall s6 Clla ph.1n ph~n so nha nhA't). Sau do I~nh UNITS thOng bao tiep de' b,!n chQn dan V! do goc nhu sau: 13
  12. 12. Report formal: (Examples) I. Decimal degrees 45.0000 2. Degree/Minutes/Seconds 45 d O' 0" 3. Grad 50.0000 g 4. Radiant 0.7854 r 5. Surveyor's units (dan vi ban dO) N 45d 0' 0" E Enter choice, I to 5<...>: 2 Theo TCVN b<.ln nen chQn 2 (d,,/phlit/gity). Sau do ACAD nhflc nhe, tiep de b",n chQn s6 chO hien lhi phfin Ie clla gOc: Number of fractional places for display of angle(O to 8)<...>: Bfty giu ACAO nhk nhi1 ehQn huang chuan ella g6c: Direction for angle 0: (huang ella g6c 0) East 3 o'clock = 0 North 12 o'clock = 90 West 9 o'clock = 180 South 6 o'clock = 270 Enter direction for angle 0<...>: (b',111 chQn goc 0° bang go 0, hay chQn 90, 180,270). Cu6i cimg de chon chitu duang clla gOc, ACAD nhac nhc,: Do you want angles measured clock wise?<...>: Il.::m tnl lai "Y" la d6ng y gOc do thea ehieu quay kim d6ng h6, ho~e uN" thea chitu nguqc I""i (TCVN cho goc ducmg quay nguqc chitu kim d6ng h6). Chu thieh: 1- ACADt2 con dlla ra Mnh DDUNITS de hi¢n hQp IhO<,li eho b':ln h!a'chQnlhco cae nQi dung 1tt(1I1g Ilf nhu Iren. xem hlnh 1-10. 2- li~l 1.2.3 tr~n dAy dii Irinh bay 2 cach SQi J¢nh Clla AutoCAD: m¢1 la go len I¢nh lit ban phim; hai Iii van Itnh tit Screen Menu ho~c Menu Bar. 0 drty muOn gQi lenh UNITS tit Menu la lam nhu sau: bl!-n dung chuQI kfch sang SE111NG tren Menu dQC(Scn:cn Menu), ho~c tTen Menu ngang (Menu &tr), sau d6 di con Iro t6i Mnh UNITS va nhay phfm pick chu(ll v1.o d6. Ta bieu thi qu6 Ir"inh gqi I~nh UNITS tit Menu nhu sau: Units o .scientific ®[~etlm~:!J o ,Engineering o Architectural o fractional erecision: 10.0000 Units Control Angles ® Decimal Degrees o Deg/Min/Sec o .Grads o Badians o Suryeyor Precision: IiI 1 0 IiIScreen Menu> SE1TJNG > Units Menu &tr> SE1TJNG > Units Control OK II Cancel II12hectlon... llllelp... I L$NII LIMITS L¢nh nay dtmg de d~1 giai h<,ln vung ve (khO bim vel. IIlnh 1-10: Htlp thoai I~nh DDUNITS Clla ACADI2. Command: limits ON/OFF/<Lowcr left corner><...>: - Dap rn~c d!nh: cho diem gOc tn,i duai - ON/OFF: neu Ira lui ON b~n chi ve duoc iJ ben lrong mU!n giai h<.tn LIMITS; con tni lui OFF b<;11l co lh~ ve c;l trong va ngoai LIMITS da d(ll. 14
  13. 13. Sa1,l khi cho diem g6c trlii duai, ACAD nhac b<;m cho di~m g6c phai tren cua mien chu nh~t gi6i h'.l-n ve: Upper right comer<...>: (cho diem g6c phai tren) Ghi ehu: Sau khi d~t gim h""n vi! bdi I¢nh LIMITS , b~ c6 the dU'a tOIm bl) gioi h{ln ve d6 ra man hlnlJ b~ng I¢nh ZOOM vl'1i li,a ch9n ALL; m~t idt<k khi xu:rt ban ve ra in du<;x: chfnh dc LIMITS dii d~t. 1.2.5. T~o b:ln ve khm thuy (Prototype Drawing) Vice dau lien khi l~p 1 bim ve 1a 1<.to moi truOng cho ban ve chua cae thOng tin ban dau. Do la~ dcm vi do. giai h'.ln bim ve, t~o lap, d~t lum, kieu ghi kich thuOc, kieu chiL. nhUng thong tin do thuOng it thay dOi d6i v6i nguo; sir d':lng, cho nen thuOng d~t chung thanh 1 file va gqi la ban vi" khtli thuy (Prototype Drawing - PD). Sau nay mlli khi I~p ban ve mm b~n gqi ten ban ve khai thuy ra dung d~ tranh nh~p di nh~p l~i mi?t 10'.lt cac thong tin ban dau ve moi tCU'ang ban viS (xem al¢I1h NEW tiet 1.2.4 treng chuoog nay). Trong ACAD ding co san ban ve khai thuy trong file acad.dwg nhlffig co mQt s6 thOng tin khOng pho. hqp vai tieu chuAn Vi¢t Nam, b'.ln dn d~t l'.1-i. • Cdc butte t~o ban vi'khtli thuy (PD) nhu sau 1- Xac I~p don vi ve, dung ~nh UNITS. 2- D~t gim h~ ve (Ung voi khO gilly A4, A3,...), dung I~nh LIMITS. 3- f1iin th! toan be> gi6i h'.l-n ve ra man hlnh, dung I¢nh ZOOM h!a 'chqn ALL. 4- Ve khung ban ve, khung ten, dung l~nh LINE ho~c PLINE (xem chuong 2, tiet 2-2 va tiet 2-3). 5- D~t cac thOng s6 khac: * D~t lucri ve, dung l¢nh SNAP va GRID (chuong 2, tiet 2-12). • Tao lap cho ban ve, dung l¢nh LAYER (xem chuong 6, tiet 6-2). *T'.lo kieu ghi kich thuac vai cac bien kich thuGC b'.ln chqn, dung l¢nh DimVAR. *Tl!lo cae kieu viet chil, dung l¢nh STYLE (xem chuoog 5, tiet ·5-f). 6- ott gill han vo khiJi thuy (PD), dung l¢nh SAVE AS. Ghi ehu: cae b!,ln mm h9C AutoCAD ehi dn bim vi! khOi thuy l~p theo cac buUc 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. 15
  14. 14. CHUONG 2 , - - ., CAC LI;NH VE CO BAN 2.1. POINT: YO di.!m * each gQi I~nh POINT til Menu: .-----------------, Screen Menu> DRAW> Point Menu Bar > ORAW > Point * Go l¢nh tu b~m phfm: Command: point Point <eha tQa dQ ella diem> ACAD12 dtmg bien POMODE xac djnh cae d~ng diem khac nhau va bien PDSlZE xac djnh kfch thucrc di<!m nhu b<'mg sau da.y (hloh 2~ I): Point Style _ _ 2.2. UNE: VO drrang th~ng, drrang gap khuc thang * Okh goi l~nh LINE til menu: Screen Menu> ORAW > Line Menu Bar > DRAW > Line * Go l¢nh Ilr ban phfm: Command: line From point: <e1lO diem dau> To point: <ellO di~m tiep thee> To point: <eho diem tiep thee, ho~c U, C, Enter> Bi)1l g6 U neu muon bo do~n th&ng vua ve; g5 C de dong kin ducrng gap khuc. Vi d~: hloh 2-2. Command: From point: To point: To point: To point: To point: line 100,120 @ 40<60 @40<-60 c .J 2.3. PUNE (POLYLINE) L~nh oay de ve da tuyen (Polyline) g6m cae do~n thang va cae eung tron noi tiep nhau_ Chung eo the cho d¢ r¢ng net, lo~i ducrng net khae nhau(ducrng lien, duemg dU!, duemg cham gach...). 16 + X 0 0 -$- l2l: (') D D $- J2,1 [1J D D -$- f.2l ['J Point ,S.ize: 15_0000 I" ® Set Size Belative to Screen o Set Size in Absolute Units OK ICancel I 1tldp... I Hlnh 2-1: H9P Ihm_li ella l~l1h POINT trong ACADI2. P2 -60' P1L-~________~ P3 (100,120) Hinh 2-2
  15. 15. • each gqi l~nh PLINE til Menu; r-----------------~ Screen Menu> DRAW> Pline Menu Bar > DRAW > Pline • Go l~nh til blm phim; • Command: pline From point: <cho diem dliu> Current line width is 0.0000 <~ r¢ng hic;n thai la 0> ArdClose/HalfwidthILengtblUndolWidtbl<End point of U"e>: • Dong nMc dO U'ng viti vi'dofln thdng, cac lila chQn de' venhu sau: + aWn A: chuyen ti':r ve dUCmg thing sang ve Clog tron n6i tiep. + aWn C: dOng kin da tuyl!n l~i. + ChQn H: de nh~p vaG m'ra be r"ng net ve. + ChQIl L: de ve do~n thing co chien da:i du<;IC dua VaG va co cung d¢ nghieng vCri dof,lll th~ng tnrac d6.Nt'!u tnJac d6 13, eung tron thi dof,lll th~ng mm tie? xuc v6i cung tron do. + Ch9n U: x6a do~n vila ve tnrac do. + Chqn W: chi dinh be r{mg net ve cho do~n til!p theo. + M~c d!nh: ~n cho tl?a dl) diem thi do la mut thu 2 eua do~n. • Ntu vi' c:ung trim thi dong nhac.: senhu sau : Angle/CEnter/CLoselDirectionIHalfwidtb/LinelRadiusiSecond . pointiUndolWidtbl<End point of arc>: + aWn A: cho goc Om eua eung tron. + ChQn CE: cho tAm cung trOn. + ChQn D: chi ra hU6'ng ve cung tron Iii hUOng ti€p tuy€n t~i diem d<iu cung trOn. + awn R: cho ban kinh cung tIim. VI dw hlnh 2·3 Command p1ine.J From point: 70,150 Current line width is 0.0000 <~ r(mg hi¢n theJi HI. 0> Arc/Close/LengthlUndo/Width/<End point of line>: @70,0 Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius,lSecondpoint/ Undo/Width/<Ilnd point "f arc>: @6O<·90 Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/LinelRadius/Second point/Undo/Width/<End point of arc>: 1 Arc/Close!Halfwidth/LengthIUndo/WidtbJ<End point of line>: @·70,0 Arc/Close/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>:. @20<90 Arc/Close/Halfwidth!LengthlUndo/Width/<Ilnd point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second point/Undo/Width/<End point of arc>: r Radius: 10 Aogle/<End point>: @0,20 Aogle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second QOintJJndoJWid'h/<End lOin, of arc>: I Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<Bnd polm 0,=>.. c 17
  16. 16. ('ro.100) pi p P" 70 70 ffinh2-3 2.4. CIRCLE: VO duilng tron P8 PS '* each gQi l¢nh CIRCLE til Menu: mnh 2·4 ,-----------------~ Screen Menu> DRAW> Circle Menu Bar > DRAW > Circle • Go l~nh til ban prom: Command: circle L¢nh circle d~ ve duemg trOll thee cae each x.ac dinh khac nbau: • Cho 14m va ban klnh (hinh 2-4): Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: 75,50 <cho tfun, vi dV 75.50> Diameter/<Radius>: 30 <cho D ho~c R, vi dl,l cho R=30> • CII. 14m va tI/lllng klnh: lUang !f nbu Wn. • Clio 3 tJilm (3P) Command: circle 3P/2PfTIR/<Center>: 3P Firsti><>int: <chQ.rnem tM nMt> Second point: <cho diem thil 2> Third point <cho diem thll 3> • Cho 2 tIilu mul ella ~I tt/lilng klnll (2P) Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: 2P First point on Diameter: <cho mut thO' 1 ella duemg kfnh> Second point on Diameter: <cho mut thil 2 ella duang kinh> • Ve tI/lllng IrOn litp xue v';; 2 tI/lllng eho /rUUc (ITR) Vi du:hlnh 2-5 Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: TIR (ho~c T ) Enter tangent spec: <chi dUCmg thtl ohAt PI> Enter second tangent spec: <chi duCmg thtl 2 Hi P2> Radius: 34 Command: .J 3P/2P{ITR/<Centerpoint>: TIR
  17. 17. Enter tangent spec: Entersecondtangentspec: Radius: 2.5. ARC: Vi! cung tron <chi duemg thti: nh~t,PI> <-chi va~ duemg thu 3, P3> 75 * Oich gQi l¢nh ARC til'Menu: ,.I",-,,}"."-",,-'".I Screen Menu> DRAW> Arc Menu Bar > DRAW > Arc * Go I¢nh til' ban phim: Command: arc • Vi! cuog tr«)n theo cac each nhtl sau: .'Cung tr~n qua 3 diim (hlnh 2-6) Hlnh 2·5 Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: <cho diem P2> End point: <cho diem P3> - Diim d(iu (Start), tam(Center), diim cud! (End): Pi S,C,E Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: C Center: <cho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: <cho dit!m cu6i P2> - Diim dau, tlim, g6c om (Include Angle): S, C, A Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: C Center: <cho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: A Include Angle: <cho goc Om> - EJiim dau, tam, chie'u dai cung (Length ojchord): S, C, L Command: arc Center/<Start point>: «ho diem PI> Center/End/<Secondpoint>: C - Center: ' «ho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: L Length of chord: <cho chieu d~i cung> - Diim ddu, diim cudi, ban ktnh: S, E, R Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <coo diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: E PO End poind: <cho diem cu6i P2> Angle/Direction/Radius/<Center point>: R <l Radius <cho ban kinh> - EJiim dciu, diim cutfi, goc dm: S, E, A Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> PO 19
