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4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744 4 autocad chotudonghoathietke_1744 Document Transcript

  • TS. NGUV£N VAN HIEN AUTOCAD CHO TU OONG HOA THIET KE • • Sach dung cM sinh vien cac trllilng kY thu(lt (Tai bdn ldn flut hai) AUTODESK .. NHA XUAT BAN GlAo Dl,IC
  • N gay nay khoa h9C kj thutjt phat triln rat nhanh chong, doi hoi m6i thanh vien trang xii h~i phdi thudng xuyin njp nht)t kiin thuc mCri, c6ng ngh? mCri. Tin h9C dang dUf1c ung dlfng r~ng riii va co hi~u qud cao trong cae linh v¥c cua dlii s6ng, trong khoa hqe kj thutjt va quan [y, kinh doanh. Trang vi~c tl! dqng hoa thiet_ ke'va dilu khie"n san xuat, -tin hqc cung dang dU{1c ling dlfng nhie'u. Phon mbn AutoCAD cua hang Autodesk dang dU{1c sri dlfng ngay cang r~ng r{ii, diJc bi~t trong thilt kl cac ban vi' kiln true, xdy d1fng, ve ca khi, di~n tu, hdng kh6ng, bdn dd, sa d6 v.v ... 6 Vi4t Nam nhie'u lfnh VIfC san xmit, khoa hqc ky thUtjt va doi sling dang doi hoi cac ky thutjt vien sri dl!ng ttIt phon me'm AutoCAD trong cong vi?c cua minh. CU6'n sach nay t{lO dieu ki~n cho b{ln dflc khai thac AutoCAD mt)t each de dang, co phucmg phap. No dUf/e duc kit III nhilng niim giang dflY cho sinh vien cac truang ky thutjt va cae ca quan thilt ke~ T iii li¢u L·O 3 phon: - Phon mt)t: tll chucmg 1 den chuang 8, trinh bay cach ltjp ban vi' phJng (2D); - {'han hai: tll chuang 9 den chucmg 12, trinh bay cach t{lO ban vi'm6 hlnh kh6ng gian (3D); each xudt m~t ban vi'ma hl'nh sang phdn mem khac va ra giay; ngoai ra huimg dan blJn dflC each tflo hinh anh dqng. - Phon ba: huimg dan thlfC hanh cac bai ttjp t6ng hqp dl b{ln dqe tlf hqc m~t each de dang. Cuan sach nay nhu m~t giao trinh rna Cae b{ln t6 thl dung dl II! h'lc va tham khao ling dl:'ng rat thutjn /¢ trong thiet kl cae /Jan ve. Tuy nhien do trinh dq co hlJn, sach edn co thie" 501. mong b{ln dqc dong gop y kUn. Thu gop y xin gw ve dia chi: Nhd ':coo, ban diao dlf.c· - 81 Tran HUng D{lO - HiJ Nri. HOfle theo di?n tho{li cua tac gid : 8693418. TACGIA 3
  • CHUONG J ? -' .... MO DAU VE AUTOCAD 1.1. GIOI THI¢U AUTOCAD Trang th~p ky 90, vi¢c khai thac di~n tmio ia van d~ hang driu d~ nang cao nang sufit, .hi~u qu{' cang vi¢c (1 c;ic dan V! kinh te, ky thu~t. M¢t trang nhung l"inh VL!C (juan tn;mg eua Tin h9c Ii! ky thu(11 do hQ<l Iren may tfnh ullg dl,mg trong de 110h VL!C khoa hQc ky thu~t (d~c hi¢t III b'lil vc 'hie! ke). Co ohieu h~ thong chuang Irinh da duqc xtlY d'!I1g eho tl! d¢ng haa thiet ke. Nam 19X5 c6 cUQc Irico Jam v~ "Ky thu(11 may tfoh eha thiet ke xay dL!ng" t .... i thanh ph6 Chicago da gioi thi¢u ohieu h¢ thong phi'in mem eho thiel ke Irq giup bang may tfnh kha mo.toh. VI dl,lllhu: - H¢ thong SAP (Structural Analysis Programs) cua My, de C(lp den phuong phap philo lu hilu h•.1n va ky thu<~t kct cau trang nganh x[ty dl,Ing. - H¢ CHARVITE ella hang Le Mousieur Consultant eua Phap M thiet ke, tfnh toan va ve de mai khung nhiL Di).e bi~t h¢ nay co th~ "dQe" ban ve. - H¢ SSCAD eua hang Space Structure Internation Corporation cua My de tfnh tmin, thiet ke va II! d¢ng hoa ehuydn IU giai do""n thiet ke den dieu khien cac thiet bi che t<,to (CAD/CAM). - HG AUSTIN (Automated Structural Design lntergrated System) cua NhQ.t dung de thiet kc eho nh~l 100 tdng. - H¢ BUILDS (Building Design System) eua NamTrieu Ti~n dung de t1nh toan ket c:iu thep, be-tong, nen mong va, tfrih,kh6i luqng. gla thanh, 've ban ve. - H~ MICROFEAP cola lMiLan dung trohg thi€t k~ ktt cau h~thanh. dam. "im. - H~ phan m~m CADKEY eua hang CADKey vll h¢ AutoCAD eua hang AutoDesk elLa My duqe su dl,lng rAt n)ng rai tr~n.the gi6LNhung h¢ AutoCAD Iii. hang dang dan dau v~ h~ th6ng thiet ke trq gi6p bang rnaY tlnh. No Ia phan mem rii'l m<,tnh, cung cfip cac IGnh M t<;lo l~p ban ve chinh xae, nhanh eh6ng va sua dOi dugc ngay. AutoCAD con cho pticp nguoi thiet k€ d!ch ehuyen, sao ehep, tay x6a. lhu phong va sap d~t cae d6i tuqng ve. No co the xufft ban ve ra gifiy qua lTI"l.y ve (Piotter) hay may in (Printer) bang d.e C[1lI l~nh dan gUm. D[ly In. h¢ thong ma cho phep nguoi' su dl:mg 11,1' 1<;'.0 them cae tiGn feh. cae ung dl;lng rieng va giao tiep vai cae phan mem khac. Cho nen kha nang (mg dl;lng ella AutoCAD la rat r¢ng rai. C6ng ngh~ thiet kc va gia eong duqe trq giup eua may tfnh (CAD_Computer Aided Design. CAM_Computer Aided Manufacturing) dang duqe sir dl,lng nhi~u trong cae I1nh 5
  • vt!-c ley thu~t va trong silO xuilt. No thvc sv thay d6i v~ chilt trong cOng tac thii!t ki!, gia cOng va mang l~i nang sua"t lao d¢ng cao h<1I1, chilt lUQIlg t6t h<1I1 . •AutoCAD thuOng duqc ling d~ng trong cac finh V1!c sau: ve kien trUc, xay dvng, ve ky thu~t ca khi, -di¢n tir, O-t6, h~mg khOng, ve ban d6, thitt kt studio nha hat, quay phim, ve cae '~itu trang ,tri, thiep mai v. v... AutoCAD dii duqc nghi~n cUu nhi~u u) nhiing nam 80, wi nam 1987 phitn ban 10 (Release 10) eq ban daqc hoan thi¢n. Cho toi nay dii co phi~n ban 12, 13, 14 duqc ph6 bii!n khfip the giOi. 0 Vi¢t Nam AutoCAD cGng dang duqc Urig d1ng trong nhi~u finh V1!c; nhu du sii d;lng AutoCAD dang tra thanh ca"p thiet d6i voi nhieu ngam. 1.2. MO DAU vt AUTOCAD 1.2.1. So db quan h~ ngulri . may trong to d(lng bOa YO thiet ke I nhi¢m Vt;I thiet ke I J I ngum thiet ke I I J giao di~n ngum - may (inteface) + - philn om!m h~ th6ng - ph:in mem chuyen dmg ~ ca sa d6 hQa - m~y vi!! (Plotter) MAYTiNH W. dii' li~u - may in (Printer) , ket qua 1.2.2. Yeu du thi€t bi de' ch~y AutoCAD .. May tinh (Computer) VaiAutoCAD release 12 (viet tfit laACAD12) doi hoi may I01,li IBM ho~c tuang thich, co b¢ nho RAM t6i thieu 4MB, nhmg thea y~u cau la phai 8MB, d6ng thai may phai co b~ d6ng xii ly toan thl!C sv Co-processor 8087. Cho n~n co the dung may AT 386 dllqc cai th~m Co-processor 8087. ho~c may AT486. AT586 thi t6t han. V"i ACADl4. may can t6i thi.!" 8MB RAM. may AT586 va chay trong WINDOWS-95 hay WINOOWS-NT4.x. .. Man hinh V 6i ACAD 12 nen dung card man hlnh c6 b¢ nho 1MB tra Jen, ho~c c6 th~ dung 2 man hinh: m¢t man hinh Graphics va mQt man hlnh lext. 6
  • • Dill dIng ACADI2 can may co 6 cling. Vai ACADI2 <Ii. cling can t6i thitu 20MB b(> nha, nhtmg thea y~u cilu phai la 50MB. Ngoai ra vi~c xit 15' thea ch€ dQ b" nha ao (Virtual ',Memory) cho n~n doi hoi dung h.tQ'Og dia tr6ng cang nhi~u cang t6t. • 6 tfia mem: dn co 6 dia mem m~t dQ cao. • Thilt b! vao: chUQt (mouse) ho~c b!lO di~n tit (Tablet). * H~ dieu hanh: h~ dieu hanh PC_DOS, MSJ)OS (Version 3.3 ho~c mai hem). • Thill bi xuat ban vi'ra: co thi dung may ve (Plotter) ho~ may iu (Printer). 1.2.3. Giao di~n AutoCAD a. KhOi diing AU/DeAD co 2 cach d6 khiri d~ng AutoCAD : 1- Khffi dQng bang file acad.exe: Gia sit AutoCAD duqc cai d~t vao 6 ctffig C: vai t~n thu mlc la ACAD, b~n hay go tu ban phim 4i dau nhac cua DOS: C:> CD ACAD ',J <vao thu m~c ACAD> C: ACAD > acad,J <ch~y file .cad.exe> 2- KhiJi dOng bang file b61~nh (Batch file) c6 duOi .BAT; VI d~ .el2.b.t; b~n chi vi~c go t~n "ac12" t~i defu nhAc h¢ th6ng: C:> acll ,J Chu y: Khi b<).n dii t!).o Batch file dlchl,lY ACAD. thi ACAD dn khbi d{)ng bang ten Batch file d6. Dtra; day la m~t VI d~ ~o n~i dung file b.tch viri ten "ACI2.BAT' de khai d~ng ACADI2: SET ACAD=C:'ACA1JI.SUPPORT;C:ACAD FONTS;C:'ACAIJADS SET ACADCF(M;:ACAD SET ACADDRV=C:ACAJN)RV C:ACADACAD.EXE 1% 2% SET ACA[):= SET ACADCFG= SET ACADDRV:::: DOng thu 1,2, 3 d~t cac bien mOi troang cho AutoCAD. DOng thtl 5,6,7 de x6. cae bien.mOi truUng da cM d~t sau khi thoat khbi AutoCAD. b. Man hinh Au/oCAD' D6i vOl ACADI2 man hloh la man blnh graphics, xem hlob I-I. Man hlnh do h9' AutoCAD bao g6m cac pMn s.u day: 1· Viing dol h<)a (Graphics area) 2 - Dong I~nh (Command line): 11 no'i ~ao l¢nh' va hi¢n cae nhAc nha. No nam dum a day man hlnh. . 3 - Dong tr~ng th.U (Status line): lJ tr!n diJ;ih man hlnh. N6 thOng bao tn:mg thai hi~n thai cua ban ve. Vi dl,l t~n lap hi~n thail cac mode xac dinh t93 dQ con tro (Cross hair). a 4 ~ UCS icon: H bieu tuqng v6cta h~ th6ng t(;la ~. N6 n~m g6c duai - trni cua man hlnh. S -,Screen Menu: nam ben ph3i m~n hlnh, dung-d~ vao l~nh bang con chuQt (Mouse) h~~c bang bang di~n tu (Tablet). Mu6n g9i l¢nh. ~ dua con tro chu¢t t6'i kich sang I~nh cin ch9n va bam phim tnii chu¢t (pick button, hlnh 1-2), ho~c in Enter. 7