  18. 18. •Center/<Start pPint>: <coo di<!m PI> Center/Encl/<Second point>: E End poind: <cho diim cu6i P2> Angle/Direction/Radius/<Center point>: A Include Angle: <cho g6c ()m> • Dilm tlDu, dilm COOl, hU't1ng phdt min: S, E, D Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: E End poind: <cho diem cu6i P2> AngleIDirection/Radius/<Center point>: D Direction from start point <cho huang g6c quay +, hay -> - Vecung tron n6i tiep v6i mQt duimg dti cho Giii su truac do ta d3: ve 1 duemg thAng hay 1 cung tron, trong l¢nh ARC nell ta ENTER a dong nhlic da.n tien thl cung tron ve fa se n6i tiep voi duemg dli co. Vi dl!-: hloh 2-7 (11(1.10) Command: From point: To point: To point: Command: Center/<Start point>: End point: 2.6, TRACE line 45,50 120,50 .J arc .J @liO<45 - Hinh 2-7 L¢nh ntly de ve dO<p1 thing, duang ga'p khuc co be r~ng net dugc chQo tnroc. • Cich g9i I~nh 1RACE tlr Menu: rl--Sc-ree-n-M-en-u->-D-R-A-W->-T-ra-c-e--' ... G5 l¢nh tu ban phim: Command: trace' P2 60 VI d~: hlnh 2-8. Command: trace Trace width<...>: 2.4 <ho be rQng neD From point: 70,90 To point: @ 50<30 To point: @ 60,0 PI (70,90) . To point: .J Hinh 2·8 P3 Trong I~nh nay n€u ta d~t bi€n h~ th6ng FlLEMODE la ON (I) thl net ve duqc to d{lm ben troog; n6'u d~t OFF (0) thi net kh6ng duqc to Mn trong. 2.7. POLYGON: Vi! da giac d~u 20 >II each gQi l¢nh POLYGON til Menu: ~-------------. Screen Menu>DRAW>Polygon Menu Bar > DRAW >Polygon
  19. 19. • G5 l~nh tir ban phim: Command: polygon Number of side<...>: <cho s6 c~nh da giac> Edge/<Center of polygon>: <cho Him P, ho~c cho d¢ dai c~> L¢nh Polygon de ve da giac d~u bang cac cach sau: + Neu cho tam P, ACAD nhac nha tiep: Incribed in circle/Circums cribed abaut circle<...>: <b<,m tra Uri. I se ve da giac n¢i titp, tra. 1m C ve da giac ngo~i ti~p duang tron> Radius of circle: <cho ban kinh dUCmg ttim > B~n cho diem la dinh hay diem giita e<,mh da giac 1a toy truemg hqp ve n¢i ti~p hay ngo~i tiep; neu b<.m cho 1 s6 thi d6 13. d¢ dai c<,mh day polygon nam ngang. + Ntu chl!n E de ve da giac deu bOi 1 c~nh, vai dong nhac nhu sau: Edge/<Center of polygon>: E First Endpoint of edge: <cho dinh I cua e~nh> Second Endpoint of edge: <cho dinh 2 eua c~nh> 2.S. DONUT (DOUGHNUT) L¢nh nay ve hinh vanh khuyen co t6 mau atmng neu bi~n FILEMODE d~t la ON(1); con d~t gia tri bien do Iil OFF(O) thi kh6ng t6 mau. * each gQi l¢nh OONUT tir Menu: ,-----------------~ Screen Menu>DRAW>Donut Menu Bar > DRAW > Donut • G5 l¢nh tit bim phim: Command: donut Vi d~: hinh 2·9. Command: donut Inside diameter<...>: 25 Outside diameter<...>: 35 Center of doughnut: 130,110 Center of doughnut: .J 2.9. ELLIPSE: Ve .lip • each g9i I~nh ELUPSE til Menu: ~--~---------, Screen Menu > DRAW> Ellipse . Menu Bar > DRAW > Ellipse • GO I~nh til bhn phim: Comm<qld: ellipse' mnh 2·9 ACAD dua ra nhi~u ea.ch ve e1ip nhu sau: - V...lip /Ttlngcij.p ban ~c chlnh Command: ellipse _I <Axis endpoint 1>/Center: <eho diem mut thu 1 ella true> <cho diem mut thu 2 eua ~c d6>Axis endpoint 2: <Other axis distanee>/Rotation: <eho diem P3 thl ACAD coi ban true thu 2 Is khoang each til tAm den P3, neu cho 1 s6 thi do I. d¢ dai ban In!c thtl 2> (hlnh 2-10). 21
  20. 20. - Ve.lip bOi Ill'" va 2 ban tr~c Command: ellipse <Axis endpoint I>/Center: C Center of ellipse: <cho tam P clla elip> Axis endpoint: <cho PI Ul mut tI1,lc thu I:> <Other axis distance>!Rotation: <cho n. mut~c2> - Veelip ming 1 ~c va pilip quay Command: ellipse P~________-'p~________~P2 mnh 2-10 <Axis endpoint I>/Center: <cho dau mut PI cua I tI1,lc> Axis endpoint 2: <cho P2 Hi mut thu 2 clla tI1,lc do> <Other axis distance>/Rotation: R Rotation around major axis: <cho goc quay> TI1,Ic chinh PIP2 do xem nhll dllCmg kinh cua 1 vong him. vong trim nay dllqc quay di m()t goc va dllqc chieu len m~t ph~g ban ve thanh e1ip. - Vi" dip ltJ hinh chie'u cua 1 vong tron trong kinh chieu trl;lc do Neu b<;tn chc;m Isometric Style clla I¢nh SNAP. thi khi d6 l~nh ELLIPSE nh~c nha: <Axis endpoint l>/Center/lsometric: I Center of circle: <cho tam e1ip> <Circle Radius>/Diameter: D <cho ban kinh ho~ duang kinh, vi d9 cho duang kinh D> Circle Diameter: <cho d~ d3i dlkinh> IDoh 2-11 Hl mOt vi du ve hinh ch~u truc do clla kh6i l~p phuong v~ cae ~ong tron n/)i, til!p IItn cAe m~t cua n6 tro thanh clic elip. ' , 2.10. SOLID II y x mnb 2--11 ~nh nay cho phep vo mien phllng tb mau khi bien h¢ th6ng F1LLMODE Ja ON; neu gia hi bi€n d6 Iii OFF thl mien ve kh6ng dugc t6 m~lU. * C3.ch gQi l~nh SOLID tir Menu: 1- Screen Menu> DRAW> Solid '" Go l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: First point: Second point: Third point: Fourth point: solid <cho diem PI> <cho diem P2> <cho diem P3> <cho diem P4> Third point: .J 2.11. SKETCH: Vi! duang tl do L¢nh SKETCH (ve phac) cho phep b~ ve-cac dUCmg tv do bOi cac thiet bi chi dier 22
  21. 21. Mouse, Thb1et). Khi di chuyen thi~t bj chi ditm (~n phfm pick chuot vaJe) ACAD se t~o ra lo~t cae do~ thlkg fill ngan nOi nhall thea duemg di chuy~n cua b~. ... Oich gQi l¢nh SKETCH ti1 Menu: , - - - - - - - : - - 1 Screen Menu > DRAW> Sketch * G6 l¢nh tit ban phfm: Command: sketch Record increment<...>: <cho d¢ dlti buCJc tang> Sketch Pen eXit Quit Record Erase Conect B~ tro vilo 11,f8 chQn nao b~n mu6n tIen dong nhac do: + P: M nMc "bUt" 1M (up) khOng vo dil b~ di chuyin con trl>; N~u h~ "but" xu6ng(down) b~n se ve duqc. + R: .de ghi l~i ta":t ca cae duang dii ve phac thilnh duemg cO dinh. + X: thacit khoi H~nh sketch va ghi l~i cae duemg dii ve phac. + Q: thoat khoi l¢nh sketch va kh6ng ghi 1<}i cae duemg da: ve phac. .+ E: <Ie xoa di mC?t do~n duang da ve ke tiI v~ tn b~ chQn too cu6i. + C: cho phep b~n nOi 1<;ri vilo duemg ve phic vUa rOi saD khi b~ da nh~ "but" len. Ch6 y: De khOng anh hui'mg toi duUng ve phtlc, khi dung l¢nh ~KETCH b~ nen tat eM'd¢ SNAPMODE va ea ORlliOMODE. Vi d~: vo duemg ky hi~u m~t d.t tay nilm b;ng gO (hlnh 2-12) Command: sketch Record increment<...>: 1 <cho 'd¢ dhl bu6'c di cua con trl?> Sketch Pen eXit Quit Record Erase Conect Den day b~ hay d~t con tro tOi diim bcit dau vi: va ~ phim tnii chu¢t, re chu¢t theo duemg w.ri gO muOn ve. .D~n chiS nao muOn ngat th1 :in phim tnii chu¢t Ian thO' 2. Vi: xong mu6n ghi l~i V30 ban ve, b~ hay go R. Hlnh2-lZ 2.12. cAc L~NH TRt;i GUlP Kill Vii. SNAP D~t luCri. cho con trO. Khi di con trl> n6 chi bat vao cac mat IU6i.. • each goi l¢nh SNAP va GRID tiJ Menu: Screen Menu> SETTING> Snap/Grid Menu Bar>SETTING>Drawing Aids>h¢p tho~i Snap/Gdd... 23
  22. 22. * Go l¢nh til: bim phim: Command: snap Snap spacing or ON/OFF/AspeclRfttate/Style<...>: B~n dap dong nhac nay bOi cac 1tpl chQn nhu saU: + Snap spacing: v~o 1 sO thl dO 13. khoang cAch cac mat hro'i theo phucmg x, y. + ON/OFF:b~t/t~t ch~ dO Ium snap. +A: de d~t bm.1c dich chuyen ngang v~ dQC khac nhau. Sau do ACAD nhac ti~p: Horizontal spacing: <cho bu6c dich ngang> Vertical spacing: <cho bU'l.1c dlCh dQC> + R: de quay chi~u ch~y con trO quanh 1 diem, c6 dOng nh&< ti€p: Base point<...>: <cho diem Cel sa ,roc 1a trun xoay> Rotation Ang1e<...>: <cho g6c xoay> + S: de ch~n snap thoo 2 kieu: Standard (chuiin) hay Isometric (thuimg dung de vo hlnh chieu t~c do): . Snap spacing or ON/OFF/Aspec/Rotate/Stye<...>: S Standard/ Isometric<...>: <chqn I hay s> Dum da.y la 2 vi d1,l dung l¢nh ELLIPS veti Iva chqn Style·lsometric cua SNAP de ve hinhchi~u tI1,lc do vu6ng g6c deu (hlnh 2-13a), va.hinh chi€u t~c do dUng deu (hlnh 2-13b) cua 2 v~t th~. Trong khi dang dung l~nh khac cilaACAD, b~n c6 the b~t ON hay tilt OFF ch€ d~ SNAP bfulg each :In phim F9 hay Ctrl+B. . I lfmh 2-138 Hinh 2-13b GRID De hi¢n lu6i ra man hlnh, thucrng ket hl1P veti SNAP. Command: grid Grid spacing or ON/OFF/Snap/Aspec<..•>: <dap Mmg II! nhl11~nh SNAP> De di6u khien GRID hoat d~rig hay tilt di. b~n ~n phim F7 hay Ctrl+G. TRANSPARENT Trong khi dang thvc hi~n mt')t l¢oh nao do clla ACAD b~ co the gQi l~nh Transparent thl ACAD cho b~n kha nilllg thoat ra th~c hi¢n eae ¢nh khac ella ACAD va sau do tu tra ve I;nb cu. . 24
  23. 23. De gqi l¢nh nay h'.'n- chi cful them dAu nh<iy "'" tnr6c ten l¢nh c~n ra .thVc hi¢n. Vi dJ,t: Dang dung l~nh PLINE rna b"" mu6n ra dung l~nh SNAP. Command: PLINE From point: 93,85 To point: 'snap »Snap spacing or ONfOFFIAspect!Rotate/Style<...>: <h<;ln cho h!a chc;m cho SNAP> Resuming PLINE command. To point: ORTHO L¢nh nay de mdlt~t ch~ d~ ve ole duang th~ng dUng ho~c nam ngang. B'.'n chu ynmg ~nh ORTHO khOng c6 lac dffig khi vao ch€ do Objecl SNAP. Hay dung phim F8 hay Clrl+O M bAt! tAl ch€ dO ortho. Command: ortho ON/OFF<...>: OSNAP (OBJECT SNAP) Khi h<;m hat d~u ve m~t d6i tUQ'Ilg moi m~ mu6n no neo t'.li dAu mut clla m~t duang, hay di qua dit'!:m giiIa ella m~t d01,ln th~g, vu6ng g6c vcJi m~t duang. neo vao diem giao nhau ella 2 duang nao d6..., l¢nh OSNAP giup h<;ln thVc hi~n di~u do chinh xac va rAt ti~n lqi. * each gqi I~nh OSNAP tir Menu: ,----------------------, Screen Menu> SE1TING > Osnap Menu Bar > SETTING > Objecl SNAP * G5 l¢nb til ban phim: Command: osnap Object snap mode: B<;m'tra 1m dong nhac bang c<ic Iva chqn sau day(go 3 chiI c<ii dllu): + CENter: neo v~o tam duang tnm. + ENDpoint: neo Vlo d~u mut cua 1 dUang g~n con tro nhAt. + INTersection: neo vao giao diem cua 2 duang. + MIDpoint: neo vao diem gifra clla dol,Ul thang hay cung tron. + NEArest: neo vao diem gful con tro nha:t cua d6i tuqng ve. + PERpendicular: neo v~o c.han duang th!ng g6c clla m~t duang Ve tit mi?t diim mai tai duimgdo. +TANgent: neo v~o ti~pdi-em clla m~tduang tron khi ve tum~t diem mcJi tai tiep tuyen va; duimg tron do. + QUAdrant: neo vao. diem chia c~c cung ph&! tu duang tron gcin con tro nhAt. + INSert: tlm diem xen c~a kh6i(BWCK), h<* diem ~I d~u cua 10XL + NODe: neo vao diem dU<!C vo bin l¢nh POINT. + QUIck: tAng nbanh vi~c xac djnh d6i tuqng. + NONe: tat e<ic IJ.!3 chqn clla OSNAP. Ghi c!au: + osnap thuitrr.g trJ!C: ACAD12 e61¢nh bDOSNAP~e dung Mp thOl;li de d~nh eae)va chqn osnap. ho~c g9i l~nh ti::r Menu bar> setting> Object snap (hlnh 2-14). Khi b~ dii d.e ~jnh ml)t Osnap thubng tfIC. n6 se t6n .t~ miii cho Mn khi ~n thao ga di. 010 ntn khi dung xong. b~ ntn th3.o ga ~i ~~ n6 khOng anh huOng den cac I~nh kMc. ?