  • utllitles loaded Hlnh I-I: MrmhlnhACADl2. CUsor menu button 6 - Pull-Down Menu Pick bullon Enter button UI thl!e dcm trilj xu6ng va cae hl)p tho<;li, Khi b""n II dua con tro chul)t len dong tr'.lng thai (status line), man I' hlnh hj~n ra dong Menu Bar, bt),Jl chc,m m(lt menu se hi~n ra bllllg menu Inii xu6ng (hlnh 1,-3), Tll menu lraJ xu6ng b""n chon J¢nh bfmg each di con tro chu,,' kfch sang ten l¢nh va btlm phfm trili chu(lt (Pick button) ho.)e 5n Enter. - Th~/c don con lro (cursor menu) L D6i vai chul)t 3 mit bam, b5m nut gina (ho~c rin Ilnh 1-2. V" Shifl+nut phai) se hi¢n ra h"p cursor menu. c. each )'lio 1~llh di A lIloeAD IJ",lc hi~n Khi b duai day mall hlnh hi~n ra lai nhAc "Command:" tlre la AutoCAD dang san sang ti€p nh~n It;nh ella b<;lll dua ra. B<,ln c6 the V30 l~nh bfing 2 each sau day: I - Vao l~nh tu ban phim: bf,m go ten l¢nh tll ban phfm sau d6 an Enter ho~c Space-bar de AutoCAD thlfc hi~n. 2 - Vilo I~nh tit Menu: bq.n dung chuQt ho~c lh.blet chi cho AutoCAD bi€t bf,m mu6n ve b duu va vc di gl. oci Hl.In dieu d6 bq.n hay chuyen con tro laj Screen Menu fJ ben phai m~m hlnh, di con Iro kich sang I~nh va bt"m phfm Imi chu(ll (Pick). 8q.n cung c6 the dua con tro tai dong menu-bar b tren dinh man hlnh, kich sang m"t menu b'.ln mu6n, nhay phfm Pick ehu", sc hi¢n ra Pull-Down Menu de bq.1l chqn J¢nh. Neu dung phfm ehu", thu 3 (gifra) ella ehu(lt ho~c A'n Shifl+phfm phai ChUQI, AutoCAD se dua ra Ihlfc dcm con Iro (Cursor menu) de b'.ln gQi I~Jlh OSNAP (xem chucmg 2, li€12-12). 8
  • Donut Ellipse Polygon Rectangle Insert ... 3D Surfaces Hatch ... Text Dimensions Hlnh 1·3: Pull-Down Menu ellll ACADI2. B<,ln c6 th~ l~p l~i mQt I~nh vtra Si'l d~mg b~ng each an phlm chuQt ben phai ho~c Enter, ho~cSpace-bar. d. Sil' d(lflg cac ky t(t lUlu khid'n, cac phim chrlc nang, go tilt l¢nh Ngoai cae phfm Enter, Space/wr hay phfm chuQt, cae eh{rc nang dieu khi6n con g6m 2 phfm: Ctrl+ mQt phim khac. Ctrl + C : M huy bo 1 l~nh; Ctrl + G = F7 : M b~t/dl ch€ di) hi~n l..oi (GRID); Ctrl + 0 ::: F8 : b~t/tat eh€ d¢ ve th~ng dung/nam ngang (Orlho mode); Ctrl + B = F9 : M b,H/'," ch€ d6 lao l..oi (SNAP); Ctrl + 0 ::: Fl : chuy~n Itl man hlnh Text sang mim hlnh Graphics va nguqe If,li; F6 : b~t/tat vi~c hi¢n tQa do t~i di6m con Iro dt'mg. * Cac l¢nh co the' go tat A::: l¢nh are M::: Move C :::: Circle P:::: Pan E :::: Erase PL:::: PLine L:::: Line R::: Redraw LA:::: Layer Z:::: Zoom e. Cach vdo dii: lieu a SU dl;lng h¢ don vj do chieu dai va do g6e deu cho dl..mg Ih~p phan. Trj s6 dua tir ban phfm vao Ht s6 nguyen hay s6 c6 mang dtlu cham th~p ph1)n. G6c co g6c 0 huang sang phili va ehieu tang ella g6e theo chieu nguqc veti chicu quay kim dOng hO. C6 th~ vao dO' li¢u til ball phim, vao b~ng phfm ehuQI, tablet va eae phlm djeh chuytn sqi t6c (Cross hair). 9
  • • Ctfc c6ch~""h~ 41lm + GO ~Ao'-tQa dQ tuy~t d6i ella diem + GO vllQ tQa dQ hrrmg d6i ella diem + DUng -phim chul)t, tablet chi diem + DUng phim di chuyen tr~n b~m phim + Diing Object snap (bilt d6i tuqng) d~ neo con tro vai d6i tuqng dii ve. Duai day trlnh bay cae each cho diem hang t<;>a d¢ thuang dung trong thi¢'t k€: • T(}a dl) tuy~t d61 T<;>a d¢ tuy~t d6i til tr~ 56 thl!c ella cae t<;>a d¢ x,Y,z so ~Oi gae o. B~n co the bb qua tq s6 z, hie c1y AutoCAD them van gia tri z bang tQa d¢ hi¢n thai Vi d~ : 3, 12.5 (x=3, y=12,5) • T(}a dt) tuong d(j'i TQa d¢ wang d6i Hl tQa d¢ so vOi diem dii chi d!nh truuc do. De cho tQa d¢ tlIang d6i b~n phai them dau @ (At-sign) phfa tnlOc tQa d¢: @X2,Y-2 so vai diem trl16c do (Xl,Yl) lam goc. Vi d1,l: 010 P2: @S.S, -to, n~u diem chi d~nh tnIac dola Pl(lOO, 50), lhi tQa dQ luang d6i do llIang dUo'I1g vai tQa d¢ tuy~t d6i la (105.5, 40). • TiJa dt) clfC tuang dOl TQa d¢ C,!C dlIqc cho biing ban kinh p va g6c quay <po TQa dl) c,!c tlIang d6i dlIqc cho nhlI sau: @ p < <p Vi d1,l: @ 10< 30.5, nghia la p=lO, goc d~nh hlICmg c.p=30030''so voi di~m vira chi d~nh lrU6c do. • T!Ja dt) tr~: vi d1,l cho 8<45, 20 nghia ta p=8, c.p=45° va z=20. • TfJa til! cci'u,: vi d1,l cho 8<'45<30 nghia ia p=8, <p=45° va goc so voi m~t phfuJg (x,y) 11130° . • H~tfJa~ co 2 h~ th6ng toa d~: wes (World Coordinate System) 10 h~ toa d~ tM gi&i bay h~ toa d~ chuiln; h¢ thu hai lit ues (Usre Coordinate System) lit h~ tQa d~ ngum dung "10 ra. + Hf t9a dr) the' gim WCS: la h¢ tQa dt) chmin c6 dinh. Do 1; h¢ tQa dl) D~-cac thang g6c, trong d6 tfl:lc 'X nam ngang, trI,lc y thang dUng so v(ri man hinh, con m,.c z vuOng goc voi x,y. M~t ph~ng (xy) dlIqc gQi la mi).t ph1lng kic!n t~o (Constuction Plane), xem hlnh 1-4. y Y(jt pha,q kien tQo Hlob 1-4 Mloh 1-5 10
  • + H~ d¢ IIg/(oi dllllg UCS : f(j(j a H¢ nay do b,!-n tl! t'!-o va co the d~t bal ky vj 11'1 nao b<;ln mu6n. No giup b~n ve die d6i tlCQl1g 3 ehi6u (3D) mqt each de. dang. S6 luqng cae UCS HI kh6ng hqn chc'. Cho nen tren m6i ni~t elJa v~t th~ 3 chi6u bZ.1n d~t mQt UCS rieng de dua v6 ve trong 2 chi6u (2D) mqt deh d~ dang. H~ tQa d6 duqc djnh huang bang bi~u tltqng (Coord inate System Icon). Bl;In hay xem vi d~1 hinh J -50 tren. Chi cluj: D~ xJ.c dinh huang dU'O'ng lr~lc z, nglfoi ta dung LJuy I ttl: b~n lay phi'li. Hay d~l1 bim lay phai 0 vi tri sao cha ng6n cUi dqc theo chieu du'ang tryc x, ng6n Iro d<;IC chi6u dU'O'llg y, va ng6n giiJa g~p l~i vuOng g6c v6i ng6n cui va ng6n fa sc chi lmOng dU'O'llg ln~c z . 1.2.4. Cae I¢nh ti¢n ich (Utility Commands) LENH HELP HAY ? Trong ACAD co ho'Tl 100 l~nh vai nhieu ll!a ch9n (O ptions). ACAD cu ng cap l ~nh HELP de eho b<;ln ro chi tiet ve tUng 1~l1h hOi!-c danh sach to~m b¢ cae I¢nh cua ACAD. Vi dlr De xem chi tiet ve l¢nh ZOOM, b~n go vao dong l¢nh sau: Command: help Command name (Return for List): zoom Sau khi vao l¢nh, man hinh xufft hi¢n hqp tho,!-i HELP. Trong do co cac m~c: + Hel p Item (nwc can trq glup): h<.lIl c6 the g5 ten l¢nh vao. + Index: khi b<;ln barn vao phfm Ihdex ACAD li¢t ke ra tat d. dc I¢nh va d.c bien. B,!-n cJ1Qn ml,lc dn xem va nilan vuo OK. Li;:N H FILES L¢nh nay d~ hi¢n ra dc FILES trang tllu rnl,lc, ho~c de x6a, dOi ten, sao chep cac files: Command: files Sau khi vao l ~nh se hi¢n ra hQp Iho~i co nQi dung nhu tren (hlnh 1- 6). File Utilities List files ... ] I Copy tile... II Rename file ... I IDelete tile ... I IUnlock file ..] I E~it I H'inh 1-6: Ifl)p Iho<.li ti9n fch FILE ctm ACAD12 _ Li;:NH SHELL (SH) L¢nh nay eho phcp b:~m tht!c hi~n e<l.c li¢n Ich eua h¢ di6u hlmh DOS lrong khi van con dang 0 t['ong m6i truang ACAD. Com mand: sh DOS command : (b~n vao ten l ~n h cua DOS) De tro ve ACAD b,!-n hay go EXIT. Li;:NH STATUS (TRANG THAI) L¢nh nay th6ng bao tr~ng thai hl9n thai cua blm vi!: klch thtroc bim ve, kieu dUOng net, lap ve vv... II
  • LENHNEW Create New Drawing U;nh NEW de bar dAu ban ve maio Sall khi gQi I¢nh n ~y mQl hQp tho<.ti "Create NCi Drawing" xua' hien nhu hlnh 1-7 .. lJololype:;; ] Ic"'c::_ _ _ _ _ _ _---' d D~ d~t ten eho ban ve m6"i b~n No Prolotype o g6 ten bim ve vao 6 "New Drawing Name", duOi t¢p tin ban ve o Retain as Default ".DWG" ACAD tu them vao. Neu b~n danh da'u "x" VaG 6 " No proto~ type" rue la b~n kh6ng dlmg b~m ve I Ne. Orowing N,med = c - = =,---------' ,,=11 mftu rieng nao, ACAD se It! dQng dua vao eho ban vi! mai mt)t ban ve W iCancel1 m&u theo aead.pat. Nell b~n mu6n ban ve mai co slr d~mg bim ve mau rieng da: e6, bi.lI1 can nhan phfm Hlnh 1-7: H¢p tho'.li voi I~nh NEW cila ACADt2. ehllQt vao 6 " Prototype", rai dua ten t~p mfill (d 6 rna va dUOng dAn neu dn) va~. San vB mau nay da: duqe djnh d~ng ve doo vi do, giai h~n ve, khung ban ve, d~t cae lap ve, die tham s6 kfeh thucre ... ehn thich: Khi eho bien FILEDIA gia trj 0, ACAD12 kh6ng dltd r:I h(Jp thol)i. Khi d6 b,!n vao ten ban ve moi eho dong nh~c snu: Enter NAME of Drawing: 8l)n eh(;m I lrong 3 deh tra lai sau: a. Go ten bim ve van (tlee Iii dung bim vi; m~lI m~e djnh trong acad.pnt) b. GOlen ban vi! mm = len ban ve lmiu (VI d~: True 1= MAU2) c. Go Itn han vi; m6i = (IUC la b'.1Il khong dung ban ve mau nito. vi d~. Trucl=). LENHOPEN L¢nh nay d~ 111& mQt bim ve dfi co ra dci so~n thao. Sau khi gQ i I~nh OPEN, hi~n ra hQp tho'.!i nhu hlnh 1-8. Open Drawing File t:!ame: 1··dWg Q.irectOlies: d:acadsampfe I. OK I engine.dwg • I, Cancel .. I housepln.dwg nozzle3d.dwg pentagon.dwg planplOf.dwg !Jpe II psfilpal.dwg psglobe.dwg uhadow.dw • find File... Lisl Files 01 Type: Oriyes: DRead Onl/ Mode hl ",IO",ra",wi", ,,. W ,--)_""I G ng"'· Oc:..: 1121 d: graph Ipu Ii.] D ~elecllnilial View H1nh 1·8: H¢p tho,!-i l~nh OPEN ell<! ACADI2. 12
  • _ Trong d6 b<.tn chQn thl! rnl;lc chua t¢p ban ve dn matrong 0 "Directories". • _0 hQp "Files" b<;tn dung con tro chuQt kfch sang ten t¢p va bam phfm pick chuQt de chQn t¢p can ma. Ho~c b<.tn cGng co the g5 ten t~p vao 0 nho "Filcs"a ph fa du6'i . _ Ban danh dau "x" vao 0 "Select initial view" d~ hien anh bim ve ra xem tntoc. _ N6u b<.tn danh dffu "x" vao 0 "Read Only Mode" th1 ban ve duqc rna ra chi d~ xern m~l khOng sua d6i duqc. _ Cu6i clll1g b~n bam vao OK t~p tin b~m ve do se dUQ'c ma ra. _ Tntang hqp b"-l1l khOng rnu6n rna ban ve ra nu-a, hay nhay chuQt vao 0 "Cancel". LENH CAT BAN vii (GHI LEN DIA) Co 2 each cat bim ve khac nhau nlm sau: 1- Command: save cat ban ve vai ten cO Illc gQi ra. 2- Command: save as HQp tho<.ti hi¢n ra b<.ln eho ten file va duang d§.n moi de cat bun ve. LENH THOAT KHOI ACAD (L~NH QUIT) Command: quit Sau khi v~o I¢nh QUIT mall hlnh xufit hi¢n hQp tho;:ti de b<.ln Drawing Modilication Il!a chQIl (hlnh 1-9). + Save changes ... : c6 cat r:o""'"""7,...",Th';'C';'CU"1rrent drawing has been ~ch.:.:a~ng~e.:.:d._ _-, nhling thay d6i ella ban ve khong. + Discard changes: bo qua lliscard Changes I£.n~el. Command I cac thay dOi, khOng cat. + Cancel command: hi'ly bo Hlnh 1-9: HQp thO'.li l¢nh QUIT ella ACADI2. I¢nh QUlT LENH UNITS L¢nh nay d€ xac d!nh don V! ve (do chieu dai, do goc, dQ chinh xac). Command: units Units report formats: (Examples) 1. Scientific 1.55E+0 1 2. Decimal 15.50 3. Engincaring 1'_3.50" 4. Architectual l' 3.1/2" 5. Fractional (h6n sO) 15.1/2 Enter choice, I to 5< ... >: 2 D6i voi tieu chuan Vi¢t Naill (TCVN) ch9n 2 (h¢ met). V6'i eac h!a chQn 1,2,3 thl xuat hi¢n dong nh~c sau day de b"tn ch9n ti€p s6 so e sau da"u phay (dau cham trong ti€ng Anh): Number of digits to right of decimal point (0 to 8)< ... >: (cho s6 s61e sau dau phfiy thap phan, til I den 8). Neu chQn chuc nang 4, 5 lh. nhl'ic nho tiep Sf Iii: Denominalor of smallest fraction to display(l, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16,32 or 64)< ... >: (b'.ln chQn mall s6 Clla ph.1n ph~n so nha nhA't). Sau do I~nh UNITS thOng bao tiep de' b,!n chQn dan V! do goc nhu sau: 13
  • Report formal: (Examples) I. Decimal degrees 45.0000 2. Degree/Minutes/Seconds 45 d O' 0" 3. Grad 50.0000 g 4. Radiant 0.7854 r 5. Surveyor's units (dan vi ban dO) N 45d 0' 0" E Enter choice, I to 5< ... >: 2 Theo TCVN b<.ln nen chQn 2 (d,,/phlit/gity). Sau do ACAD nhflc nhe, tiep de b",n chQn s6 chO hien lhi phfin Ie clla gOc: Number of fractional places for display of angle(O to 8)< ... >: Bfty giu ACAO nhk nhi1 ehQn huang chuan ella g6c: Direction for angle 0: (huang ella g6c 0) East 3 o'clock = 0 North 12 o'clock = 90 West 9 o'clock = 180 South 6 o'clock = 270 Enter direction for angle 0< ... >: (b',111 chQn goc 0° bang go 0, hay chQn 90, 180,270). Cu6i cimg de chon chitu duang clla gOc, ACAD nhac nhc,: Do you want angles measured clock wise?< ... >: Il.::m tnl lai "Y" la d6ng y gOc do thea ehieu quay kim d6ng h6, ho~e uN" thea chitu nguqc I""i (TCVN cho goc ducmg quay nguqc chitu kim d6ng h6). Chu thieh: Units Control 1- ACADt2 con dlla ra Mnh DDUNITS de hi¢n hQp IhO<,li eho b':ln h!a'chQnlhco cae Units Angles nQi dung 1tt(1I1g Ilf nhu Iren. xem hlnh 1-10. 2- li~l 1.2.3 tr~n dAy dii Irinh bay 2 o .scientific ® Decimal Degrees cach SQi J¢nh Clla AutoCAD: m¢1 la go len I¢nh lit ban phim; hai Iii van Itnh tit Screen ®[~etlm~:!J o Deg/Min/Sec Menu ho~c Menu Bar. 0 drty muOn gQi lenh UNITS tit Menu la lam nhu sau: bl!-n dung o ,Engineering o .Grads chuQI kfch sang SE111NG tren Menu dQC(Scn:cn Menu), ho~c tTen Menu ngang o Architectural o Badians (Menu &tr), sau d6 di con Iro t6i Mnh o fractional o Suryeyor UNITS va nhay phfm pick chu(ll v1.o d6. Ta bieu thi qu6 Ir"inh gqi I~nh UNITS tit Menu erecision: Precision: nhu sau: Screen Menu> SE1TJNG > Units 10.0000 IiI 1 0 IiI Menu &tr> SE1TJNG > Units Control OK II Cancel II12he ctlon ... llllelp ... I L$NII LIMITS IIlnh 1-10: Htlp thoai I~nh DDUNITS Clla ACADI2. L¢nh nay dtmg de d~1 giai h<,ln vung ve (khO bim vel. Command: limits ON/OFF/<Lowcr left corner>< ... >: - Dap rn~c d!nh: cho diem gOc tn,i duai - ON/OFF: neu Ira lui ON b~n chi ve duoc iJ ben lrong mU!n giai h<.tn LIMITS; con tni lui OFF b<;11l co lh~ ve c;l trong va ngoai LIMITS da d(ll. 14
  • Sa1,l khi cho diem g6c trlii duai, ACAD nhac b<;m cho di~m g6c phai tren cua mien chu nh~t gi6i h'.l-n ve: Upper right comer<. ..>: (cho diem g6c phai tren) Ghi ehu: Sau khi d~t gim h""n vi! bdi I¢nh LIMITS , b~ c6 the dU'a tOIm bl) gioi h{ln ve d6 ra man hlnlJ b~ng I¢nh ZOOM vl'1i li,a ch9n ALL; m~t idt<k khi xu:rt ban ve ra in du<;x: chfnh dc LIMITS dii d~t. 1.2.5. T~o b:ln ve khm thuy (Prototype Drawing) Vice dau lien khi l~p 1 bim ve 1a 1<.to moi truOng cho ban ve chua cae thOng tin ban dau. Do la~ dcm vi do. giai h'.ln bim ve, t~o lap, d~t lum, kieu ghi kich thuOc, kieu chiL. nhUng thong tin do thuOng it thay dOi d6i v6i nguo; sir d':lng, cho nen thuOng d~t chung thanh 1 file va gqi la ban vi" khtli thuy (Prototype Drawing - PD). Sau nay mlli khi I~p ban ve mm b~n gqi ten ban ve khai thuy ra dung d~ tranh nh~p di nh~p l~i mi?t 10'.lt cac thong tin ban dau a ve moi tCU'ang ban viS (xem l¢I1h NEW tiet 1.2.4 treng chuoog nay). Trong ACAD ding co san ban ve khai thuy trong file acad.dwg nhlffig co mQt s6 thOng tin khOng pho. hqp vai tieu chuAn Vi¢t Nam, b'.ln dn d~t l'.1-i . • Cdc butte t~o ban vi' khtli thuy (PD) nhu sau 1- Xac I~p don vi ve, dung ~nh UNITS. 2- D~t gim h~ ve (Ung voi khO gilly A4, A3, ... ), dung I~nh LIMITS. 3- f1iin th! toan be> gi6i h'.l-n ve ra man hlnh, dung I¢nh ZOOM h!a 'chqn ALL. 4- Ve khung ban ve, khung ten, dung l~nh LINE ho~c PLINE (xem chuong 2, tiet 2-2 va tiet 2-3). 5- D~t cac thOng s6 khac: * D~t lucri ve, dung l¢nh SNAP va GRID (chuong 2, tiet 2-12) . • Tao lap cho ban ve, dung l¢nh LAYER (xem chuong 6, tiet 6-2). * T'.lo kieu ghi kich thuac vai cac bien kich thuGC b'.ln chqn, dung l¢nh Dim VAR. * Tl!lo cae kieu viet chil, dung l¢nh STYLE (xem chuoog 5, tiet ·5- f ). 6- ott gill han vo khiJi thuy (PD), dung l¢nh SAVE AS. Ghi ehu: cae b!,ln mm h9C AutoCAD ehi dn bim vi! khOi thuy l~p theo cac buUc 1, 2, 3, 4, 6. 15