  24. 24. + OSI/ap t(rc 111m: hf}l1 co the dung OSNAPMODE ttk Ihoi (1 Mn) blmg dch h[im phim chuQt giua (3) hay lin phrm Shift+Niim chui)t phili (2) lie Kunt hi¢n Menu dlUt)1 de: b,.Ul ch9n OSNAP (hlnh 2-15). B,!n cling cOlhe gQi Osnap modes IUC thai b~ng each dung con Ira chi Vll.O 4 dall sao .,****" tren scrcen mcnu. Running Object Snap . Select Settings Drg~:~.p:QI~:~! 0 In~ertion o Midpoint 0 Eerpendicular o ~enter 0 langent o Node D Ne1l.rest o Quadrant 0 Oyick: o !ntersection Aperture Size Min Max Ii! 13 o OK I Cancel I_Help... I Hinh 2-14 Assist" Qraw ~onstruct ~enter Endpoint In.§.ert intersection Midpoinl Ne~rest No~e EerpendiculllT .Quadrant langent None Hinh 2-15 • Con tr6 trong I~nh OSNAP la 6 vuong (Tagct box) d~ chon d6i lttqng 'e de dang. B<:tn co tht ditu chinh to nhc, bang I~nh APERTURE, ho~c chinh phim Min-Max Iren h~p tho~i hinh 2-14; ho~c go: Command: aperture Ojecl SIl<lP tagel size: <I -50 pixels>: • Sau day Iii mQt VI dl,l di:1Il1? I~nh OSNAP/CEN d~. viS mQt clLrOng th~ng III tam 0 duemg tron vii vuong goc v&i duong thrlllg III di:l cho (hlnh 2-16): Command: From point: Of: To point: To: m 26 line CEN <bilt tfun 0 clh dUOng tron> <chi vao dUCmg tron> PER <b&t chan dlfong vuong g6c tn~n m> <chi vao dtCOng thAng m> o Hinh 2-16
  25. 25. CHUONG3 cAc L~NH BIEN T~P vA TRA c(tu Trong khi t~o l~p ban ve b~ thuOng xuy~n phai bien t~p: dy xoa, ph~c h6i d6i tuqng bi xoa, dich chuyen, quay, thu ph6ng, !tty d6i xUng. sao chep, hi¢u chloh... cae d6i tUq£1g ve, va d.c l¢nh tra cUu (Inquiry) ve d.c dG' li¢u (mAD, lOp, dQ ri?ng net...), khoang each, di¢n tich, vv... nhtrng muon HUn dieu do vi¢c d~u tien AutoCAD doi hoi h<.m phai Iva chQn d6i tuqng (Select Object). 3.1. CHON DOl TlfONG (SELECT). . * each g<?i l¢nh SELECr tll Menu: ,-------~~~-, Screen Menu> EDIT> Select Menu Bar> EDIT> Select * GO l¢nh tir b~m phim: Command : select .J Select object: B;;m co the ch(;m d6i tuqng de bien t~p hay tfa cUn bang cae each sao : + Chi di~m: b~n dung con chuQt chi vao d6i tUqTlg cAn chQn reli ohlin phim trAi chuQt, c(i.ng co the: vao tQa dQ ella diem thUi)C d6i tm;mg do. + ALL: chQn tilt ca nhiing hloh co trong ban ve. + Last: chQn d6i nrqng vila ve xong . + Previous: chQn cac d6i nrqng vita chQn tnt6'c do. + Window: chQn cac d6i tuqng n~m IQt trong clla sO chu nh;}t .ma b~ xAc dinh. + Crossing: ch<;>;n d.c d6i tU'gng rna m¢t ciIa 56 ehlia ho~c cit ngang qua chung. + WPolygon: chuc nang nay gi6ng window chi khAc la elra 56 do b~ .4-0 ra la hlnh da giAc. + Cpolygom gi6ng nhu Crossing, chi khAc l3. eua sO ~ t<;10 ra la mQt da giac. + Undo: di! b6 di d6i tuQllg vira ch90. + Remove: khi chQn nhieu d6i tuqng rna muon 10<;li bo mQt d6i tuqng nao do ta ehQn R ·sau dong nhac "Select object:" va ACAD nhile b<;ln chQn d6i tl1qng dn gO- 00: "Remove objects:". + Add: tat che dQ "Remove", co the tiep tl,le chQn them d6i tl1qng. + Frece (hang rao): chinh ta t<;1o m¢t dl1Cmg Polygon hO', rna rtlQi d6i tl1qng rna n6 ca.t qua se dUQ'c ehQn. cae d6i tl1qng dl1qc ehQn se rna di. B<;1n mu6n ket thoe vi~c chQn d6i tuqng hay lin ENTER, hay nbay phim phiii ehuQt, ho~e go NULL. 3.2.TAYXOA '" ERASE: dy xoa mQt hay nhieu d6i tl1qng ve. 27
  26. 26. * each gc;>i l~nh ERASE til Menu: ,------------------, * Go l~nh- tu ban phim: Command: Screen Menu> EDIT> Erase Menu Bar > MODIFY > Erase erase Select object: <chqn d6i tuqng cAn tay x6a> ChB y: L¢nh OOPS dung d~ khOi phl,l-c l{li d6i tuqng dti bj x6a bi'1i J¢nh ERASE (m(lc du c6 dung dc l¢nh vi! kMc,sau khi era.o;e). Ngoru m l¢nh OOPS oon &: lam hi¢n l~j de d6i tU(}Ilg bi mA:t di sau khi ~o BLOCK. Command: oops . BREAK: ngM b6 di I philn d6i tlTgng ve. * Oich gqi l¢nh BREAK tu Menu: ,-~---------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Break Menu Bar > MODIFY > Break >1= Go l¢nh tit ban phim: Command: break Select object: <chi vao diem dau do~n dn x6a> Enter second point (or F for first point): <chi vao diem thu 2 cua do~n can xoa, ho~c go F de chqn l~i diem dtu sau d6ACAD nhac b~n chc;>n diem cuoi>. Vi d1,l duai day m6 ta qua tdnh thl!C hi~n l¢nh BREAK: • '-...../ L":::;...... J -H'inh g6e ctH;m d6i trn;mg Da-nh dlfu 2 diem X6a doI!fi PIP2 Hiob 3·1 Chu y: Khi dung J¢nh BREAK dt x6a I cung tren dubrlg trim. bl:Ul c4:n cM ypMn cung hi x6a thee chi~J ngU~ chi~u quay kim d6ng h6. Do v~y ~ ph<ii chu YChQR dian dJiu va diem cu6i cho do~ c&I x6a. vi dl,!- dum dQy, tren dmg m¢t dubrlg tron, ntu chc;m dibn dliu PI va diim cu6i Pl nhu hlnh 3-2a thl cung PIPl phfa tren bj x6a; 0'10 chc;m Pl, Pl nhu hlnh"3-2b Ihl. coog PIPl phia dum hi x6a. P2 PI + PI + P2 HiDh 3-2 28
  27. 27. TRIM Ch~t tia do~n thua ella d6i tuqng ve bdi cae c~nh dao dt (edge). :I: each gQi l¢nh lRIM til Menu: r-----------------~ Screen Menu> EDIT> Trim Menu Bar > MODIFY > T-rim * Go l¢nh tu ban phi'm: Command: trim Select cutting edge(s)... Select objects: <chQn cae dUOng Hlm qmh cAt> <Select object to trim>/Undo: <chQn do~n thua d.n cat di> Vf du duUi day m6 til qua trlnh dung l~nh TRIM (hlnh 3-3). lfinh g6c. ell9n duimg qmh cat(PI) a.i vao d~n thtra cdn dit(Pl,P2) Hloh 3-3 -t Ket qua. ~ co the chQn chinh duemg c<;tnh dt la d6i tUl;1I1g d.o cAt bo, nhu VI dl;l sau da.y: Hinb g6c 3.3. DItN HINH MOVE Oll;m qnb eM b~ng Crossing Hlnb 3-4 PO P P3 P4 elli vao dOl.ln thtta cAn cit J L Kl!t qua. L¢nh MOVE de eli chuyen cac d6i tuQllg tUi vi trf loMc m~ loh6ng thay dOi huang va kfch thu6c ella chung. • Qich gQi l~nh MOVE tu Menu: ,------------------, * Go l~nh tir b~m phfm: Command: Screen Menu> EDIT> Move Menu Bar > MODIFY > Move move Select object: <chQn d6i tuqng d.o di chuyen> <cho diem co so, ho~c kho3.ng c3.ch dichuyen> Base poi,Dt or displacement: Second point of displacement: <cho diem dich t6i> 29
  28. 28. COpy 4nh nay de sao chep cae d6i tuqrtg Wi vi trl maio No gi6ng l~nh MOVE, chi ~hac Iil d6i tugng ell vAn gift nguy~n. • Glcb gQi I~nb COpy Ilr Menu: ,---------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT > Copy Menu Bar > CONSIRUcr > Copy * GO l¢nh llr ban phim: ROTATE Command: copy Select object: <chqn d6i tuqng ciin sao chep> < Base point or displacement>/Multiple: <cho diem cd sa, ho~c khoang each di chuy~n, n~u b~n chQn M HI. sao chep thanh ohieu ban> Second point of displacement: <cho diim dich Wi ho~c a'n Enter> L¢nh ROTA1E dung de quay d6i tm;mg vi! quanh m~t diem Cd sil. * Glcb gQi I~nb ROTATE Ilr Menu: ,------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Rotate Menu Bar ; MODIFY > Rotate * Go l¢nh tiI ban phim: Command: rotate Select object: Base.point: .<Rotation Angle>/Reference: <ChQfl d6i tuqng can xoay> <cho diem tam xoay> <cho g6c xoay, hay ch(;m R de cho gOc tham khao sau do cho gOc m6'i> Chti ygoc xoay duang Hi ngu«;JC chieu quay kim d6ng h6 va nguqc l~i. V( d~ dum day cbo g6c xoay I. 45 d¢ (blnb 3-5). Hinh g6c Olqn d6i tttqng xoay b~g W. Chqn diim co sO. Kt"t qua. mnh 3~5 SCALE L¢nh SCALE dung d~ ph6ng to ho~c thu nho d6i hlqng vi! theo ca 2 chieu x,y v6i cung m¢t ty l¢. N~u d6i tlJqDg da: dlJqc ghi kfch thlJt'1c thi sau khi SCALE. kich thlJac mai se W d¢ng cilkp nhilkt v~o. 30 * C8ch gQi l¢nh SCALE tu Menu: r--;Sc:-re-e-n-=M:-:-en-u->-=E=D=IT=-->-=Sc=-a"C}e--' Menu Bar > MODIFY > Scale >l< Go l¢nh tu ban phim: Command: scale
  29. 29. Select object: <chQn doi tuqng de scale> Base point: <cho diem cO' sCi> <Scale factor>/Reference: Di dap dong nba.c nay. b(~.n cho 1 so duang 100 han 1 di ph6ng to, n~u cho so duang be han 1 se thu nho d6i tuqng. N~u b~n d8.p R nghia la b~ dung ty l¢ tham khao sau do cho ty l¢ maio Hinh 3-6 mO ta qua tdnh thao l<lc l¢nh SCALE: Hinh g6c 0l9n d6i htqng scale STRETCH 010 diem co so Hioh 3-6 ;Klt qua. L¢nh STRETCH de keo dan 1 ph~n cua d6i hlnh ve fa rna vAn noi v6i hlnh cu. • each gQi l¢nh STRETCH til" Menu: r-------------~----, Screen Menu> EDIT> Stretch Menu Bar > MODIFY > Stretch • GO l¢nh tit ban phim: Command: stretch Select object to stretch by window or polygon: <chQn d6i tuqng di stretch bang cua s6 ho~c da giac> Base point or displasement: <cho diem cO' sCi> Second point of displacement: <cho di~m dich tm, ho~c khoang each dOi> Du6'i day la vi dl,) minh hQa cac buCJc dung l¢nh stretch dt keo phAn cung tron clla hlnh vo til diem PI tOi P2 (hlnh 3-7). ffinh g6c +y.-~ Gllm d6i tuqng kio bang Clm sO (C).. .Hlnh 3-' ,l'l Y'-P2--l 010 diem PI va P2. K€t qua. eh6 y: V6i I~nh STR.ETcH, khi chQn d6i tuqng iii kw phai dung each ch9n la Window, Crossing, Polygon. MIRROR L¢nh n~y giup b~ ~o nen hlnh d6i )'.ling qua m()t duang thing v6i hlnh da: co, va c6 th~ gift nguyen ho~c xoa hlnh co di. • Oich gQi I~nh MIRROR til Menu: r---------------------~ Screen Menu> EDIT> Mirror Menu Bar > CONSTRUCT > Mirror 31
  30. 30. *' G6 I~nh tu ban phim: Command: Select object: First point of mirIOr line: Second point: Delete old objeet?<N>: mirror <chQn d6i tlIqrtg can Hly d6i xU'ng> <cho diem thtl I cua tr~e d6i xU'ng> <eho diem thtl 2 clla t~c d6i xUng> <trii loi N la khong xoa hinh eu, Y la x6a hinh eu> Duoi day lit vi d~ mb ta cae buoc thuc hien I¢nh MIRROR (hinh 3-8). I I I I P1 LV P2 H'inh g6c Ou;m d6i tlJ'<?Tlg Ch9n trl;lc doi xlmg(PIP2) Ket qua Hlnh 3·8 Chu y: Khi Uly d6i xililg bfing MIRROR cac dong Text tra nen ngu~ so vai hlnh gOc. ACAD dung bien h? thong MIRTEXT( I/O) de di~u khien dong Text c6 d~ng nguq"c. hay kh6ng. De ial!l di~u d6, hf;ln vao thiet I~p bien h~ th6ng SETVAR: . 32 . Screen Menu> SETTING> SETVAR > MirText (0/1) Nell di:it MirText",,1 thl Text se d6i xililg v6i hlnh eli; Mirlht""O dong Text se c6 d,!.ng thL!c nhu h"inh cu. EXTEND L~nh EXTEND de keo dai cae dI1Cmg t6i m~t dI10ng bien (Boundry edge) *' each gQi I~nh EXTEND tir Menu: .----------------, *' GO l~nh tU b~m phim: Screen Menu> EDIT> Extend Menu Bar > MODIFY > Extend Command: ·extend Select bo~ndry eP&o(s)... Select object: <ch9n duimg bien> <Selecfobject t<>ex1md>/lJndo: <chi vlio eM c~n ke~ diti> <Select object to .extend>/Un<l0:;J Vi d':l sau day chi ra cac buac th!C hi~n t~ EXTEND, mnh 3-9. P2 PI Hinh goc Ch9n dUOng bien Chi ra mlit citn k.eo dai Kct qwi. Hlnh 3·9
  31. 31. ARRAY B<:Ifl dung l¢nh nay de sao chep d6i tUQ'Ilg thanh I ming g6m nhieu d6i tuqng cung ml)t la.n. Mimg do co the sap xep thanh d~ng chu nh~t (Restangular), hay d~ng hloh tron (Polar). * Oich g4?i I¢nh ARRAY tir Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Array Menu Bar> CONSIRUcr"> Array * Go l¢nh tir b~m phim: Command: array Select object: <Ch4?ll d6i tuQ'Ilg t~o thanh mang> Restangular or Polar array(RlP)<R>: <b~n dap R hay P> + Nell d;ip R: sao mang chu nMt. ACAD hoi tiep sO' hang, s6 cl)t, khoang ca.ch cae hang, cae c~t la bao nhieu. Ntfu b{lIl cho sO' hang 13. sO' ducmg, thi ACAD se sao cae hang len tn'!n, nguQ'c I~i .cho sO' am thl sao xu6ng dum. B'.lll cho gia tfi ducmg cua d.c cQt thi ACAD se sao cae c¢t sang phai, cho sO' am sao sang tniL Vi d", hlnh 3-10 Restangular or Polar array(R!P)<R.>: R Number of raws<...>: 2 Number of columns<...>: 4 Unit cell or distance betwen raws: 25 Distance betwen columns: 30 K~t qua sao mang nhu hinh sau: • o 000 mnh 3-10 <cho s6 hang HI. 2> <cho s6 cQt la 4> <cho khoang each cac hang la 25> <cho kholmg each cac c¢t 111. 30> IDnb 3-11 B~n c6 the ",0 mimg nghieng di m¢t g6c bADg c'ch sit dUlg -bien h¢ th6ng SNAPANG trong lenh SETVAR, xem hlnh 3-11- + N€u b~ dap dong nhac P: d~ sao chep mang trOD, va ban th4n dOi ruqrig sao co the kh6ng quay ho~c quay di 1 gOc b<.m mu6n: Restangular or Polar array(R/P)<R>: Center point of array: . Number of itenns: Angle to fil1<360>:- Rotate object as they are copied?<Y>: P <cho tam mang trbn>' <cho s6 d6i tuQllg se sao ra> <cho g6c dien cUy toan mang> <co quay d6i tUQIlg khi sao chep kh6ng YIN 1> DUm day 13. VI dl,l t~o mang tron co s6 d6i tUQIlg <W sao (itenns) 1ii 5, gOc dien day 33
  32. 32. toan mang la 1600 va trong khi sao khong quay d6i hlqng, va hlnh sau co quay doi lUqng (hlnh 3-12). Hlnh goc Sao mang kh6ng xoay Hinb 3-12 - Sao m<'mg :(Oay 1 goc 3.4. Hl~U CRiNR VATRAY DOl FILLET 4nh nay de ve m9t cung tron noi tiep giua d.c do~n thfing hay cac duang tron. * each g9i l¢nh FILLET tll Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Pillet Menu Bar> CONSTRUcr > Fillet * Go l¢nh tir b~ln phfm: Command: fillet Polyline/Radius/<Select first object>: Tnilai dOng nhiic nay co 3 truang h<JP: . + OlQn R: nghia la b<;ln se cho ban kinh cung tron noi tiep cfin ve, ACAD se nhiic tiep: Enter fillet radius: <cho gia tri ban kinh cung noi titp> Gia tr, ban kfnh cung noi titp do se du<JC giu mai cho toi khi b~n cho gia tr! moi. B<;tn co the cho ban kfnh cung noi tiep bang vi¢c cho 2 diem. + ChQn P: nghia la b<;ln muon ve noi tiep dc phan do<:,n clla Polyline bili cae cung tron co cung oo.n kfnh. Neu pha.n dO<;ln nao la cung tron thl se duQ'c thay bang mQt cung tron- co oo.n kinh bang ban kinh cung noi tiep, xem hlnh 3-13. . I 1- I I I I I -'- I )• a.Hinh,g6c b. Sau Fillet-P Hioh 3-11 + N6i ti€p 2 duimg: B~n dap dong nhk tren bang vi¢c chi vao 2 duang can noi tiep, ho~c 2 phAn dO<;ln eua 1 polyline, thi ACAD se ve 1 cung tron noi tiep v6i ehling. Chli y rang cae diem b<;ln chi ra atren cae duang se la cac tiep di~m. 34
  33. 33. IDnh 3-14 minh hQa di~u do: • • " •Jl ,0.,. • • '.J '..J" E " E E II U.,. 'U 'U .,. ~. .,. Hinh 3-14. CHAMFER L~nh nay de ve duemg vat nghi~ng giil'a 2 dllOng th~ng da cho. '" each gQi l~nh CHAMFER tir Menu: Screen Menu> EDIT> Cbamfer Menu Bar > CONS'IRUCf > Chamfer '" Go l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: chamfer PolylineiDistance/<Select tiest line>: + Trlt. lai D: Djnh nghia do'.l" vat cho 2 dllemg tha.ng, vi dl:l nhu sau (hloh 3-15): Enter first chamfer distance<...>: 6 <cho khoang vat tha 1> Enter second chamfer distance<...>: 10 <cho khoang vat thu 2> Command: chamfer Polyline/Distance/<Select fiest object>: PI Select second object: P2 Ke"t qua chamfer trong vi d1,l chi ra tren hlnh 3-15. Hlnh glk P2 P' P Pl Chi v!lo cae e~h di V<it Hinh 3-15. <chi vao dUOng 1> <chi vao duemg 2> K!t qua. 35
  34. 34. Tni loi P: de vat cho m~t da tuy~n Polyline. Truimg hqp nay gi6ng nhu l¢nh FILLET. Chu y: Neu bl,m Ilfy cll) dai vat bflng 0 (mij.C djnh), thll¢nh nay co laC dl,1ng keo doli cae duemg th&ng cho g~p nhau Wi I diem coo, xem hinh 3-16. OFFSET 4nh nay dung d~ t'.l-O ra m~t duemg moi song song voi duemg th~ng da co, hay vi "11,1 v6i m¢t dUOng cong, mQt Polyline cho truOe va each duemg cO mOt dO<;ln tuy y. * Cach g<;>i l~nh OFFSET til Menu: ,--------------------,Screen Menu> EDIT> Offset Menu Bar > CONSTIWcr > Offset * G6 l~nh til ban phim: Command: offset Hinh3-16 Offset distance or through<...>: <cho khoang each, hay cho 1 dil!m offset toi: through> 36 + Neu cho khoang cach b<;ln tiep tl,lc tra loi: Select object to offset: <ch<;>n d6i tuqng offset bang chi diim> Side to offset: <ch<;>n diem beft ky ve phfa hlnh thanh duemg m6i> + Neu ch<;>n Through: Through point: <cho diem rna duemg m6i di qua> Vi d1,l sau day mo tii qua tdnh offset mOt duemg Polyline, hlnh 3-17.* DIVIDE Hinh g6c DIVIDE - X P2 Pl .. . 0l9n cl6i tuqng Offset Clio.diim rnA dutmg rnm di q~ Hinh 3-17 L¢nh nay chia dO':1n duemg thanh cac phfin bang nhau. * Cach g<;>i l¢nh DIVIDE-til Menu: e- .---------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Divide , Menu Bar > CONSlRUcr > Divide * G6 l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: divide P2 Pl K€t qua Select object to divide: <Number of segments>/Block: <ch<;>n d6i tuqng bang chi diim> <cho sQ do<:tn chia>
  35. 35. + Nt'!u b<.1.fi tni Uri B: Truang hqp nay b<:tn da d~nh nghia cac kh6i (BLOCK) vi d~ nhll: DIEM, DOAN, VUONG, v.v... rna muOn chen block vao cac diem chia;khi d6ACAD nhac nha tiep: Block name to insert: <go ten Block vao> Align block with object <V>: <sap Block g6m cac diem chia tren d6i tuqng YIN> Number of segments: <cho s6 do~ chia> Ch6 y: Sau khi dung I¢nh DIVIDE rna bl.lH kMng nhin th!lY cae Jh';m chia, tlic a bI~ rt>ng diem ehia de rnl}e d!nh (0), n6 bang hay nho ho'Il ~ r(lng dut'mg net viS. B':ln dn x;k dinh I~i hlnh d~ng. kich thuOc diem boi I?nh POINT. CHANGE DUng l¢nh CHANGE b~ co the thay d6i cac Hnh cha:t sau day clla d6i t:Jqng ve: - Mall sac - Kieuduang - D¢ nang len clla Polyline, hay d¢ day net Polyline 3D - Ldp ve vv... • each g9i I~nh CHANGE til Menu: * Go l¢nh til ban phim: Screen Menu> EDIT> Change Menu Bar > MODIFY > Change Command: change Select Object: <eh<;m d6i tlll;mg dn thay d6i> Properties/<Change point>: <dap P, ho~c cho diem> + ChQn P: B<:tn se thay d6i dllqt: d~ tinh vI! ma.u sac, d¢ cao, lap ve, lo;~i dllang net... ella d6i tllqng ve, ACAD se nhac nh6 ti€p de b<.m chQn: OJ.ange what property(ColorlElev/Layer/L'IypefThicness)7: Chli y: N~u bl!Jl deli ki~u dut'mg rna ehua thllY hi?n ra, hiiy g9i I?nh LTSCALE de tiing hay giam tY I? Neu b~n vao diem (] dong nh~e tren kia: ACAD eoi ditm d6 la diem de thay d6i vi tri cAe d6i tm;mg ve nhu: line, circle, text, block, attribute. TOe dl,mg Lhay d6i vOi timg d6i tuqng ve sau khi cho diem CP 18 nhu~: - Line; thi. dAu m'l1t eua dlti'alg .thing:g4n4i~ CP siS chuyin ten CP. . , . - Circle: blin k{n!l ",brig tron'dii c,hqn Se'tluly d6i sao cho wng tron m6i di qua dibn 'CP'Yia sift· nguyen lAm eu. - lext: diem CP se I~ vi tn mOi, ~u ban AD Enter thl ACAD eho bl,Ul thay·dOi duqc kifucht, dQ eao, g6c xoay, n(li dung Text. - Attribute: b~n eling c6 the thay d6i duqc Attribute gi6ng nhu Text. - Block: ditm CP trd thanh vi tn mm cua Block, ~n Enter tiep thl b~n c6 tM thay d6i duqt: g6e xoay ella Block. Chli thkh: CO th~ thay d6i nhi~u durmg. Vi dl;l khi eho CP thl cae dUCmg thang khac nhau se W Il.Ii t~i diem CPd6, xem hlnh 3-18. a ffinh g6c , a b Sau Qlangc-CP Hinh 3-18 37
  36. 36. Chu thleh: ACADl2 con e6 l~nh DDCH- PROP de bi.1n lhay d6i de d~e tinh ella d6i luqng qUH hQp tho,!-i nhl1 hlnh 3- 19. DDEDIT (Dynamic Dialogue Edit) L¢nh nay de thay d6i n(:li dung dong ky ~.""""'V<A""''''u;-.....=t. I ,~•... I BYU""~ '<"""''''000," H,t (Text) va thu(>c tfnh (Attribute) da co. * Crich gQi l~nh DDEDIT Itt Menu: '"'<" "" [,_.... ") ~ r-",.", I iJJ!!W I Screen Menu> EDIT> DDedit I * Go J¢nh tir ban phim: Command: ddedil Hlnh 3-19: HOp Iho<l.i ACAD 12. l¢nh DDCHPROP eua <SeJect a TEXT or ATIDEF object >/Undo: B<.ln Ira Jbi TEXT hay ATTDEF thl I troug 2 h(>p thof.l.i sau day hi¢n ra, hinh 3-20a,b: Edit AtllilJule Dehn~lan CI EditText T." 1m Text lB. Prompt ~~H~U~O:;:CT"'N::7H;=========~ Defnult: Lit9,,''-.', =:;:;==,---:;---,,_ _ __--' IJD Icencell OK Cllncel I Hlnh 3-20a: H{)p tho,!-i "Edil Text". H"lnh 3-20h: H{)p Ihm.li "Edit Alllibutc Ddinition". PEDIT (Polyline Edit) L¢nh nay co the hi¢u chinh da luyen (Polyline). * each gQi I~nh PEDIT ttT Menu: ,-------------------, * Go I¢nh tit b~m phim: Screen Menu> EDIT> Pedit Menu Bar > MODTFY > Pedit Command: pedit Select polyline: <ChQIl Polyline dn hi¢u chinh> CloselJoin/WidIh/EdiIVerlex/FiliSplinelDeellvel LtypeGen/Undo/eXik...>: Tr~n dong nhac nay Close duqc thay bang Open neu Polyline dang dong kin. cac chuc nang do co y nghla nhu sau: + C: dong kin da tuyen dang ha; + 0: xoa phein do~n cu6i clmg cua Polyline d~ rna da tuyen; + J : dlta cae cung tron, dO<;ln lhang ho~c m(>t Polyline khac nh~p van vai Polyline co InJoC; + W: de lhay deli be r(lng net ve coa Polyline; + F: sua dtremg Polyline da co thanh dUO'ng cong tran dtiu di qua cae dinh cua Polyline do. B,,11 co the d~t taroc huong tiep tuy6n t<;ti 1 dlnh, thl dLTOng cong t<;to thanh se tiep nh~n IUiong tiep tuyen d6. .. 38