  • CHUONG 2 , - - CAC LI;NH VE CO BAN ., 2.1. POINT: YO di.!m * each gQi I~nh POINT til Menu: .-----------------, Screen Menu> DRAW> Point Menu Bar > ORAW > Point * Go l¢nh tu b~m phfm: Command: point Point <eha tQa dQ ella diem> ACAD12 dtmg bien POMODE xac djnh cae d~ng diem khac nhau va bien PDSlZE xac djnh Point Style _ _ kfch thucrc di<!m nhu b<'mg sau da.y (hloh 2~ I): 2.2. UNE: VO drrang th~ng, drrang gap + X khuc thang 0 0 -$- l2l: (') * Okh goi l~nh LINE til menu: Screen Menu> ORA W > Line D D $- J2,1 [1J Menu Bar > DRAW > Line * Go l¢nh Ilr ban phfm: D D -$- f.2l ['J Command: line From point: <e1lO diem dau> Point ,S.ize: 15_0000 I" To point: <ellO di~m tiep thee> ® Set Size Belative to Screen To point: <eho diem tiep thee, o Set Size in Absolute Units ho~c U, C, Enter> Bi)1l g6 U neu muon bo do~n th&ng vua ve; g5 OK I Cancel I 1 tldp ... I C de dong kin ducrng gap khuc. Vi d~: hloh 2-2. Hlnh 2-1: H9P Ihm_li ella l~l1h POINT trong Command: line ACADI2. From point: 100,120 To point: @ 40<60 P2 To point: @40<-60 -60' To point: c To point: .J 2.3. PUNE (POLYLINE) L~nh oay de ve da tuyen (Polyline) g6m cae do~n thang va cae eung tron noi tiep nhau_ Chung eo the cho d¢ r¢ng net, lo~i ducrng net P1L-~ ________ ~ P3 khae nhau(ducrng lien, duemg dU!, duemg cham (100,120) gach ... ). Hinh 2-2 16
  • • each gqi l~nh PLINE til Menu; r-----------------~ Screen Menu> DRAW> Pline Menu Bar > DRAW > Pline • Go l~nh til blm phim; • Command: pline From point: <cho diem dliu> Current line width is 0.0000 <~ r¢ng hic;n thai la 0> ArdClose/HalfwidthILengtblUndolWidtbl<End point of U"e>: • Dong nMc dO U'ng viti vi'dofln thdng, cac lila chQn de' ve nhu sau: + aWn A: chuyen ti':r ve dUCmg thing sang ve Clog tron n6i tiep. + aWn C: dOng kin da tuyl!n l~i. + ChQn H: de nh~p vaG m'ra be r"ng net ve. + ChQIl L: de ve do~n thing co chien da:i du<;IC dua VaG va co cung d¢ nghieng vCri dof,lll th~ng tnrac d6.Nt'!u tnJac d6 13, eung tron thi dof,lll th~ng mm tie? xuc v6i cung tron do. + Ch9n U: x6a do~n vila ve tnrac do. + Chqn W: chi dinh be r{mg net ve cho do~n til!p theo. + M~c d!nh: ~n cho tl?a dl) diem thi do la mut thu 2 eua do~n. • Ntu vi' c:ung trim thi dong nhac.: senhu sau : Angle/CEnter/CLoselDirectionIHalfwidtb/LinelRadiusiSecond . pointiUndolWidtbl<End point of arc>: + aWn A: cho goc Om eua eung tron. + ChQn CE: cho tAm cung trOn. + ChQn D: chi ra hU6'ng ve cung tron Iii hUOng ti€p tuy€n t~i diem d<iu cung trOn. + awn R: cho ban kinh cung tIim. VI dw hlnh 2·3 Command p1ine.J From point: 70,150 Current line width is 0.0000 <~ r(mg hi¢n theJi HI. 0> Arc/Close/LengthlUndo/Width/<End point of line>: @70,0 Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius,lSecondpoint/ Undo/Width/<Ilnd point "f arc>: @6O<·90 Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/LinelRadius/Second point/Undo/Width/<End point of arc>: 1 Arc/Close!Halfwidth/LengthIUndo/WidtbJ<End point of line>: @·70,0 Arc/Close/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>:. @20<90 Arc/Close/Halfwidth!LengthlUndo/Width/<Ilnd point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second point/Undo/Width/<End point of arc>: r Radius: 10 Aogle/<End point>: @0,20 Aogle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second QOintJJndoJWid'h/<End lOin, of arc>: I Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<Bnd polm 0 ,=>.. c 17
  • ('ro.100) pi 70 P8 p 70 P" PS ffinh2-3 mnh 2·4 2.4. CIRCLE: VO duilng tron '* each gQi l¢nh CIRCLE til Menu: ,-----------------~ Screen Menu> DRAW> Circle Menu Bar > DRAW > Circle • Go l~nh til ban prom: Command: circle L¢nh circle d~ ve duemg trOll thee cae each x.ac dinh khac nbau: • Cho 14m va ban klnh (hinh 2-4): Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: 75,50 <cho tfun, vi dV 75.50> Diameter/<Radius>: 30 <cho D ho~c R, vi dl,l cho R=30> • CII. 14m va tI/lllng klnh: lUang !f nbu Wn. • Clio 3 tJilm (3P) Command: circle 3P/2PfTIR/<Center>: 3P First i><>int: <chQ .rnem tM nMt> Second point: <cho diem thil 2> Third point <cho diem thll 3> • Cho 2 tIilu mul ella ~I tt/lilng klnll (2P) Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: 2P First point on Diameter: <cho mut thO' 1 ella duemg kfnh> Second point on Diameter: <cho mut thil 2 ella duang kinh> • Ve tI/lllng IrOn litp xue v';; 2 tI/lllng eho /rUUc (ITR) Vi du: hlnh 2-5 Command: circle 3P/2P{ITR/<Center point>: TIR (ho~c T ) Enter tangent spec: <chi dUCmg thtl ohAt PI> Enter second tangent spec: <chi duCmg thtl 2 Hi P2> Radius: 34 Command: .J 3P/2P{ITR/<Centerpoint>: TIR
  • Enter tangent spec: <chi duemg thti: nh~t,PI> Entersecondtangentspec: <-chi va~ duemg thu 3, P3> Radius: 75 2.5. ARC: Vi! cung tron ,.I",-,,}"."-",,-'". * Oich gQi l¢nh ARC til'Menu: I Screen Menu> DRAW> Arc Menu Bar > DRAW > Arc • * Go I¢nh til' ban phim: Command: arc Vi! cuog tr«)n theo cac each nhtl sau: .'Cung tr~n qua 3 diim (hlnh 2-6) Hlnh 2·5 Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> PO Center/End/<Second point>: <cho diem P2> PO End point: <cho diem P3> - Diim d(iu (Start), tam(Center), diim cud! (End): Pi S,C,E Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: C Center: <cho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: <cho dit!m cu6i P2> - Diim dau, tlim, g6c om (Include Angle): S, C, A Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: C Center: <cho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: A Include Angle: <cho goc Om> - EJiim dau, tam, chie'u dai cung (Length oj chord): S, C, L Command: arc Center/<Start point>: «ho diem PI> Center/End/<Secondpoint>: C - Center: ' «ho tam> Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: L Length of chord: <cho chieu d~i cung> - Diim ddu, diim cudi, ban ktnh: S, E, R Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <coo diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: E End poind: <cho diem cu6i P2> Angle/Direction/Radius/<Center point>: R <l Radius <cho ban kinh> - EJiim dciu, diim cutfi, goc dm: S, E, A Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> 19
  • • Center/<Start pPint>: <coo di<!m PI> Center/Encl/<Second point>: E End poind: <cho diim cu6i P2> Angle/Direction/Radius/<Center point>: A Include Angle: <cho g6c ()m> • Dilm tlDu, dilm COOl, hU't1ng phdt min: S, E, D Command: arc Center/<Start point>: <cho diem PI> Center/End/<Second point>: E End poind: <cho diem cu6i P2> AngleIDirection/Radius/<Center point>: D Direction from start point <cho huang g6c quay +, hay -> - Ve cung tron n6i tiep v6i mQt duimg dti cho Giii su truac do ta d3: ve 1 duemg thAng hay 1 cung tron, trong l¢nh ARC nell ta ENTER a dong nhlic da.n tien thl cung tron ve fa se n6i tiep voi duemg dli co. Vi dl!-: hloh 2-7 (11(1.10) Command: line From point: 45,50 To point: 120,50 To point: .J - Command: arc Center/<Start point>: .J End point: @liO<45 Hinh 2-7 2.6, TRACE L¢nh ntly de ve dO<p1 thing, duang ga'p khuc co be r~ng net dugc chQo tnroc . • Cich g9i I~nh 1RACE tlr Menu: rl--Sc-ree-n-M-en-u->-D-R-A-W->-T-ra-c-e--' ... G5 l¢nh tu ban phim: P3 P2 60 Command: trace' VI d~: hlnh 2-8. Command: trace Trace width< ... >: 2.4 <ho be rQng neD From point: 70,90 To point: @ 50<30 To point: @ 60,0 PI (70,90) . To point: .J Hinh 2·8 Trong I~nh nay n€u ta d~t bi€n h~ th6ng FlLEMODE la ON (I) thl net ve duqc to d{lm ben troog; n6'u d~t OFF (0) thi net kh6ng duqc to Mn trong. 2.7. POLYGON: Vi! da giac d~u >II each gQi l¢nh POLYGON til Menu: ~-------------. Screen Menu>DRAW>Polygon Menu Bar > DRAW >Polygon 20
  • • G5 l~nh tir ban phim: Command: polygon Number of side< ... >: <cho s6 c~nh da giac> Edge/<Center of polygon>: <cho Him P, ho~c cho d¢ dai c~> L¢nh Polygon de ve da giac d~u bang cac cach sau: + Neu cho tam P, ACAD nhac nha tiep: Incribed in circle/Circums cribed abaut circle< ... >: <b<,m tra Uri. I se ve da tra. giac n¢i titp, 1m C ve da giac ngo~i ti~p duang tron> Radius of circle: <cho ban kinh dUCmg ttim > B~n cho diem la dinh hay diem giita e<,mh da giac 1a toy truemg hqp ve n¢i ti~p hay ngo~i tiep; neu b<.m cho 1 s6 thi d6 13. d¢ dai c<,mh day polygon nam ngang. + Ntu chl!n E de ve da giac deu bOi 1 c~nh, vai dong nhac nhu sau: Edge/<Center of polygon>: E First Endpoint of edge: <cho dinh I cua e~nh> Second Endpoint of edge: <cho dinh 2 eua c~nh> 2.S. DONUT (DOUGHNUT) a L¢nh nay ve hinh vanh khuyen co t6 mau tmng neu bi~n FILEMODE d~t la ON(1); con d~t gia tri bien do Iil OFF(O) thi kh6ng t6 mau. * each gQi l¢nh OONUT tir Menu: ,-----------------~ Screen Menu>DRAW>Donut Menu Bar > DRAW > Donut • G5 l¢nh tit bim phim: Command: donut Vi d~: hinh 2·9. Command: donut Inside diameter< ... >: 25 Outside diameter< ... >: 35 Center of doughnut: 130,110 Center of doughnut: .J mnh 2·9 2.9. ELLIPSE: Ve .lip • each g9i I~nh ELUPSE til Menu: ~--~---------, Screen Menu > DRAW> Ellipse . Menu Bar > DRAW > Ellipse • GO I~nh til bhn phim: Comm<qld: ellipse' ACAD dua ra nhi~u ea.ch ve e1ip nhu sau: - V ...lip /Ttlngcij.p ban ~c chlnh Command: ellipse _I <Axis endpoint 1>/Center: <eho diem mut thu 1 ella true> Axis endpoint 2: <cho diem mut thu 2 eua ~c d6> <Other axis distanee>/Rotation: <eho diem P3 thl ACAD coi ban true thu 2 Is khoang each til tAm den P3, neu cho 1 s6 thi do I. d¢ dai ban In!c thtl 2> (hlnh 2-10). 21