  37. 37. . + S: st'ta Polyline thanh duemg cong trem c6 the dieu khitn dugc til cac dinh clla Polyline nhl1 la cac di~m khung. B"lO chi ra cang nhieu di~m dinh v~ thi. dUCmg cong cang nhan hem. ffinh dl16'i dAy chi fa S,! khac nhau clla dUCmg cong hi.nh thanh do Fit va do Spline, hlnh 3-21: CO thi t<;to thanh dl1emg eong Spline b~c 2 hay b~e 3. cae bien h¢ th6ng dung d~ dieu khien hlnh d~ng duimg Spline la SPLINETYPE. N€u d~! bien SplineType nay b~ng 5 thl Spline t<;to thanh la b~e 2; eon d~t bien gia tri 6 thi Spline sf: e6 b~c 3. Bien h¢ th6ng SPLINESEGS xac dinh sodO<;tn tMng dung d~ ve thanh duemg Spline, s6 cang Urn thl Spline cang m~n (gia tr. m~ dinh la '8). Bien SPLFRAME d~t gia tri m~e dinh 0 thi. kh6ng xuat hi¢n dUCmg khung Polyline; neu la:y gia tri 1 thi khung sf: hi~n ra eung v6i duemg Spline, xem h'inh 3-21. ffinh g6c Fit Spline b~c 2 Spline b~c 3 Blnh 3·21· + D: de dua cae duemg cong sau khi Fit hay Spline tn1 ve d<;tng ban d~u, d6ng thai lam th~g tat d. d.e phAn dO<;tn c~a Polyline. + L: v6il,!a chQn nay d~t la ON(1) th'i lo~i duemg net hi¢n thai se eh<;ty deu d~n tren phAn do<;tn cua Polyline; con neu d~t OFF(O) th'i net g~ch dai se du<;1C bat da.u va ket thue t~i tUng dinh cae phan do~n. sau dAy la s,! khac nhau clla m¢t Polyline ve b~ng net ehilm g~ch(Dashdot) trong 2 trltimg hqp do, hlnh 3-22. ,. - ,. -.I t' , r·J L.-, { , 1",_.1 1._.., . . . . 1 1l._._. ._._.J '-'-'-' ._.-.-. Blnb 3-22 + U: huy b6 thao tAc I~nh vila th'iC hi~n. + X: k€t thuc l~nh PEDIT. _...... + E: hi¢u ehinh tren cac dinh eua Polyline. Khi chQn "E" ACAD danh dau "x" qi dinh dau tien eua Polyline. Neu b<;tn xac dinh them huang ti~p tuyen eho dinh nay thi se xuat hi¢n 1 miIi ten theo hudng d6. B<;t.n can tra lai dong nh~c sau khi ehQn "E": 39
  38. 38. NextiPreviouslBreaklinsertiMove/RegenlSlraighlenl TangentIWilh/eXil<N>: Ok h!a chQn d6 co y nghia nhu sau: - N va P: de di chuyen di~m danh da':u "x" tm dinh k€ sau (Next) hay t6'i dinh truac d6 (Previous). - B(break): de x6a do~ giila 2 dinh danh dau "x". ACAD ghi nha dinh danh dfu "x" thu 1 va nhac nha tiep: NextlPrevious/Go/eXit<N>: <chQn N hay P de chuyen dau "x" tdi dlnh thll 2> Tiep theo b~ go "0" de x6a do~ gifra 2 dinh danh dAu "x". Con neu b~n chQn "X" se ket thue Break de trb ve chuc nang Edit Vertex. - reinsert): dtS' chen them dinh m6i vao Polyline, ACAD nhac nha tiep: Enter new location of new vertex: <cho diem> Sau khi cho diem vao, ACAD ve Polyline co th~m dinh nua, hinh3-23. I I J , Diem CU .' X I Diem moi .2 I I I J Hlnh3-23 - M(move): dOl dinh da danh da'u t6i ehb khac. - S(straighten): de thay the cae ph1n dO'.ln nam giiia 2 dinh da danh da'u bang m¢t dO'.ln thing, hinh 3-24. Hinh g6c Danh d!u 2 dinh PI, P2 Hinb 3·24 Ktt qua - T(tanggent); chi ra hl1<mg tiep tuy~n 4.i dinh dang danh d5u de thl!C hi¢n chuc nang Fit, sau do dap dong nh~c: Direction of tangent: <cho g6c xac d!nh hl100g ti~p tuyen> - W(width): thay be r(mg pha.n dOi,ln Clla Polyline angay sau dinh danh d5u "x" - R(regent): thiet l~p li,li Polyline va c~p nh~t cac thay d6i, thl1Cmg dung sau Width. - X(eXit): thoat khoi chuc nang Edityertex d~ tro ve PEDIT. 40
  39. 39. ehU y: Nt!"u b~ ch9n dOl).n thiing hay cung tron khOng dugc 'Ie bCri I¢nh Polyline, ACAD siS nh.k Entity selected is not a polyline. <h"inh dii ch9n khOng phai polyline> Do you want it to tum into one?<Y>: <~ mu6n n6 tra thanh Polylin·e khoogYfN '1> • HIEU CHiNH DUNG KIj:P GRIP Khi nao tren man hlnh xuA"t hi¢n () vu{)ng nhb(Pick bOx) t....i giao di~m clla 2 sqi )c(Cross hair), b....n co th~ ch(;m d6i U1l11lg ve de hi¢u chinh bllng k~p GRIP. Sau khi chQn 6i tugng bang d.ch nhay vao d6i tl1Q'11g, cac 6 vu6ng nho mau xua't hi¢n tren cac diem d~c i¢t cua d6ituqng (blnh 3-25). • oH"inb 3-25 Sau d6 b....n chi con tro vao m¢t () vu{)ng Grip d dinh dn hi¢u chinh r6i an phfm pick :hu¢t, 6 vu6ng do se d6i mau khac va ACAD xem di~m d61a di~m cd sa d~ hi¢u chinh. Cac :n..tOng hqp hi~u chinh v6"i GRIP g6m: + STRETCH mode: d~ keo dan tir diem cd sa da ch(;m tm di~m khac. B....n a'n pblm Pick vao m¢t 6 vi6ng Grip lam diem C.d sa, sau do ACAD dua ra dong nh~c nhu sau: ** STRETCH ** <Stretch to point>/Base point/Copy(Undo/eXit: Nc!u b....n cho 1 di~m am¢t V! tri mm, d6i tU(]ng ve da chQn.se duqc keo rit tir diem Cd sa tai diem mai do (hinh 3-26). Chon B(Base) do! xac dinh diEm co sa khk Chon C(Copy) d~ sao chep d6i tUl1Ilg. I I I I Hlnh 3.16 I P2 I + MOVE mode: M dap l....i dong nhac ** STRETCH ** b~ go "Mf> se xuftt hi¢n dong ,nh:ic MOVE Mode: . ** MOVE*'" , <Move to point>/Base point/Copy/Undo/eXit: <cho diem dfch Wi> + ROTATE mode: b....n go "RO" dap do~g nhac" ** STRETCH **" se co dong nhac d6i voi ROTATE mode nhu sau: 4
  40. 40. ** ROTA1E ** <Rotate angle>! Base point/Copy/Undo!eXit: <cho gOc quay> + SCALE mode: B~ go "SC" dAp dong nhac ",** SfRETrn **", xua't hi~ dong nhac sau: <Scale factor>/Base point/Copy/Undo/eXit: <cho h~ s6 ty l~ > + MIRROR mode: go HM!" dip dong ohic H" SIRETCH ••" thl ACAD nhic tiep: <Second point>/Base pointlCopy/Undo/eXit: <cho-diem> Diem b~n vila cho cung v6'i diim cd Sd hlnh thanh tr~c d6i xU'ng._Sau do b,~n thu du~ hlnh d6i Xll'ng cua d6i nrqng ve da ch<;ln, nhung d6i tuqng co bi xoa di. Mu6n d6i tugng co khOng bi xoa, b~n chQn diem thu 2 clla tn..zc d6i xU'ng b~ng cach dung chu"t chi dibn thu 2 trong khi dang {in Shift. Dtroi da.y la hlnh ve minh hQa la"y d6i x6ng clla m~t hlnh dung ktfp GRIP va [n Shift M vao dibn tM 2, hlnh 3-27. P1 Chuy: 1. Di,x6a GRIP, blm an Ctrl+C 2 lb. 2. C6 J¢nh DDGRIPS di co ht>p thol,li ct19n d6ng/ma, ddi mall, ci1 b vu6ng GRIP. 3.5. HUY BO L~NH L~NHU ~h nay eM huy b6 thao Ule vim tht;rc hi~n xong. Command: u Neu b~n dung nhiiu liln I~nh U so Ian IUQI huy bO e~e ~nh ~ thyc hi~n tru(;c d6 $eo thu h! ngu<;1C 1<,1i. UNDO ~nh nay bUy bit d6ng thlli I hie tac.dt)ng eua nhit:' I~nh tru(;c d6. Command: undO. . AuIo/Bac:kJCoDlrolfEntlfGruplMark<...>: +Neu go siS n' viI~, Ibl ACAD se bUy bO n I~nh trUoc d6, Nang It! nhu ban dilng I~nh. U nhi6u b i n . ' . + DUng Mark va Back: '!hIUc tien ban Mark M danh Mu ~nh vila th~c hi~n di sau nay can co the UNDO trll v6 Wi d6 bang chQn ,Back. B~n co the dUng Mark: d nhitu vi tri, sau d6 Back se trO v~ tm vi tri' glin nhitt, va tiep tt;lc teri. khi kh6ng con vi tri danh ditu nao, se thOng bao: This will undo everything. OK?<Y>: Neu dap "Y" se trd ve h~n tr~g thoii bah dfuI md ban ve; tTa 1m "N" se IX> qua chuc nang Back. 42
  41. 41. + OtQn Group va End: hie la m~t nh6m l~nh tnrac do dugc coi la m~t l~nh khi dung I~nh U hay UNDO. Group bM d!u, End I. kl!t thUc nhom. Chii y: C6 m~t s6 I~nh khOng th~ U ho~c UNOO d11t;JC, nhula: AREA, DBUSf, DELAY, END, FILES, HELP, 10, USf, QUIT, SCRIP, SAVE, SfATIJS, WBWCK, ... CO nhi~u l¢nh I~i chua I¢nh U va UNDO rieng. REDO L~nh REDO du<;'C dung ngay sau khi dii dung I~nh U hay UNDO de kh6ng thlc hi~n U hay UNDO nua. Command: redo 3.6. cAc L~NH TRA c(ru LIST 4nh nay cho b~ xem dil li~u li~n quan den d6i tUQT1g vi!. Command:. list Select object: (chQn d6i tugng dn tra diu) DBLIST (Data Base List) L¢nh nay 1i~t ke cae thOng tin cua tit ca cae yeu t6 tren ban vi!. * Oich gQi l~nh LIST' va DBLISI' tlr Menu: Screen Menu> INQUIRY> List! Dblist • G6 I~nh til ban phfm: Command: dblist ID L¢nh nay xac dinh tQa d~ m~t diem chi tren man hinh. *' each gQi l~nh ID tu Menu: Screen Menu> INQUIRY> ID >I< Go l¢nh til ban phim: Command: id Point: (chi ra 1 diem) x= y= z= DIST (Disiance = khoang each) . 4nh nay dung dt do khoang cAch giUa 2 diem, do gOc vlt giA tti djch choyin lUaIIg dili l!.x, I!.y, I!.z. • each g9i I~nh DIST til Menu: ,-~~----~~-, Screen Menu > INQUIRY> Dist *Go l~nh tU ban phim: Command: dist First point: (cho diim.thu n Second point: (cho ditm tM 2) Distance = Angle in xy plane = Angle from xy plane= Delta x = Delta Y= Delta z = 43
  42. 42. AREA (di~n lich) L¢nh nay d~ doh di¢n ticb, chu vi eua hmh kin. • C3ch gQi I~nh AREA til Menu: rl-Sc-ree-n-M'-e-n-U->-IN-Q-U-IR-Y->-Ar-e-a' * Go l¢nh tU ban phim: Command: area <First point>/Entity/Add/Substruet: cae tn. Uri dOng nhlic oay: + N€u b:ilO cho di~m d~u (First point), ACAD coi nhu b'.lo tloh di¢n tich·cua 1 da giac luge ve tit diem nay. va nhac ti~p: Next point: <Yao di~m tiep theo> Next point: Next point: .J Area = Perimeter = + 01<;>0 E: b'.lll ch(;m Polyline ho~ d.l1Cmg tron de Hoh di¢n tich. chu vi. Neu Polyline he ,thl ACAD d6ng kin Mng 1 dO<)ll th~ng r6i mm doh. + O1Qn A (add = them): dung IlP ehQn nay ACAD so tinh tiep va e~ng them vao di~ tich, chu vi da tjoh tnl't1C do d~ co di¢n tich toan ph~n mm. + O1Qn S (substruct = triI di): lUang tl! nhu chQn A, nhung i1 day I~ tinh hi~u. Vi dl.l: Tinh di¢n rich t.bn kim lo~ (philn g(iCh cMo) nhu hinh 3-28. 44 Command: area <First poinl>/Entity/Add/ Substruct: A (<It tinh t6ng) <First poinl>/Entity/Add/ Substruct: E (chQn d6i tuQng tinh ~n lich) (ADD mode) Select circle or polyline: (chi vAo d.ronS Polyline I) Hlnh 3-28 Area = 6213.72 Perimeter=314.2:i Total area = 6213.72 (ADD mode) Select circle or polyline: .J <First poinl>/Entity/Add/Sobstruct: S <lit linll ~u> <First poinl>/Entity/Add:E <chQn d6i IUQflg tinh> (SUBSIRUCT mode) Select circle or polyline: <chi wo du1mg trim 2> Area =1256.64 Perimeter = 125.66 Total area = 4957.08 (SUBSIRUCT mode) Select circle or polyline: <chi wo du1mg 3>· Area = 300.00 Perimeter = 50.00 Thtal ace. = 4657.08 (SUB~TRUcr mode) Select circle or polyline: .J <First point>/Entity/Add: .J