  • - Ve .lip bOi Ill'" va 2 ban tr~c Command: ellipse <Axis endpoint I>/Center: C Center of ellipse: <cho tam P clla elip> P~ ________-'p~________~P2 Axis endpoint: <cho PI Ul mut tI1,lc thu I:> <Other axis distance>!Rotation: <cho n. mut~c2> - Ve elip ming 1 ~c va pilip quay mnh 2-10 Command: ellipse <Axis endpoint I>/Center: <cho dau mut PI cua I tI1,lc> Axis endpoint 2: <cho P2 Hi mut thu 2 clla tI1,lc do> <Other axis distance>/Rotation: R Rotation around major axis: <cho goc quay> TI1,Ic chinh PIP2 do xem nhll dllCmg kinh cua 1 vong him. vong trim nay dllqc quay di m()t goc va dllqc chieu len m~t ph~g ban ve thanh e1ip. - Vi" dip ltJ hinh chie'u cua 1 vong tron trong kinh chieu trl;lc do Neu b<;tn chc;m Isometric Style clla I¢nh SNAP. thi khi d6 l~nh ELLIPSE nh~c nha: <Axis endpoint l>/Center/lsometric: I Center of circle: <cho tam e1ip> <Circle Radius>/Diameter: D <cho ban II kinh ho~ duang kinh, vi d9 cho duang kinh D> Circle Diameter: <cho d~ d3i dlkinh> y x IDoh 2-11 Hl mOt vi du ve hinh ch~u truc do clla kh6i l~p phuong v~ cae ~ong tron n/)i, til!p IItn cAe m~t cua n6 tro thanh clic elip. ' , mnb 2--11 2.10. SOLID ~nh nay cho phep vo mien phllng tb mau khi bien h¢ th6ng F1LLMODE Ja ON; neu gia hi bi€n d6 Iii OFF thl mien ve kh6ng dugc t6 m~lU. * C3.ch gQi l~nh SOLID tir Menu: 1- Screen Menu> DRAW> Solid '" Go l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: solid First point: <cho diem PI> Second point: <cho diem P2> Third point: <cho diem P3> Fourth point: <cho diem P4> Third point: .J 2.11. SKETCH: Vi! duang tl do L¢nh SKETCH (ve phac) cho phep b~ ve-cac dUCmg tv do bOi cac thiet bi chi dier 22
  • Mouse, Thb1et). Khi di chuyen thi~t bj chi ditm (~n phfm pick chuot vaJe) ACAD se t~o ra lo~t cae do~ thlkg fill ngan nOi nhall thea duemg di chuy~n cua b~ . ... Oich gQi l¢nh SKETCH ti1 Menu: ,-------:--1 Screen Menu > DRAW> Sketch * G6 l¢nh tit ban phfm: Command: sketch Record increment< ...>: <cho d¢ dlti buCJc tang> Sketch Pen eXit Quit Record Erase Conect B~ tro vilo 11,f8 chQn nao b~n mu6n tIen dong nhac do: + P: M nMc "bUt" 1M (up) khOng vo dil b~ di chuyin con trl>; N~u h~ "but" xu6ng(down) b~n se ve duqc. + R: .de ghi l~i ta":t ca cae duang dii ve phac thilnh duemg cO dinh. + X: thacit khoi H~nh sketch va ghi l~i cae duemg dii ve phac. + Q: thoat khoi l¢nh sketch va kh6ng ghi 1<}i cae duemg da: ve phac . . + E: <Ie xoa di mC?t do~n duang da ve ke tiI v~ tn b~ chQn too cu6i. + C: cho phep b~n nOi 1<;ri vilo duemg ve phic vUa rOi saD khi b~ da nh~ "but" len. Ch6 y: De khOng anh hui'mg toi duUng ve phtlc, khi dung l¢nh ~KETCH b~ nen tat eM'd¢ SNAPMODE va ea ORlliOMODE. Vi d~: vo duemg ky hi~u m~t d.t tay nilm b;ng gO (hlnh 2-12) Command: sketch Record increment< ... >: 1 <cho 'd¢ dhl bu6'c di cua con trl?> Sketch Pen eXit Quit Record Erase Conect Den day b~ hay d~t con tro tOi diim bcit dau vi: va ~ phim tnii chu¢t, re chu¢t theo duemg w.ri gO muOn ve. .D~n chiS nao muOn ngat th1 :in phim tnii chu¢t Ian thO' 2. Vi: xong mu6n ghi l~i V30 ban ve, b~ hay go R. Hlnh2-lZ 2.12. cAc L~NH TRt;i GUlP Kill Vii. SNAP D~t luCri. cho con trO. Khi di con trl> n6 chi bat vao cac mat IU6i. . • each goi l¢nh SNAP va GRID tiJ Menu: Screen Menu> SETTING> Snap/Grid Menu Bar>SETTING>Drawing Aids>h¢p tho~i Snap/Gdd ... 23
  • * Go l¢nh til: bim phim: Command: snap Snap spacing or ON/OFF/ AspeclRfttate/Style< ...>: B~n dap dong nhac nay bOi cac 1tpl chQn nhu saU: + Snap spacing: v~o 1 sO thl dO 13. khoang cAch cac mat hro'i theo phucmg x, y. + ON/OFF:b~t/t~t ch~ dO Ium snap. + A: de d~t bm.1c dich chuyen ngang v~ dQC khac nhau. Sau do ACAD nhac ti~p: Horizontal spacing: <cho bu6c dich ngang> Vertical spacing: <cho bU'l.1c dlCh dQC> + R: de quay chi~u ch~y con trO quanh 1 diem, c6 dOng nh&< ti€p: Base point< ...>: <cho diem Cel sa , roc 1a trun xoay> Rotation Ang1e<...>: <cho g6c xoay> + S: de ch~n snap thoo 2 kieu: Standard (chuiin) hay Isometric (thuimg dung de vo hlnh chieu t~c do): . Snap spacing or ON/OFF/Aspec/Rotate/Stye< ... >: S Standard/ Isometric< ...>: <chqn I hay s> Dum da.y la 2 vi d1,l dung l¢nh ELLIPS veti Iva chqn Style·lsometric cua SNAP de ve hinhchi~u tI1,lc do vu6ng g6c deu (hlnh 2-13a), va.hinh chi€u t~c do dUng deu (hlnh 2-13b) cua 2 v~t th~. Trong khi dang dung l~nh khac cilaACAD, b~n c6 the b~t ON hay tilt OFF ch€ d~ SNAP bfulg each :In phim F9 hay Ctrl+B . . I lfmh 2-138 Hinh 2-13b GRID De hi¢n lu6i ra man hlnh, thucrng ket hl1P veti SNAP. Command: grid Grid spacing or ON/OFF/Snap/Aspec< ..•>: <dap Mmg II! nhl11~nh SNAP> De di6u khien GRID hoat d~rig hay tilt di. b~n ~n phim F7 hay Ctrl+G. TRANSPARENT Trong khi dang thvc hi~n mt')t l¢oh nao do clla ACAD b~ co the gQi l~nh Transparent thl ACAD cho b~n kha nilllg thoat ra th~c hi¢n eae ¢nh khac ella ACAD va sau do tu tra ve I;nb cu. . 24
  • De gqi l¢nh nay h'.'n- chi cful them dAu nh<iy "'" tnr6c ten l¢nh c~n ra .thVc hi¢n. Vi dJ,t: Dang dung l~nh PLINE rna b"" mu6n ra dung l~nh SNAP. Command: PLINE From point: 93,85 To point: 'snap »Snap spacing or ONfOFFI Aspect!Rotate/Style<... >: <h<;ln cho h!a chc;m cho SNAP> Resuming PLINE command. To point: ORTHO L¢nh nay de mdlt~t ch~ d~ ve ole duang th~ng dUng ho~c nam ngang. B'.'n chu y nmg ~nh ORTHO khOng c6 lac dffig khi vao ch€ do Objecl SNAP. Hay dung phim F8 hay Clrl+O M bAt! tAl ch€ dO ortho. Command: ortho ON/OFF<... >: OSNAP (OBJECT SNAP) Khi h<;m hat d~u ve m~t d6i tUQ'Ilg moi m~ mu6n no neo t'.li dAu mut clla m~t duang, hay di qua dit'!:m giiIa ella m~t d01,ln th~g, vu6ng g6c vcJi m~t duang. neo vao diem giao nhau ella 2 duang nao d6 ... , l¢nh OSNAP giup h<;ln thVc hi~n di~u do chinh xac va rAt ti~n lqi. * each gqi I~nh OSNAP tir Menu: ,----------------------, Screen Menu> SE1TING > Osnap Menu Bar > SETTING > Objecl SNAP * G5 l¢nb til ban phim: Command: osnap Object snap mode: B<;m'tra 1m dong nhac bang c<ic Iva chqn sau day(go 3 chiI c<ii dllu): + CENter: neo v~o tam duang tnm. + ENDpoint: neo Vlo d~u mut cua 1 dUang g~n con tro nhAt. + INTersection: neo vao giao diem cua 2 duang. + MIDpoint: neo vao diem gifra clla dol,Ul thang hay cung tron. + NEArest: neo vao diem gful con tro nha:t cua d6i tuqng ve. + PERpendicular: neo v~o c.han duang th!ng g6c clla m~t duang Ve tit mi?t diim mai tai duimgdo. + TANgent: neo v~o ti~pdi-em clla m~tduang tron khi ve tum~t diem mcJi tai tiep tuyen va; duimg tron do. + QUAdrant: neo vao. diem chia c~c cung ph&! tu duang tron gcin con tro nhAt. + INSert: tlm diem xen c~a kh6i(BWCK), h<* diem ~I d~u cua 10XL + NODe: neo vao diem dU<!C vo bin l¢nh POINT. + QUIck: tAng nbanh vi~c xac djnh d6i tuqng. + NONe: tat e<ic IJ.!3 chqn clla OSNAP. Ghi c!au: + osnap thuitrr.g trJ!C: ACAD12 e61¢nh bDOSNAP~e dung Mp thOl;li de d~nh eae)va chqn osnap. ho~c g9i l~nh ti::r Menu bar> setting> Object snap (hlnh 2-14). Khi b~ dii d.e ~jnh ml)t Osnap thubng tfIC. n6 se t6n .t~ miii cho Mn khi ~n thao ga di. 010 ntn khi dung xong. b~ ntn th3.o ga ~i ~~ n6 khOng anh huOng den cac I~nh kMc.
  • + OSI/ap t(rc 111m: hf}l1 co the dung OSNAPMODE ttk Ihoi (1 Mn) blmg dch h[im phim chuQt giua (3) hay lin phrm Shift+Niim chui)t phili (2) lie Kunt hi¢n Menu dlUt)1 de: b,.Ul ch9n OSNAP (hlnh 2-15). B,!n cling cOlhe gQi Osnap modes IUC thai b~ng each dung con Ira chi Vll.O 4 dall sao .,****" tren scrcen mcnu. Running Object Snap . Select Settings Assist" Qraw ~onstruct Drg~:~.p:QI~:~! 0 In~ertion o Midpoint 0 Eerpendicular ~enter o ~enter 0 langent Endpoint o Node D Ne1l.rest In.§.ert o Quadrant 0 Oyick: intersection o !ntersection Midpoinl Aperture Size Ne~rest No~e Ii! Min Max 13 o EerpendiculllT .Quadrant langent OK I Cancel I_Help ... I None Hinh 2-14 Hinh 2-15 • Con tr6 trong I~nh OSNAP la 6 vuong (Tagct box) d~ chon d6i lttqng 'e de dang. B<:tn co tht ditu chinh to nhc, bang I~nh APERTURE, ho~c chinh phim Min-Max Iren h~p tho~i hinh 2-14; ho~c go: Command: aperture Ojecl SIl<lP tagel size: <I -50 pixels>: • Sau day Iii mQt VI dl,l di:1Il1? I~nh OSNAP/CEN d~. viS mQt clLrOng th~ng III tam 0 duemg tron vii vuong goc v&i duong thrlllg III di:l cho (hlnh 2-16): Command: line From point: CEN <bilt tfun 0 clh dUOng tron> Of: <chi vao dUCmg tron> To point: PER <b&t chan dlfong vuong g6c tn~n m> To: <chi vao dtCOng thAng m> o m Hinh 2-16 26
  • CHUONG3 cAc L~NH BIEN T~P vA TRA c(tu Trong khi t~o l~p ban ve b~ thuOng xuy~n phai bien t~p: dy xoa, ph~c h6i d6i tuqng bi xoa, dich chuyen, quay, thu ph6ng, !tty d6i xUng. sao chep, hi¢u chloh ... cae d6i tUq£1g ve, va d.c l¢nh tra cUu (Inquiry) ve d.c dG' li¢u (mAD, lOp, dQ ri?ng net. .. ), khoang each, di¢n tich, vv... nhtrng muon HUn dieu do vi¢c d~u tien AutoCAD doi hoi h<.m phai Iva chQn d6i tuqng (Select Object). 3.1. CHON DOl TlfONG (SELECT) . . * each g<?i l¢nh SELECr tll Menu: ,-------~~~-, Screen Menu> EDIT> Select Menu Bar> EDIT> Select * GO l¢nh tir b~m phim: Command : select .J Select object: B;;m co the ch(;m d6i tuqng de bien t~p hay tfa cUn bang cae each sao : + Chi di~m: b~n dung con chuQt chi vao d6i tUqTlg cAn chQn reli ohlin phim trAi chuQt, c(i.ng co the: vao tQa dQ ella diem thUi)C d6i tm;mg do. + ALL: chQn tilt ca nhiing hloh co trong ban ve. + Last: chQn d6i nrqng vila ve xong . + Previous: chQn cac d6i nrqng vita chQn tnt6'c do. + Window: chQn cac d6i tuqng n~m IQt trong clla sO chu nh;}t .ma b~ xAc dinh. + Crossing: ch<;>;n d.c d6i tU'gng rna m¢t ciIa 56 ehlia ho~c cit ngang qua chung. + WPolygon: chuc nang nay gi6ng window chi khAc la elra 56 do b~ .4-0 ra la hlnh da giAc. + Cpolygom gi6ng nhu Crossing, chi khAc l3. eua sO ~ t<;10 ra la mQt da giac. + Undo: di! b6 di d6i tuQllg vira ch90. + Remove: khi chQn nhieu d6i tuqng rna muon 10<;li bo mQt d6i tuqng nao do ta ehQn R ·sau dong nhac "Select object:" va ACAD nhile b<;ln chQn d6i tl1qng dn gO- 00: "Remove objects:". + Add: tat che dQ "Remove", co the tiep tl,le chQn them d6i tl1qng. + Frece (hang rao): chinh ta t<;1o m¢t dl1Cmg Polygon hO', rna rtlQi d6i tl1qng rna n6 ca.t qua se dUQ'c ehQn. cae d6i tl1qng dl1qc ehQn se rna di. B<;1n mu6n ket thoe vi~c chQn d6i tuqng hay lin ENTER, hay nba y phim phiii ehuQt, ho~e go NULL. 3.2.TAYXOA '" ERASE: dy xoa mQt hay nhieu d6i tl1qng ve. 27
  • * each gc;>i l~nh ERASE til Menu: ,------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Erase Menu Bar > MODIFY > Erase * Go l~nh- tu ban phim: Command: erase Select object: <chqn d6i tuqng cAn tay x6a> ChB y: L¢nh OOPS dung d~ khOi phl,l-c l{li d6i tuqng dti bj x6a bi'1i J¢nh ERASE (m(lc du c6 dung dc l¢nh vi! kMc,sau khi era.o;e). Ngoru m l¢nh OOPS oon &: lam hi¢n l~j de d6i tU(}Ilg bi mA:t di sau khi ~o BLOCK. Command: oops . BREAK: ngM b6 di I philn d6i tlTgng ve. * Oich gqi l¢nh BREAK tu Menu: ,-~---------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Break Menu Bar > MODIFY > Break >1= Go l¢nh tit ban phim: Command: break Select object: <chi vao diem dau do~n dn x6a> Enter second point (or F for first point): <chi vao diem thu 2 cua do~n can xoa, ho~c go F de chqn l~i diem dtu sau d6ACAD nhac b~n chc;>n diem cuoi>. Vi d1,l duai day m6 ta qua tdnh thl!C hi~n l¢nh BREAK: • L":::;.. . . J '-...../ H'inh g6e - ctH;m d6i trn;mg Da-nh dlfu 2 diem X6a doI!fi PIP2 Hiob 3·1 Chu y: Khi dung J¢nh BREAK dt x6a I cung tren dubrlg trim. bl:Ul c4:n cM y pMn cung hi x6a thee chi~J ngU~ chi~u quay kim d6ng h6. Do v~y ~ ph<ii chu YChQR dian dJiu va diem cu6i cho do~ c&I x6a. vi dl,!- dum dQy, tren dmg m¢t dubrlg tron, ntu chc;m dibn dliu PI va diim cu6i Pl nhu hlnh 3-2a thl cung PIPl phfa tren bj x6a; 0'10 chc;m Pl, Pl nhu hlnh "3-2b Ihl. coog PIPl phia dum hi x6a. P2 PI + PI + P2 HiDh 3-2 28
  • TRIM Ch~t tia do~n thua ella d6i tuqng ve bdi cae c~nh dao dt (edge). :I: each gQi l¢nh lRIM til Menu: r-----------------~ Screen Menu> EDIT> Trim Menu Bar > MODIFY > T-rim * Go l¢nh tu ban phi'm: Command: trim Select cutting edge(s) ... Select objects: <chQn cae dUOng Hlm qmh cAt> <Select object to trim>/Undo: <chQn do~n thua d.n di> cat Vf du duUi day m6 til qua trlnh dung l~nh TRIM (hlnh 3-3). -t lfinh g6c. ell9n duimg a.i vao d~n Ket qua. qmh cat(PI) thtra cdn dit(Pl,P2) Hloh 3-3 ~ co the chQn chinh duemg c<;tnh dt la d6i tUl;1I1g d.o cAt bo, nhu VI dl;l sau da.y: P PO P3 J L P4 Hinb g6c Oll;m qnb eM elli vao dOl.ln Kl!t qua. b~ng Crossing thtta cAn cit Hlnb 3-4 3.3. DItN HINH MOVE L¢nh MOVE de eli chuyen cac d6i tuQllg tUi vi trf loMc m~ loh6ng thay dOi huang va kfch thu6c ella chung . • Qich gQi l~nh MOVE tu Menu: ,------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Move Menu Bar > MODIFY > Move * Go l~nh tir b~m phfm: Command: move Select object: <chQn d6i tuqng d.o di chuyen> Base poi,Dt or displacement: <cho diem co so, ho~c kho3.ng c3.ch dichuyen> Second point of displacement: <cho diem dich t6i> 29
  • COpy 4nh nay de sao chep cae d6i tuqrtg Wi vi trl maio No gi6ng l~nh MOVE, chi ~hac Iil d6i tugng ell vAn gift nguy~n . • Glcb gQi I~nb COpy Ilr Menu: ,---------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT > Copy Menu Bar > CONSIRUcr > Copy * GO l¢nh llr ban phim: Command: copy Select object: <chqn d6i tuqng ciin sao chep> < Base point or displacement>/Multiple: <cho diem cd sa, ho~c khoang each di chuy~n, n~u b~n chQn M HI. sao chep thanh ohieu ban> Second point of displacement: <cho diim dich Wi ho~c a'n Enter> ROTATE L¢nh ROTA1E dung de quay d6i tm;mg vi! quanh m~t diem Cd sil. * Glcb gQi I~nb ROTATE Ilr Menu: ,------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Rotate Menu Bar ; MODIFY > Rotate * Go l¢nh tiI ban phim: Command: rotate Select object: <ChQfl d6i tuqng can xoay> Base.point: <cho diem tam xoay> . <Rotation Angle>/Reference: <cho g6c xoay, hay ch(;m R de cho gOc tham khao sau do cho gOc m6'i> Chti y goc xoay duang Hi ngu«;JC chieu quay kim d6ng h6 va nguqc l~i. V( d~ dum day cbo g6c xoay I. 45 d¢ (blnb 3-5). Hinh g6c Olqn d6i tttqng xoay b~g W. Chqn diim co sO. Kt"t qua. mnh 3~5 SCALE L¢nh SCALE dung d~ ph6ng to ho~c thu nho d6i hlqng vi! theo ca 2 chieu x,y v6i cung m¢t ty l¢. N~u d6i tlJqDg da: dlJqc ghi kfch thlJt'1c thi sau khi SCALE. kich thlJac mai se W d¢ng cilkp nhilkt v~o. * C8ch gQi l¢nh SCALE tu Menu: r--;Sc:-re-e-n-=M:-:-en-u->-=E=D=IT=-->-=Sc=-a"C}e--' Menu Bar > MODIFY > Scale >l< Go l¢nh tu ban phim: Command: scale 30
  • Select object: <chQn doi tuqng de scale> Base point: <cho diem cO' sCi> <Scale factor>/Reference: Di dap dong nba.c nay. b(~.n cho 1 so duang 100 han 1 di ph6ng to, n~u cho so duang be han 1 se thu nho d6i tuqng. N~u b~n d8.p R nghia la b~ dung ty l¢ tham khao sau do cho ty l¢ maio Hinh 3-6 mO ta qua tdnh thao l<lc l¢nh SCALE: Hinh g6c 0l9n d6i htqng scale 010 diem co so ; Klt qua. Hioh 3-6 STRETCH L¢nh STRETCH de keo dan 1 ph~n cua d6i hlnh ve fa rna vAn noi v6i hlnh cu . • each gQi l¢nh STRETCH til" Menu: r-------------~----, Screen Menu> EDIT> Stretch Menu Bar > MODIFY > Stretch • GO l¢nh tit ban phim: Command: stretch Select object to stretch by window or polygon: <chQn d6i tuqng di stretch bang cua s6 ho~c da giac> Base point or displasement: <cho diem cO' sCi> Second point of displacement: <cho di~m dich tm, ho~c khoang each dOi> Du6'i day la vi dl,) minh hQa cac buCJc dung l¢nh stretch dt keo phAn cung tron clla hlnh vo til diem PI tOi P2 (hlnh 3-7). +y.-~ ,l'l Y'-P2--l ffinh g6c Gllm d6i tuqng kio 010 diem PI va P2. K€t qua. bang Clm sO (C) .. .Hlnh 3-' eh6 y: V6i I~nh STR.ETcH, khi chQn d6i tuqng iii kw phai dung each ch9n la Window, Crossing, Polygon. MIRROR L¢nh n~y giup b~ ~o nen hlnh d6i )'.ling qua m()t duang thing v6i hlnh da: co, va c6 th~ gift nguyen ho~c xoa hlnh co di . • Oich gQi I~nh MIRROR til Menu: r---------------------~ Screen Menu> EDIT> Mirror Menu Bar > CONSTRUCT > Mirror 31