  43. 43. CHrfONG4 -" ~ - -DIEU KHIEN MAN HINH 4.1. Li!:NH ZOOM L¢nh ZOOM cho phep thu, phong hioh anh tren mall hlnh rna vAn gill nguyen kich thu6'c th~t ella cae d6i tuqng tren bim ve. * each gQi l~n~ Z09M tir Menu: ,-------------------,Screen Menu> DISPLAY> Zoom Menu Bar > VIEW > Zoom O.25x 1hJOcZOOM Sau ZOOM: O.25X .Hlrih 4-1, • + All: de thu toan b~ ban ve ke ca ph~n hinh vi! angoai giro h~ UMITS da d~t ra man hinh m¢t each. ddy duo + Center (C): cho phep d.c dinh 1etta sO chii' nh~t chlia phan hloh vi! de hi~n hinh. CUa s6 Day duqc xac d~nh b&ng tam va chi~u cao ella n6. 45
  44. 44. + Dinamic (D): IlJa ch9n nay thuemg de ZOOM vm t6c d¢ cao. Sau khi chqn "D" tf~n man hlnh xuat hi~n dau "x" d dung tim cua s6. B~n co th~ chqn V! tri dtn thi~t d~ xem bang each di chuy~n con tro tm do r6i a.n phfm Pick hay Enter se xuat hi~n 1 mlii t~n chi vao qmh elra s6. my gio b~ dung ban phfm di chuy€:n con tfO de thay d6i cua 56 xem. + Extents (E): d~ hi¢n tat dt hlnh ve fa vita khit man hlnh. + Left (L): l~a chQn nay gi6ng CENfER i1 tron, chi kMc la i1 CENfER cOn cho tam cila s6, con b d1y phiii cho g6c tnli-dum ella cila s6. + Previous (P): d~ hi¢n l~i man hinh truac do. B~n co th~ diing lien tiep 10 Ian chuc nang Pnay. + Window (W): b~ co t1i xa.c d!nh m¢t elm s6 trum l~n vung hlnh ve mu6n xem. Vung hlnh ve ella ci:ra 56 se dugc ph6ng to hay thu nhb d~ lap d~y man hinh. 4,2. Lj):NH PAN ~nh nay cho phep b~n "trugl:" i'mh teen man hlnh rna kh6ng thay d6i d¢ Ian d~ xem cae phAn khac ella ban ve iJ phia ngoai man hlnh. '" each gqi l~nh PAN tir Menu: ~-----------------, Screen Menu > DISPLAY> Pan Menu Bar > VIEW > Pan '" G6 l¢nh til ban phlm: Command: pan Displacement: <cho di~m g6c, ho{tc d¢ dm> ~cond JK>int: <cho diem thu 2, ho~ Enter> VI d~: Sallday La 2 clch dich chuyen bim ve sang tnii 50 dan vi va xu6ng dum 80 dan vi, Ktt qua 2 eAch PAN cl6LAnhu nhau (hlnh 4-2). 46 •. Command, pari. b. Displacement: -50, -80 Second JK>int: ~" . ;.-- + P' (lOo,tOO) Command: Displacement: Second JK>int: PAN TnIOc PAN pan -150, -180 -100, -100 Hinh 4-2 <clio ~.•dln> . ., ' '. ,; . ".:." <cho diem g6c> <cho diem ilili 2> PI (150, leO) PAN Sau PAN
  45. 45. 4.3. LtNH VIEW Nhi~u khi b~ phili "tnrqt" di. l~ nhieu lin dt xern anh cae philo eua ban ve Ian. Nh~ v~y b",n phai si'r dvng nhi6u Hln de l¢nh ZOOM, PAN, song ACAD dua fa l~nh VIEW de thl!c hi¢n di6u do thu~n lqi han. L~nh VIEW cho ph6p b~ d~t ten vi'!. hru 1 d.nh (1 phAn ban ve), sao nay b~n co the dua doh d5. luu fa man hlnh bat ca hlc nao. * each gQi l¢nh VIEW tir Menu: r-----~------~--_, Screen Menu> DISPLAY> View * Go l¢nh tit bim'phfm: Command: view ?lDeletelRestore/SaveIWindow: <cae Iva chQn xern dum day> View name: Y nghia cae tily chQn adong nhac tren nhl1 sall: + ? : de ke fa ten cae phfu anh(View) d3: d!nh nghia; + D: xoa bO phfin aoh d5. djnh nghia; + R: dl1a 1 ph<in imh da co fa man blob; + W: dung ella 86 de xac dinh m()t phan inh. d~t ten va 1l1U l<i1i. 4.4. LENH REDRAW L¢nh nay dung de tar t.;to l~i man hinh va x6a di cae dau "+" (dau Blip) co tren ban ve. * each gQi l~nh REDRAW tu Menu: ,--------------------, Scnren Menu > DISPLAY> Redraw Menu Bar > VIEW > Redraw * Go l¢nh til ban phim: Command: redraw 4.5. LtNH REGEN Gi6ng nhu I¢nh REDRAW, nhung I¢nh REGEN ghi I~i toan b~ ban ve, cho nM thOi gian Iii t€to Hiu han nhung an toan han. • each gQi I¢nh nay tit Menu gi6ng nhu gQi REDRAW iJ tren. * Go l¢nh tu bi'm phim: Command: regen 4.6. LtNH DRAG MODE ACAD cho phOp leOO It (Drag) rn(lt s6 d6i tugng vo tren rn~n hlnh, d6ng hOi hi¢n ra cac d6i tugngd6 bAng mltu trang(White) de b"" quan sat duqc qua trlnh leeo Ie. B~n c6 the dieu khien che'd¢ rna hay tfit DRAG nhu sau: Command: dragmode ON/OFF/Auto<...>: 4.7. LtNH VIEWRES (OlQn ON: kOo It dUg<:; OFF: bO che' d~ keo Ie; Auto: che' d~ leo It H! d~ng khi c~n). ~nh nay dung de d~t ch€ d~ ZOOM nhanh va de d~t chI! d<;l phan giai cho ducmg trim. 47
  46. 46. .... each gQi l~nh VIEWRES ti'r Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> DISPLAY> Viewres • Go l¢nti til ban phim: Command: Vlewres Do you want fast Zoom?<Y>: <c6 Zoom nhanh kh6ng YIN?> Enter circle zoom percent (1-2000)<100>: Duang tron duQC ve bang da giac dl!u nQi ti~'p. ~ co tIi cho s6 c~nh Clla da giac vao dOng nh!lc tren. S6 qnh cho cang 160 (1 -:- 2000) thl duemg tron dUQ'c ve ra cang mtn. Vi d~ b hlnh 4-3a, s6 c~nh da giac Ia 20, hlnh 4-3b chQIl s6 c~nh HI. 1000, ta th!iy ro dQ m!n clla hai duemg tron rat kM.c nhau. a. 56 Cf,l.l1h da gilk 20 b: 56 c~ da giac 1000. IDnh 4·3 48
  47. 47. , CIWONG5 G.I;CH M~T CAT. GHI KicH THlJOC._i _ . , _ VIET CHO CHO BAN VE 5.1. GACH MAT ckr ACAD su dung J¢nh HATCII hOflC BHATCH devc "5' hi~u V<., li ~ lI tn~n m~1 dt, ho~c tOlmng trlln~ n b6 m,~t. Mien 10 tlufong 1 ~lllli cn kin. Cic mfi u (Paltcrn) g<,lch sqc dlIqc chl'ra Irong fil e acad.pal(*). ~nh HATCH vii BIIATCH c6 lrong ACADI2 dung deg'.lch m~t cat; J¢nh BIIATCII (Boundary Halch) dllllg de hop Ihm,li de' b',1Il !L,ra chQn mau g<.tch, "iell g;)ch vv... 5.1.1. BHATCH ... Cich gQi I ~nh BIIATCII Iii Menu: Screen Menu > DRAW > Bhalch Menu Bar > DRAw > Bhalch * Go I ~ nh Ilr bim ph'm: Command: bhatch Sau khi enler, h<)p thoi;li "Boundary lIalch" xlI,i! 11I¢n nhL( sau: Pattern: No hatch panern selected. Hatch-Pettons... I Define Hatch ArCI! fick Points < I '-_.!~"'e:.:'e::ct"O::b"'j.:.:ct:::.'-'<:....._.J1 rl--:OViC"'w--.,.,"'"C",·,-:,-:c'o.,-'''-."C<----, L-__~P~..~~~~~H~'~"~·I'~<'-'-__JI~I __~6~~~"~'.~d~O~p~tI~""~'~"~'__.J Apply ICancel I IAnlllhl~l I IHe'p... 1 IIlnh 5·1: IIOp tho,u "Ikmnd'lry Ihl1ch': Trcn hop Ihoai do, de 6 co ynghia nhu sau: a. lIatch option 8:;1.0 hilY {Ill ph'ln Chll()llnii (phfm Pick) V;IO 0 nay de chQn m;1lI (Pattcm) va kit u (Style) g;:tch sqe. Sau do h6p tho<;li phI;! xu{'t hien nhu hinh 5-2. (*) Trong acad.pat Clla AUloCAI) co nhitu mJu gach khac voi lieu chuiHl Vi~1 Nam. T:k gi,l dii viet cae cong thlre m~lI g;~ch theo TCVN Ban n~lO dn xin 1i~n he voj tac gi.i, dic.n Iho~ i : 869.3418
  48. 48. + 6 Pattern Type (m~u S<,lch): Irong 0 nily e6 2 dong Iva chQn : - Stored ',latch Pattern: ch<;>n dc m~lI g'.lch da duac Jtru trrr lrong ACAD. ban [in V;LO vong tron adau dong. Sau d6 h~1Il fin phllll pick vao 6 "Pallem...'· sc e6 bdng cae 1ll.'1I du e6 nlnr hlnh 5-3. San hay an (Click) v;m ndu n:..o b',111 ch<;>n va OK. Ti~p then b<,ln cho IY 1¢ vilo dong "Scalc", g6c nghicng dlfl1ng g~ch s<;>c vao dong "Angle" iJ phla dm]i clla h(lp Iho',li "Halch Option", rcu nluJ len m:'ill, h<,ln chuytn con Iro 16i 6 ben ph"li dong "PaHcrn" vi:I go I~n Illi'iU vao, - User Defined Pallern: neu ban danh dli"tL V~LO vong tron 0 (Mu dOllg "User Defined Pattern" co th~ dinh nghia ml)t m~u g,-,Ieh dan gi•.in vai die thOng s6 nhu sau: Angle: eho g6c nghicng de dltOng gaeh, Spacing: cho khming eaeh girra 2 duong g:,lch kt! nhau. Double lIatch: S<,Ich '.'! chi~tI 1',10 thimh 6 IUai, Sau do ban i.11l OK d~ kc'l Ihue vi¢c d!nh nghia m,hl S4.eh nuli. + 6 Hatching Style: (ki~u g<,1ch) sau khi chQn m.iu g<,lch (Pattern), b:,lIl Ira l<;ti hl)p Halch Oplions Hatching Styte-----, ® M,ormal Pattern Type-------, ®Siored tiaLch PaLLern °l!"~D.I;",d P,n,," lUI 0 2"", 91~anern... 1~I=::::=::====~ LO_'::.'"_"_,,_____--' Scale: 1,,0000 Angle: 10 I0 Exploded HaLch ~=~I I0 D ubI!!" 1I;!t:h ~opy Existing Halch ( OK 1Cancel I Hmh 5·1: 116p thO"li "Hal;h Options" . .. .. -. LLLLLLL LLLLLLL LLLLLLL !-LLLLLL Choose Hatch Pettern NOTE: ~ patterns not to scate. ~M~~:17/~ ANSI34 ANSI35 ANSI36 ANSI37 amO.ANSI3B AR-BB16 AR-BB16C AR+BBB II." I ICancel I Hinh 5-.1: 110p Iho:,11 "Choo,c Hutch 0plions", Iho.~i "I-Ialeh Oplion" de chQIl kieu g<,lch sQC (Style) a0 "Hatching Style" n~m aben phai. Co 3 ki~u gi)ch: - N (Normal): day la kieu ma sau khi chQIl nhit!u duong bac thl m~11 cill dl1<;'C 10 tu duong ngoai cung (s6Ie) toi duOnS bilo kc tiep, sau d6 khtlng g',lch cho 16i dtrons bao tier theo h.li S<,lch vv.., (hlnh 5-4a), ·0 (Outer): voi kieu nay. m~H cal chi du(1C t6 IU dl10ng ngolli dillS loi duong Irong k6 n6 ma IhOi (hlnh 5-4b). - I (Ignore): m~1I cJ.1 se du(1C Itl tu dUOng bao ngoai cung va phil 10~1Il bO ben lrong. bO qua cac dlCOng bao mim Irong da du(1C chon (hinh 5-4c). Chu y: N~u han kh6ng chi m ki~u gach n;lo, ACAD chlln ki~u mac dmh N 50
  49. 49. 0).Normal b).O...ler • c).lgnore Hinh 5-4 + () exploded Hatch: (phan ra kh6i gl,lch sQc) Tilt d cac duang g~ch sQc duqc xem nhu mqt kh6i (Block). Khi bi.~n mu6n kh6i do Ira thanh dc dtrang rieng bi¢t, b':lfl danh dau va~ 6 vuong nho dau dong "Exploded Hatch". D~ la.m diell do, b~n cling co the dung I¢nh EXPLODE sau khi dii g~ch roi. + () copy existing Hatch: sao cMp mall d5. g~ch. Sau khi b~n da chQn xong mau (Pattern), kieu (Style) g~ch sQc Irong hqp thm.li "Halch Option", b<.l11 an OK dong hQp tho~i nay, tro ve hQp Iho~i chfnh "Boundary Hatch". Bay gia b~n dn chon liep mien ke sQc IU dong "Define Hatch Area" bhng hai c;:"ich nhL! sall: b. 0 Pick Point B'.lll Click chuqt vao 6 nay, ACAD nhk b~1l chQIl I diem trong vllllg kin dn g'.lch: Select intcral point: <eho I di6m aben (rong mien din g<.tch> ACAD se tlf dQng dlfng I Polyline kin bao quanh mien nay va g<;lch (hlnh 5-5). Cit.:. y: Sau khi b4n chQIl I diC:m trollg miell gf.ICh, ACAD si! di'! 11m (wJng bao giln no nhat M dl!ng lhimh dubng bao Polyline eho miCn g,!cli. Neu di6m d6 b ngoai dlIung I!m th<"iy. ACAD s;: Ihollg bilO ri1ng: Poin1 is outside of boundary (diem chc,m b Ilgoai dlIong bao). x Pick oint Chon mi~n g'.lch Hi.nh 5-5 Hinh 5-6 chi ra ding diem chQn PI atrong dtrang Iron, nhlmg l~i gan dU'ang bao hlnh vuong han, eha nen ACAD se thong bao rang diem angoai duong bao. B~n hay chQIl 11;li. B<.tn cung co the chQn Pick point amifn trong cung trU'ac roi chQn Pick Point ra mi6n ngoai sau. VI d~ tren hlllh 5-6, dau tien b<;ln co the chQn Po Irong hlnh vuong, roi P2 angoai hlnh vuong. c. Select object Neu click phfm chu¢t vao 6 nay d~ ChQll cac duang P~Gl XP2~ 2) llinh 5-6 51
  50. 50. baa cua mi~n g<;lch sQc, b<;tJl dung dc each chQn d6i tuqng de tra 10i dong nhi1c "Select object:". d. View sellections Nhan ph{m chu('lt vao 0 nay d~ xem I~i cac duong bao da chQn atren. e. Preview Hatch ChQn 0 nay d~ xem tru'Oc vung g<;lch dft duqc nhu ychua. r. Advanced Options...: cac chue nang nang cao. g. Apply B<;ln a:n vao () nay, ACAD se ap d~t ta:t cae h!a chQn g~ch SQC da d~t atren vao ban ve va k€t thue l~nh BHATCH. h. Anolher B¥t click vao 0 nay, h"p tho~i chinh "Boundary Hatch" I~i hi~n ra de: b,.m tien hanh g~ch s(Jc mj~n khac. • Anh huimg cua cac dutmg g<;lch sQc tm dong Text, Attribute, Solide Khi chQn ca..c duemg bao mien g'.lch, b'.ln chQn d. cac d6i tuqng nay, thi cac dut'mg g~ch SQC se tI! d"ng ngat di khi g~p chung; trit khi b~n ch(Jn ki~u g~ch la "l"(Ignore). Vi df:.l: G'.lch m~t cat cho h'inh Ve tren hinh 5-7 atren, sao cho cac duemg g'.lch kh{)ng de len chi} "Ban may". B'.ln hay tam nhu sau: Command: bhatch - Trong h('lp tho~i "Boundary Hatch" hay chi vao "Hatch Option" va chQn Pattern la ZIGZAG, chQn Scale = 24. Angle = 0 va an OK. - Trong h¢p tho'.li "Boundary Hatch", hay chi vao () "Select MInh 5-7 object", sau do chI vao dong chu "BAN MAy" va a:n Enter. Tra liili h('lp thoiili "Boundary Hatch" d~ chQn mien g'.lch bang "Pick point", cu6i cling la "Apply". K€t qua mi~n S<;lch nhu hinh 5-7 atren. - 52 5.1.2. HATCH '" Okh gQi l¢nh HATCH tu Menu: ~--------~~----~ Screen Menll > ORAW·> Hatch Menu Bar >DRAW > Hatch •• C'. _ - , _ • GO l~nh tit bail phlm: Command: ' hatch. Pattern(? or namelUlStyle)<••.>: B¥t tre! lai dong rmik do: +?: ACAD li¢t ke ra danh sach dc ten Pattern co trong file acad.pat + Go ten mao g~ch SQC vao: ACAD se hoi ti€p: Scale for pattern<...>: <cho ty l¢> Angle for pattern<...>: <cho goc nghicng dut'mg g'.lch> + U: dt d!nh nghla mau g~eh dan gian:
  51. 51. Angle for cross hatch line<...>: <cho gOc nghieng> Spacing between Line<...>: <cho khming each cac duemg g~ch> Double hatch area?<...>: <go Y di g~ch cheo 2 chi6u nghieng, N - 1 chitu> + S: de chon kieu g~eh (Style: N. I. 0). B~n cung co th~ xac dinh kiiu g~ch b&ng each them N, I hay 0 vao sau ten mau g~ch s,?c co da'u ph.iy ngan each nhu vi d,l sau day: ' Command: hatch Pattern? or name/U/Style)<...>: BRICK. 0 5.2. GHI KICH THUOC (DIM) 5.2.1. Caeh ghi kich thuoe Nhu ta biet kich thu6c g6m 3 thanh pMn nhu sau: (hlnh 5-8) .Dlmentlon nne Dimention text 92 1 - Extention line: dUOng dong - Dimension line: dUOng kich thUdC - Dimenion text: chu so kfch thu6c * c.ach gQi l~nh DIM tu Menu: Extention / ~Ext.nlion fine i---------i Un. '. Screen Menu> DIM Menu Bar>DRAW> Dimentions * G5 l~nh tu ban phim: Command: dim (ho~c dim 1) Dim: . Hinh 5-8 lh Ibi dong nhiic nay b~ng each go 3 chu cai dau ella cae l¢nh con sau: HORizontal, VIRtieal. ALIgned. ROTated. ANGular. DIAmeter. RADius. CENter. LEAder. UNDo. EXIt. Y nghia clla cac l~nh con nhu sau: + HOR ho;).c VER: de dinh huemg dudng kich thuac nam ngang hay th~ng dUng. + ALI: duemg kich thuac ttl J!nh huang phil hoP vai d6i tuqng ghi kich thuac. Vi du: (hlnh 5-9) Command: dim Dim: ali First extention line origin or return to select: .J Select line, arc, or circle: PI (chi diim tren d6i tuqng ghi kieh !huGe) Dimension line location: P2 (chQn diim rna duemg !cieh thu/Jc di qua) Dimension text <...>: <cho chu sO kich thuOc> + ROT: t~o dUOng kich thu6c nghieng m<)t g6c so vai phucmg nam ngang (0°). Vi du:(hlnh5-1O) Command: dim Dim: ROT Hinh 5·9 Dimension Hne angle: -45 (cho goc nghieng cua duemg kich thudc) rl..{s. e'l'...enon ine ori.gi.n or return to select: PI Seeond extention line origin: P2 Dimension line location: P3 53
  52. 52. Dimension text <...>: 40 + ANG: de! ghi kich thl1ac g6c. p, Dim: ANG Select are, circle, line or RETURN: - Nell g6c do cuu I cUIIg (Arc): (hlnh 5-l1a) sau khi b~n chQn cung do, dong nhac ti~p theo la: P2 54 Dimension arcc line 10cation(TextfAngle): <cho V! tri dl1Cmg kich thl16"c> Dimension text<...>: <cho chG: s6 kich thl1<Jc> . Hlob 5-10 Enter text location (or RETURN); «ho v~ tri d~t Ch[f so kich thl1<Jc> - Ntu gal' do Iii J1'/1(111 dilimg trim (Circle): (htnh 5-11 b) Dim: ANG Select arc, circle, line or RETURN: <chi vao dl1Cmg tron t<;ti dii::m dau cung ghi kich thl1<JC PI» Second angle endpoint: <chi diem P2 la mut thli: 2 clla cung ghi kkh thl1<Jc> Dimension arcc line 10cation(Text/Angle): <vi tri dl1Cmg kich thl1<Jc P3> Dimension text<...>: <cho chu s6 kich thl1Ctc> Enter text location (or RETURN): «ho vi tri d~t chG: s6 kich thuCtc> - Ne'u gOl" xue dfl1h hOi 2 dO(jn ,hang (Line): (hinh 5-l1c) Dim: ANG Select are, circle, line or RETURN: <chi vuo dUCmg th~ng thu 1: PI> Second line: <chi vao dl1Cmg th~ng thu 2: P2> Dimension arcc line location(TextfAngle): <vi tri dUCmg kich thl1ac P3> Dimension text<...>: <cho chG: s6 kich thuCtc> Enter text location (or RETURN): <cho vi tri d~t chG: s6 kich thuac> P' Hloh 5-11 - Nell gol' xul' dil/II hOi 3 ditfm (PI, P2, P3): (hinh 5-11d) Dim: ANG Select are, circle, line or RETURN: <enter> Angle vertext: <ch<;m dinh goc>
  53. 53. First angle endpoint: <chQn mut c<;lnh thu 1> Second angle endpoint: <ch<;>n mut qInh thu 2> Dimension arcc line location(Text/Angle); «ho v~ tri dU'Cmg kic;h thU'crc P4> Dimension text<...>: <cho chu s6 kich thU'crc> Enter text location (or RETIJRN): <cho vi tri d~t chu s6 kich thU'crc> + DIA: de ghi kfch thU'<Jc dU'Cmg kinh cho dm'mg tron hay cung tron. Dim: Dia Select arc or circle: Dimension text<...>: Chuy: <chi vao dU'Cmg tron hay cung tron> <cho chu s6 kich thm1c> 1- DWng kich thU'l'1e sf di qua diim P dii chi ratren duemg tron (hlnh 5- !2a). 2- Neu ehi~u Jai dWng k.kh thut1e khOng diJ eho ehu ,,6 k{Ch thuCK: ml.m trong thl ACAD nhflc b,!-n dua chi~u dai dU'oog dan ra (Leader). ehu s6kfch Ihuoe n.im cuoi dUlmg dan nay (hlnh 5-12b): Enter leader cngth for text: <eho chit'!u dili dU'ong dan, ho~c eho diem E cu6i duUng dan>. aJ hJ Hloh 5-12 + RAD: d~ ghi kfch thU'<]c ban kfnh cung tron ~ t/2 dU'Cmg tron. cac bU'crc ghi cling tU'C1I1g tl! nhU' l~nh DIR noi tren. Vi du: (hinh 5-13) Dim: Select arc or circle: RAD <chi viio cung trim t~i diem PI> Dimension text<....>: 30 + CEN: d~ danh da.'u tAm, dU'Cmg ta.m cho cung trim ho~c dU'Cmg trim. Dl) Um cua da'u tAm dllqc di~u khien qua bien DimCEN (xem philn cu6i chuang nay). Dim: CEN ~----;: 036 E lfinh 5-13 Select arc or circle: <chi vao dtKmg tron hay cung tron> R 30 +LEA: t~o dU'Cm.g dan ra ngoai hinh de ghi kich thU'oc. Khi do ta dn tra 1(:j'i ti~p cae chi dan sau : . Dim: LEA Leader start: <cho diem dau dU'Cmg dAn> To point: <cho di~m tiep theo> 55
  54. 54. To point: .J Dimension text<....>: <cho chii so kich thuoc van> Vi d~: (hlnh 5-14) Dill): LEA Leader start: P1 To point: P2 To point: P3 To pOint: P4 To point: .J + P2 P3 X-------X p., Dimension text: 50 Hlnh 5-14 }r__ 050 P4 + CON va BAS (Continue, Rasline): 13. 21¢nh con de ghi.cac kich thuoc noi tiep nhau (CON), hoi,ic ghi cac kkh thu6c cung I chua.n (BAS), xem vi d~ duoi dfty. Vi d~: (hlnh 5-15a) I: 50 80 1 P 20 iPl Ip2 P3 ...b) Hlnh 5-15 Command: dim Dill): HOR First extention line origin or return to select: Second extention line.origin: Dimension line location: Dimension text: 34 Dill): CON 34 32 •A <chQn g6c clla duemg dong thu nh<1't: P> <chQn g6c clla duemg dong thd hai: P1> <cho vi tff duemg kk~ thuac: A> Second extention line origin or return to .select: <SOC duimg dong thu hai: P2> Dimension continue text<32>: .J Dill): CON Second extention line origin or return to select: <chQn g6c clla dUCmg dong thu ba: P3> Dimension continue text<33>: .J L¢nh BAS cling thl,lc hi~n woog t'! nhu CON (hlnh5-15b). + ORD (Ordinate): l~nh nay dung M ghi kich thuac theo t«;la dQ tll 1 diem d~c tnmg (Feature) Dill): ORD Select feature: <cho diem d~c tnmg - g6c xuft"t phat: P> Leader endpoint(X, V): <cho diem mut Cl'ia dU<mg dan, ho~c cho hoanh d¢ X hay tung dQ Y> ffinh 5-16 minh h9:t cach ghi kfch thu6c dung lenh ORD. 56 o o p .j P (100, '40) o "' lp" P1 I P'2 140 P2 '20 r1 105 '-V 90 Q Hinh 5-16