  • *' G6 I~nh tu ban phim: Command: mirror Select object: <chQn d6i tlIqrtg can Hly d6i xU'ng> First point of mirIOr line: <cho diem thtl I cua tr~e d6i xU'ng> Second point: <eho diem thtl 2 clla t~c d6i xUng> Delete old objeet?<N>: <trii loi N la khong xoa hinh eu, Y la x6a hinh eu> Duoi day lit vi d~ mb ta cae buoc thuc hien I¢nh MIRROR (hinh 3-8). I I I I H'inh g6c P1 LV P2 Ou;m d6i tlJ'<?Tlg Ch9n trl;lc doi xlmg(PIP2) Ket qua Hlnh 3·8 Chu y: Khi Uly d6i xililg bfing MIRROR cac dong Text tra nen ngu~ so vai hlnh gOc. ACAD dung bien h? thong MIRTEXT( I/O) de di~u khien dong Text c6 d~ng nguq"c. hay kh6ng. De ial!l di~u d6, hf;ln vao thiet I~p bien h~ th6ng SETVAR: . . Screen Menu> SETTING> SETVAR > MirText (0/1) Nell di:it MirText",,1 thl Text se d6i xililg v6i hlnh eli; Mirlht""O dong Text se c6 d,!.ng thL!c nhu h"inh cu. EXTEND L~nh EXTEND de keo dai cae dI1Cmg t6i m~t dI10ng bien (Boundry edge) *' each gQi I~nh EXTEND tir Menu: .----------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Extend Menu Bar > MODIFY > Extend *' GO l~nh tU b~m phim: Command: ·extend Select bo~ndry eP&o(s)... Select object: <ch9n duimg bien> <Selecfobject t<> ex1md>/lJndo: <chi vlio eM c~n ke~ diti> <Select object to .extend>/Un<l0:;J Vi d':l sau day chi ra cac buac th!C hi~n t~ EXTEND, mnh 3-9. P2 PI Hinh goc Ch9n dUOng bien Chi ra mlit citn k.eo dai Kct qwi. Hlnh 3·9 32
  • ARRAY de B<:Ifl dung l¢nh nay sao chep d6i tUQ'Ilg thanh I ming g6m nhieu d6i tuqng cung ml)t la.n. Mimg do co the sap xep thanh d~ng chu nh~t (Restangular), hay d~ng hloh tron (Polar). * Oich g4?i I¢nh ARRAY tir Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Array Menu Bar> CONSIRUcr"> Array * Go l¢nh tir b~m phim: Command: array Select object: <Ch4?ll d6i tuQ'Ilg t~o thanh mang> Restangular or Polar array(RlP)<R>: <b~n dap R hay P> + Nell d;ip R: sao mang chu nMt. ACAD hoi tiep sO' hang, s6 cl)t, khoang ca.ch cae hang, cae c~t la bao nhieu. Ntfu b{lIl cho sO' hang 13. sO' ducmg, thi ACAD se sao cae hang len tn'!n, nguQ'c I~i .cho sO' am thl sao xu6ng dum. B'.lll cho gia tfi ducmg cua d.c cQt thi ACAD se sao cae c¢t sang phai, cho sO' am sao sang tniL Vi d", hlnh 3-10 Restangular or Polar array(R!P)<R.>: R Number of raws< ... >: 2 <cho s6 hang HI. 2> Number of columns< ... >: 4 <cho s6 cQt la 4> Unit cell or distance betwen raws: 25 <cho khoang each cac hang la 25> Distance bet wen columns: 30 <cho kholmg each cac c¢t 111. 30> K~t qua sao mang nhu hinh sau: • o 000 mnh 3-10 IDnb 3-11 B~n c6 the ",0 mimg nghieng di m¢t g6c bADg c'ch sit dUlg -bien h¢ th6ng SNAPANG trong lenh SETVAR, xem hlnh 3-11- + N€u b~ dap dong nhac P: d~ sao chep mang trOD, va ban th4n dOi ruqrig sao co the kh6ng quay ho~c quay di 1 gOc b<.m mu6n: Restangular or Polar array(R/P)<R>: P Center point of array: . <cho tam mang trbn>' Number of itenns: <cho s6 d6i tuQllg se sao ra> Angle to fil1<360>:- <cho g6c dien cUy toan mang> Rotate object as they are copied?<Y>: <co quay d6i tUQIlg khi sao chep kh6ng YIN 1> DUm day 13. VI dl,l t~o mang tron co s6 d6i tUQIlg <W sao (itenns) 1ii 5, gOc dien day 33
  • toan mang la 1600 va trong khi sao khong quay d6i hlqng, va hlnh sau co quay doi lUqng (hlnh 3-12). Hlnh goc Sao mang kh6ng xoay - Sao m<'mg :(Oay 1 goc Hinb 3-12 3.4. Hl~U CRiNR V ATRAY DOl FILLET 4nh nay de ve m9t cung tron noi tiep giua d.c do~n thfing hay cac duang tron. * each g9i l¢nh FILLET tll Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Pillet Menu Bar> CONSTRUcr > Fillet * Go l¢nh tir b~ln phfm: Command: fillet Polyline/Radius/<Select first object>: Tnilai dOng nhiic nay co 3 truang h<JP: . + OlQn R: nghia la b<;ln se cho ban kinh cung tron noi tiep cfin ve, ACAD se nhiic tiep: Enter fillet radius: <cho gia tri ban kinh cung noi titp> Gia tr, ban kfnh cung noi titp do se du<JC giu mai cho toi khi b~n cho gia tr! moi. B<;tn co the cho ban kfnh cung noi tiep bang vi¢c cho 2 diem. + ChQn P: nghia la b<;ln muon ve noi tiep dc phan do<:,n clla Polyline bili cae cung tron co cung oo.n kfnh. Neu pha.n dO<;ln nao la cung tron thl se duQ'c thay bang mQt cung tron- co oo.n kinh bang ban kinh cung noi tiep, xem hlnh 3-13. . I 1- I I I I I I -'- • ) a.Hinh,g6c b. Sau Fillet-P Hioh 3-11 + N6i ti€p 2 duimg: B~n dap dong nhk tren bang vi¢c chi vao 2 duang can noi tiep, ho~c 2 phAn dO<;ln eua 1 polyline, thi ACAD se ve 1 cung tron noi tiep v6i ehling. Chli y rang cae diem b<;ln chi ra a tren cae duang se la cac tiep di~m. 34
  • IDnh 3-14 minh hQa di~u do: • • • .,. • '.J • '..J" " Jl ,0 .,. E " II E E 'U 'U U .,. ~. .,. Hinh 3-14. CHAMFER L~nh nay de ve duemg vat nghi~ng giil'a 2 dllOng th~ng da cho. '" each gQi l~nh CHAMFER tir Menu: Screen Menu> EDIT> Cbamfer Menu Bar > CONS'IRUCf > Chamfer '" Go l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: chamfer PolylineiDistance/<Select tiest line>: + Trlt. lai D: Djnh nghia do'.l" vat cho 2 dllemg tha.ng, vi dl:l nhu sau (hloh 3-15): Enter first chamfer distance< ...>: 6 <cho khoang vat tha 1> Enter second chamfer distance<... >: 10 <cho khoang vat thu 2> Command: chamfer Polyline/Distance/<Select fiest object>: PI <chi vao dUOng 1> Select second object: P2 <chi vao duemg 2> Ke"t qua chamfer trong vi d1,l chi ra tren hlnh 3-15. P2 P' P Pl Hlnh glk Chi v!lo cae e~h di V<it K!t qua. Hinh 3-15. 35
  • Tni loi P: de vat cho m~t da tuy~n Polyline. Truimg hqp nay gi6ng nhu l¢nh FILLET. Chu y: Neu bl,m Ilfy cll) dai vat bflng 0 (mij.C djnh), thll¢nh nay co laC dl,1ng keo doli cae duemg th&ng cho g~p nhau Wi I diem coo, xem hinh 3-16. OFFSET 4nh nay dung d~ t'.l-O ra m~t duemg moi song song voi duemg th~ng da co, hay vi "11,1 v6i m¢t dUOng cong, Hinh3-16 mQt Polyline cho truOe va each duemg cO mOt dO<;ln tuy y. * Cach g<;>i l~nh OFFSET til Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Offset Menu Bar > CONSTIWcr > Offset * G6 l~nh til ban phim: Command: offset Offset distance or through< ... >: <cho khoang each, hay cho 1 dil!m offset toi: through> + Neu cho khoang cach b<;ln tiep tl,lc tra loi: Select object to offset: <ch<;>n d6i tuqng offset bang chi diim> Side to offset: <ch<;>n diem beft ky ve phfa hlnh thanh duemg m6i> + Neu ch<;>n Through: Through point: <cho diem rna duemg m6i di qua> Vi d1,l sau day mo tii qua tdnh offset mOt duemg Polyline, hlnh 3-17.* DIVIDE - e- X P2 P2 Pl Pl . . . Hinh g6c 0l9n cl6i tuqng Offset Clio .diim rnA K€t qua dutmg rnm di q~ Hinh 3-17 DIVIDE L¢nh nay chia dO':1n duemg thanh cac phfin bang nhau. * Cach g<;>i l¢nh DIVIDE-til Menu: .---------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Divide , Menu Bar > CONSlRUcr > Divide * G6 l¢nh tir ban phim: Command: divide Select object to divide: <ch<;>n d6i tuqng bang chi diim> <Number of segments>/Block: <cho sQ do<:tn chia> 36