  55. 55. 5.2.2. Cae I~nh hi~u ehlnh kich (huac + OBL (Oblique): dung M chinh duang d6ng nghi~ng di so voi khoang each can ghi kich thuGe cho kfch thuoe da c6 truac. OUI Y rang l¢nh nay chi c6 tac d.tJ.ng khi bi€n DimASO atf<;lng thai ON (tue 13, kich thuac la I kh6i . block). Vi d~: (hinh 5-17). Dim: OBL I 50 I / 50 7 DOSelect object: <ch9n kich thuac da co> a) Tn.rftc Ohlique Select object: --l Enter obliquing angle (RETURN for none): 60 b) Sau Oblique 60° H1nh 5-17 + NEWTEXT: d~ thay d6i n(li dung chil s6 kich thuac da co. Dim: . NEWTEXT Enter new dimension text: <cho chl1 so kfch thuac mai> Select object: <chQn chu s6 kkh thuac can thay> B~n co the dung ky hi¢u < > d~ sir dl,mg gia tT! kich thulle ACAD do duqc. + TEDIT (Text Edit): thay d6i vi tri chu s6 kich thuoc so v6i duemg kich thuac. Dim: TEDIT Select dimension: <chQu kich thlIlJc can 'slta> Enter text location (Left/Right/HomeJAng1e): <cho vi trl chiJ 56 mai: tnii/phai/ mi;ic d!nh/goc xoay> Hinh 5·18 minh h<;m cac chiJ so kfch thlIdc trucrc va sau khi dung lEDIT hi¢u chinh. 60 40 Hinh goe a) TEDIT-Ang le20" b) Ifmh 5·18 60 40 ~I TEOIT-L!R c) + HOMETEXT: neu chiJ so kich thuoc: da dai khoi V! trl m?-c d!nh, b':ln muon dua n6 tra ve vi tri cli thi hay dung l¢nh HOMElEXT. Dim: HOMETEXT Select object: <chQn kich thudc> + TROTATE (Text Rotate): dung de xoay chu s6 kich thuac di~ 1 goc (tuang t1,l" nhu dung lua ch9n Angle !rang l~nh TEDIn. (hinh 5-18) Dim: 1ROTATE Enter new text angle: <cho gOc xoay> Select object: <chQn kich thudc can xoay> 57
  56. 56. + UPDATE: c~p nh~t. L~nh nay Qung de c~p nMt cae kkh thUC1c dang t6n t<.ti. thea ki~u, bien, chu so kfch nlac dang t6n ~i. Dim: UPDATE Select object: ~~. <cht;m cae kich thuac M c<).p nh~t> + STYLE: dung de d~t kieu chu cho chu s6 kfch thuoc. Dim: STYLE New text style<...>: <nh~p len kieu chl1 vao> 5.2.3. Cae bien ,kich thudc (Dimension variables) Cac bien kich thuoc se ditu khien kieu kich thtTOC, chii so klch thU'oc, each ghi kich ,huoc. Hinh 5-19 rna ta tac dl,lng eua m(>t so bien kkh thuoc. Relotiv position .~. '..,~.. 100 DimTXT • mnh 5-19 Dtrai day Hi cae bien kich thuOc eel ban: _ + DimALT: - On/Off - ntu d~t Off so thay c)litrj 56 ella UNIT (Default= Off). + DimPOST: - ky t~ - them cae kY I'vao••u cbitsdklch thiI6c(v( d~: nim),.ho~ vllo tnlaC chii' 86 kkh thUC1c vOi da'u <:. >. Nluing ~u b<;tft khOilg mu6'n them c~c ky Wtiti cho gi~ tri bien Hi dfi'u "." - ,". -',. ' , + DimASO: - On/Off - nea~tOffihl cAe thanh phAn cua kich thu6c I. cae nguytn the ritng bi~t; ntu ~t On ~Ihlchu~g litn klt !haM in¢t kh6i - Block. (Default = On). + DimASZ: - khoang each - xlic dinh chi~u dai rolii ten ella dllCmg kfch thuac (Default = Off): . + DimCEN: - khoang each - neu d~t 0 thi kh6ng ve dl"u tam, dUCmg tam; n€u d~t Hi s6 duong se ve dati ta.m. duang tam. DQ dai dffu tam tily gia tf! so ductng do; neu d~t gia tfi am thl chi vii duang t~m. (Default = 0.0900). + DimCLRD: - m5.u - dinh mall cho dUCmg kich thuac. + DimCLRE: - mall - djnh mall cho dltemg dong. +" DimCLRT: - mau - dinh mAll cho chu so kfch thuac. + DimDLE: - kho{mg each - khoang vuqt cua duang dong qua dUCmg kkh thuO'c khi dung g~ch cheo (Tick) thay eho mlii len (Default :::: 0). ",
  57. 57. + DirnDLI: - kholmg each - dinh khoing each giii'a cac duang kfch thuoc song song nhau. (Default = 0.3800). + DirnEXE: - khoiing each - dinh khoang vugt clla duang dong qua duang kich thlJ'(Jc. (Default = Off). + DirnEXO: - kho~lng each - dinh khoang hb cua duang dong tai cac diem goc cua khoimg ghi kich thuac.(Default = 0.0625) + DirnGAP: - khoang each - dinh khe ha giii'a chii' so kich thuac voi dUCmg kich thuOc (hlnh 5-20) + DirnRND: - so -lam tron kich thuoc. Neu d~t la ·1 thl chii' so kich thuoc duqc Hlm trcm den so nguyen gan nh:1t. + DirnSCALE: - ty 1¢ - xac dinh ty l~ chung cho t:1t cii cac bien cua kkh thuac. + DirnSEl: - On/Off - neu d~t ON kho-ng ve dUCmg dong thu I. + DimSE2: - On/Off - neu d~t ON khOng ve duimg d6ng thu 2. + DirnSOXD: - On/Off - d~t ON se ngan kh6ng ve duang kich thuac ra ngoai dltang dong. + DirnTAD: - On/Off - d~t ON thi chu so kich thudc ghi aphfa tren duang kich thuoc; neu d~t OFF thi chii' so kich thuac dltqC d~t xen giua duang kfch thuoc (hlnh 5-20). (Default = OFF). + DirnFAC: - ty 1¢ - dinh ty l¢ gifra chi~u cao clla dung sai so voi chie.J cao chu s6 kfch thuac. (Default = 1.0000). + DirnTIH: - On/Off - neu d~t ON thl chii' so kich thuoc lu6n lu6n n~m ngang; neu OFF thl chu so kkh thudc duqc d~t theo huang cua dUCmg kfch thuOc. (Default = ON). + DimTlX: - On/Off - d~t ON thl chi! s6 kich thuac luOn d~t b trong 2 duimg d6ng du co dii ch6 khong; neu d~t OFF thl chu s6 kich thuac atrong hay ngoai 2 duang d6ng tuy co du ch6,hay khong, nhung doi v6i duang tron, cung trim thl chii' s6 kich thuOc siS nam ngoai duimg tr~n, cung trim d6. (Default = OFF). + DimTOFL: - On/Off - d~t ON se luOn vedumig kich thuaci>tn trong 2 duimg d6ng. (Default = OFF). + DimTOH: - On/Off - gi6ng DimTIH ,chi them Iii cb.i! ,6 kfch thooc du<!C ghi ra ngoai 2 duang dong. (Default = ON). + DirnTOL: - On/Off - d~t ON se ghi them cac, &ai l¢ch gim h~n vao sau chu s6 kich thuoc. (Default = OFF). + DirnTSZ: - kholmg cach - d~t 0 thi viS rniii ten cho dUCmg kich thuoc; n€u d~t gia tri dUdng thi ve net g~ch nghieng (Tick) thay cbo mfii ten. ~ IOn so duang do cho d9 dai net g~ch. (Default = 0.0000). + DirnTVP: - tY l¢ - di~u chinh vj tri chit so kkh thu6c len tren hay xu6ng duoi dUCmg kich thuoc. (Default= 0.000). + DirnTXT: - khoang each - de xac d!nh d~ cao chit s6 kkh thttOc. (Default = 0.1800). + DirnSHO: - neu dij,t ON thi se nhln thay duong keo re cua kfch thu6c; neu d~t OFF se kh6ng thay dttCmg keo re do. B~n co the thay d6i U:! so cac bien kich thuoc noi tren trong khi ve, ho~c t~o d.c ki~u (Style) bien d~ gQi ra ghi kich thuoc. C:kh gQi l¢nh de d~t bie'n kfch thudc nhu sau: >I< Cach gQi l¢nh de: thay d6i bien til Menu: Screen Menu> Dim> DimVAR> (go ten bi~n vao) . Menu Bar > SETI1NG> Dimension Style>(h~p tho~i) 59
  58. 58. * Go 19nh IiI bim phfm: Command: dim Dim: <el1O len bien vao> Current value<...>. New value: <eho gift II'! bien> Chu Ihich: De xual hi~n Mp lh().~i dZll hien kich Ihlf0c (hlnh .'i-20), b~.lll con c6 lhe: g6 llr b~lll phfll1 (ACAD12) Wn l~nh DDim_ Comnwnd: ODim Sau khi Enter h<)p lho~.li "Dimension Style and Vari~lblc" xu[it hi~n (hlnh 5-20). Dimension Sty1t<s and Variables Y nghTa ella cae 6 trong helP tho<,ti nlm sau: + Dimension Style (ki~u kieh lhlroe): Dimension Styles Dimension Variables--, 6 tren hien ten de kiell, 6 du6i eM g6 te;, kiell kieh thuae vao. T ...to I kitu mai, b'.ln hay di con tra v~O 6 soan thilo i:J duoi va go ten kitu ~110, ten do s1: hi9n i:J 6 phla tren. Sau do bi;ln d~1 cae bien nhu duai day chi dan. Con de gQi ! ki6u ghi kfch HIENl HIEN2 Dimension Line... -Extension lines... Arrows... Iext Location... Text fllrmat... Features... .colors... lhu6c cia co Irit Ih(mh hi~n thai, b<,tn chi vao ten kieu dang hi~n ra a6 phfa tfe11 vrl an phfm pick chu<)r, sau do OK. Jlimension Style: IHIEN2 OK ICancel j !Help... I + Dimension Variable (cae bien kfch thuae): Hlnh 5-20: 11(J[llho~li "Dimension Style and V'lriahlc·: 6 nay g6m cac nut (nlg vai tLmg IO<,ti bien nhlr sal!: a. Niit "Dimension line" B<:J.n tin V~IO nut 11[IY thl h9P IhO~.li ph! hi¢n ra nhU' hlnh 5-21. R.m d~t cae giri trj ve duang kfch thuoe, nlur la: - Dimension line Color: mall eho duang kieh thltoc. - Force Interior Lines: ve dltOng kfch thl10e atrong 2 duang d6ng. - Basic Dimension: ve hlnh eha nh~t bao chtr s6 kfch tluroe. - Text Gap: djnh khe hit bao quanh chtr s6 kleh (Imoc. - Baseline inereament: djnh khoang each giua de dUOng kfch thude song song khi dtmg I~nh Baseline. b. Nut "Extention line" B<,tn an nut nay se hi~n ra h¢p Iho<,ti ph~l nhl1 hlnh 5-22; Imng do: - Extention line Color: mall eho dLYang dong. 60 Dimension line Style: HIEN2 feature Scaling:!L1".,,0,,0,,0,,00'--__~ D Use !:aper Space Scaling Dimension line Color: Ired 1_ Dim ension Line ..:.:.~-..':::====~~ lZJ Force Interior Lines D Basic .Qimension Text Qap: 10.0900 I ~=~Baseline Increment: 10.3800 I OK I Cancel) Help... I Hinh 5-21
  59. 59. - Extention Above Line: djnh khoang vlrqt ctm dlfo:ng dong qua duong kfch thuac (DimEXE) - Feature Offset: djnh khoimg ha tu g6c ghl kfch thuoc den duemg dong. - Visibility: Extension Lines Style: HIEN2 EeaUre Scaling: 11.00000 D Use Eaper Space Scaling Draw Both: de v6 cii 2 ctuong dong Suppress First: kh6ng ve duemg dong thu I. Suppress Second: kh6ng ve duemg dong th(r 2. Suppress Both: khong ve ca 2 dtrong dong. J;xteflsion Li ne Co..'."::"~--,Ir::'"'===I,,_,,,; Extension Lines - - Cenler Mark Size: D6 ghi kfch thuoc dfiu tam duang tron, cling trim. Gia Ir! Ion thl dau l<lm l&n, giri Irj = a Ihl dfiu tam kh6ng dtrqc ve. - Mark with Center Line: veS duong tfI.m thay cho dau I<lm. c. NtitArrows Khi fin nut nay ht")p tho<.ti nlm hlnh 5-23 xuat hi~n de b<;ln d~t tham 56 ve mai t~n. - Dimension line color: chon m.3U cho mai ten. fxtensionAbove Line: 10.1800 I Feature Qff~,::,::,,-=--c--,~1=0=.=0~6~2f5=========;=~1 Visibilil;t IOrllw Both L~ tenter Mllrk Size: 10.0900 I o Mark wilh Cenler Lines OK I ICancel I 1""p... 1 Hlnh 5:22 - Arraws: d~ vc mai ten, b,~n d~1I chi6u dai mili ten vila dong "Arraw Size:"; Tick: ve £q.ch llghi~ng; Dol: ve cham; hay User: ky hi¢u do nguai dimg djnh nghTa d~t vao 2 dfiu chrang kfch thuoc Ihay ch? mi.ii len. Arrows Style: HIEN2 feature Scaling: D Use .eaper Space Scaling Dimension Line Color:]Cr-ed---'I_ Arrows ® Arrow 0 Tick 0 Qot 0 User Arrow Si~e: ]0.1800 ~=~ "::J • OK I [ Cancel I I:!elp... I H"inh 5-23 Text location Style: HIEN2 feature Scaling: "11,,.°"'°,,°:.:°,,°'-_---' o Use .eaper Space Scaling Qimension Text Color: 'Ir-ed-=---'I. Text Position Te~ Height: [°.18001 [ !olerance Height: 10.1 BOO I ~.,-----'====;=; Horizontal jOefault Ii.] ~ertical ICentered liJ [ Alignment IOrient Text Horizontally [i.! I OK [ Can",1 I [H"P... I H"inh 5-24 61

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