  • + Nt'!u b<.1.fi tni Uri B: Truang hqp nay b<:tn da d~nh nghia cac kh6i (BLOCK) vi d~ nhll: DIEM, DOAN, VUONG, v.v... rna muOn chen block vao cac diem chia;khi d6ACAD nhac nha tiep: Block name to insert: <go ten Block vao> Align block with object <V>: <sap Block g6m cac diem chia tren d6i tuqng YIN> Number of segments: <cho s6 do~ chia> Ch6 y: Sau khi dung I¢nh DIVIDE rna bl.lH kMng nhin th!lY cae Jh';m chia, tlic a bI~ rt>ng diem ehia de rnl}e d!nh (0), n6 bang hay nho ho'Il ~ r(lng dut'mg net viS. B':ln dn x;k dinh I~i hlnh d~ng. kich thuOc diem boi I?nh POINT. CHANGE DUng l¢nh CHANGE b~ co the thay d6i cac Hnh cha:t sau day clla d6i t:Jqng ve: - Mall sac - Kieuduang - D¢ nang len clla Polyline, hay d¢ day net Polyline 3D - Ldp ve vv... • each g9i I~nh CHANGE til Menu: Screen Menu> EDIT> Change Menu Bar > MODIFY > Change * Go l¢nh til ban phim: Command: change Select Object: <eh<;m d6i tlll;mg dn thay d6i> Properties/<Change point>: <dap P, ho~c cho diem> + ChQn P: B<:tn se thay d6i dllqt: d~ tinh vI! ma.u sac, d¢ cao, lap ve, lo;~i dllang net... ella d6i tllqng ve, ACAD se nhac nh6 ti€p de b<.m chQn: OJ.ange what property(ColorlElev/Layer/L'IypefThicness)7: Chli y: N~u bl!Jl deli ki~u dut'mg rna ehua thllY hi?n ra, hiiy g9i I?nh LTSCALE de tiing hay giam tY I? Neu b~n vao diem (] dong nh~e tren kia: ACAD eoi ditm d6 la diem de thay d6i vi tri cAe d6i tm;mg ve nhu: line, circle, text, block, attribute. TOe dl,mg Lhay d6i vOi timg d6i tuqng ve sau khi cho diem CP 18 nhu~: - Line; thi. dAu m'l1t eua dlti'alg .thing: g4n 4i~ CP siS chuyin ten CP. ., . a a - Circle: blin k{n!l ",brig tron'dii c,hqn Se'tluly d6i sao cho wng tron m6i di qua dibn 'CP' Yia sift· nguyen lAm eu. - lext: diem CP se I~ vi tn mOi, ~u ban AD Enter thl ACAD eho bl,Ul thay ·dOi duqc kifucht, dQ eao, g6c xoay, n(li dung Text. - Attribute: b~n eling c6 the thay d6i duqc Attribute gi6ng nhu Text. - Block: ditm CP trd thanh vi tn mm cua b Block, ~n Enter tiep thl b~n c6 tM thay d6i duqt: g6e xoay ella Block. , Chli thkh: CO th~ thay d6i nhi~u durmg. Vi dl;l khi eho CP thl cae dUCmg thang khac nhau se W ffinh g6c Sau Qlangc-CP Il.Ii t~i diem CPd6, xem hlnh 3-18. Hinh 3-18 37
  • Chu thleh: ACADl2 con e6 l~nh DDCH- PROP de bi.1n lhay d6i de d~e tinh ella d6i luqng qUH hQp tho,!-i nhl1 hlnh 3- 19 . DDEDIT (Dynamic Dialogue Edit) ~.""""'V<A""'''' u;-....=t. . L¢nh nay de thay d6i n(:li dung dong ky I ,~ •... I BYU""~ '<"""''''000," '"'< "" [,_... " . ") H,t (Text) va thu(>c tfnh (Attribute) da co. ~ r-",.", I iJJ!!W * Crich gQi l~nh DDEDIT Itt Menu: I Screen Menu> EDIT> DDedit I * Go J¢nh tir ban phim: Hlnh 3-19: HO Iho<l.i l¢nh DDCHPROP eua p Command: ddedil ACAD 12. <SeJect a TEXT or ATIDEF object >/Undo: B<.ln Ira Jbi TEXT hay ATTDEF thl I troug 2 h(>p thof.l.i sau day hi¢n ra, hinh 3-20a,b: Edit AtllilJule Dehn~lan CI Edit Text T." 1m Prompt ~~H~U~O:;:CT"'N::7H;=========~ Text lB. Defnult: Lit9,,''-.', =:;:;==,---:;---,,_ _ __--' IJD Icencell OK Cllncel I Hlnh 3-20a: H{)p tho,!-i "Edil Text". H"lnh 3-20h: H{)p Ihm.li "Edit Alllibutc Ddinition". PEDIT (Polyline Edit) L¢nh nay co the hi¢u chinh da luyen (Polyline). * each gQi I~nh PEDIT ttT Menu: ,-------------------, Screen Menu> EDIT> Pedit Menu Bar > MODTFY > Pedit * Go I¢nh tit b~m phim: Command: pedit Select polyline: <ChQIl Polyline dn hi¢u chinh> C loselJ oi n/Wid Ih/Ed iIVerlex/Fi liS plin el Deell vel LtypeGen/Undo/eXik. .. >: Tr~n dong nhac nay Close duqc thay bang Open neu Polyline dang dong kin. cac chuc nang do co y nghla nhu sau: + C: dong kin da tuyen dang ha; + 0: xoa phein do~n cu6i clmg cua Polyline d~ rna da tuyen; + J : dlta cae cung tron, dO<;ln lhang ho~c m(>t Polyline khac nh~p van vai Polyline co InJoC; + W: de lhay deli be r(lng net ve coa Polyline; + F: sua dtremg Polyline da co thanh dUO'ng cong tran dtiu di qua cae dinh cua Polyline do. B,,11 co the d~t taroc huong tiep tuy6n t<;ti 1 dlnh, thl dLTOng cong t<;to thanh se tiep nh~n IUiong tiep tuyen d6. .. 38
  • . + S: st'ta Polyline thanh duemg cong trem c6 the dieu khitn dugc til cac dinh clla Polyline nhl1 la cac di~m khung. B"lO chi ra cang nhieu di~m dinh v~ thi. dUCmg cong cang nhan hem. ffinh dl16'i dAy chi fa S,! khac nhau clla dUCmg cong hi.nh thanh do Fit va do Spline, hlnh 3-21: CO thi t<;to thanh dl1emg eong Spline b~c 2 hay b~e 3. cae bien h¢ th6ng dung d~ dieu khien hlnh d~ng duimg Spline la SPLINETYPE. N€u d~! bien SplineType nay b~ng 5 thl Spline t<;to thanh la b~e 2; eon d~t bien gia tri 6 thi Spline sf: e6 b~c 3. Bien h¢ th6ng SPLINESEGS xac dinh so dO<;tn tMng dung d~ ve thanh duemg Spline, s6 cang Urn thl Spline cang m~n (gia tr. m~ dinh la '8). Bien SPLFRAME d~t gia tri m~e dinh 0 thi. kh6ng xuat hi¢n dUCmg khung Polyline; neu la:y gia tri 1 thi khung sf: hi~n ra eung v6i duemg Spline, xem h'inh 3-21. ffinh g6c Fit Spline b~c 2 Spline b~c 3 Blnh 3·21· + D: de dua cae duemg cong sau khi Fit hay Spline tn1 ve d<;tng ban d~u, d6ng thai lam th~g tat d. d.e phAn dO<;tn c~a Polyline. + L: v6il,!a chQn nay d~t la ON(1) th'i lo~i duemg net hi¢n thai se eh<;ty deu d~n tren phAn do<;tn cua Polyline; con neu d~t OFF(O) th'i net g~ch dai se du<;1C bat da.u va ket thue t~i tUng dinh cae phan do~n. sau dAy la s,! khac nhau clla m¢t Polyline ve b~ng net ehilm g~ch(Dashdot) trong 2 trltimg hqp do, hlnh 3-22. .I ,. - { t' ,. - ,, r· J . L.-,. 1",_.1 . 1._ . ., . l._._ . ._._.J 1 ._.-.-.1 '-'-'-' Blnb 3-22 _...... + U: huy b6 thao tAc I~nh vila th'iC hi~n. + X: k€t thuc l~nh PEDIT. + E: hi¢u ehinh tren cac dinh eua Polyline. Khi chQn "E" ACAD danh dau "x" qi dinh dau tien eua Polyline. Neu b<;tn xac dinh them huang ti~p tuyen eho dinh nay thi se xuat hi¢n 1 miIi ten theo hudng d6. B<;t.n can tra lai dong nh~c sau khi ehQn "E": 39
  • NextiPreviouslBreaklinsertiMove/RegenlSlraighlenl TangentIWilh/eXil<N>: Ok h!a chQn d6 co y nghia nhu sau: - N va P: de di chuyen di~m danh da':u "x" tm dinh k€ sau (Next) hay t6'i dinh truac d6 (Previous). - B(break): de x6a do~ giila 2 dinh danh dau "x". ACAD ghi nha dinh danh dfu "x" thu 1 va nhac nha tiep: NextlPrevious/Go/eXit<N>: <chQn N hay P de chuyen dau "x" tdi dlnh thll 2> Tiep theo b~ go "0" de x6a do~ gifra 2 dinh danh dAu "x". Con neu b~n chQn "X" se ket thue Break de trb ve chuc nang Edit Vertex. - reinsert): dtS' chen them dinh m6i vao Polyline, ACAD nhac nha tiep: Enter new location of new vertex: <cho diem> Sau khi cho diem vao, ACAD ve Polyline co th~m dinh nua, hinh3-23. I Diem moi X .2 I .' Diem CU I I I I J J , Hlnh3-23 - M(move): dOl dinh da danh da'u t6i ehb khac. - S(straighten): de thay the cae ph1n dO'.ln nam giiia 2 dinh da danh da'u bang m¢t dO'.ln thing, hinh 3-24. Hinh g6c Danh d!u 2 dinh PI, P2 Ktt qua Hinb 3·24 - T(tanggent); chi ra hl1<mg tiep tuy~n 4.i dinh dang danh d5u de thl!C hi¢n chuc nang Fit, sau do dap dong nh~c: Direction of tangent: <cho g6c xac d!nh hl100g ti~p tuyen> a - W(width): thay be r(mg pha.n dOi,ln Clla Polyline ngay sau dinh danh d5u "x" - R(regent): thiet l~p li,li Polyline va c~p nh~t cac thay d6i, thl1Cmg dung sau Width. - X(eXit): thoat khoi chuc nang Edityertex d~ tro ve PEDIT. 40
  • ehU y: Nt!"u b~ ch9n dOl).n thiing hay cung tron khOng dugc 'Ie bCri I¢nh Polyline, ACAD siS nh.k Entity selected is not a polyline. <h"inh dii ch9n khOng phai polyline> Do you want it to tum into one?<Y>: <~ mu6n n6 tra thanh Polylin·e khoogYfN '1> • HIEU CHiNH DUNG KIj:P GRIP Khi nao tren man hlnh xuA"t hi¢n () vu{)ng nhb(Pick bOx) t ....i giao di~m clla 2 sqi )c(Cross hair), b ....n co th~ ch(;m d6i U1l11lg ve de hi¢u chinh bllng k~p GRIP. Sau khi chQn 6i tugng bang d.ch nhay vao d6i tl1Q'11g, cac 6 vu6ng nho mau xua't hi¢n tren cac diem d~c i¢t cua d6ituqng (blnh 3-25). • H"inb 3-25 o Sau d6 b .... n chi con tro vao m¢t () vu{)ng Grip d dinh dn hi¢u chinh r6i an phfm pick :hu¢t, 6 vu6ng do se d6i mau khac va ACAD xem di~m d61a di~m cd sa d~ hi¢u chinh. Cac :n..tOng hqp hi~u chinh v6"i GRIP g6m: + STRETCH mode: d~ keo dan tir diem cd sa da ch(;m tm di~m khac. B ....n a'n pblm Pick vao m¢t 6 vi6ng Grip lam diem C.d sa, sau do ACAD dua ra dong nh~c nhu sau: ** STRETCH ** <Stretch to point>/Base point/Copy(Undo/eXit: Nc!u b ....n cho 1 di~m a m¢t V! tri mm, d6i tU(]ng ve da chQn.se duqc keo rit tir diem Cd sa tai diem mai do (hinh 3-26). Chon B(Base) do! xac dinh diEm co sa khk Chon C(Copy) d~ sao chep d6i tUl1Ilg. I P2 I I I I I Hlnh 3.16 + MOVE mode: M dap l....i dong nhac ** STRETCH ** b~ go "Mf> se xuftt hi¢n dong ,nh:ic MOVE Mode: . , ** MOVE*'" <Move to point>/Base point/Copy/Undo/eXit: <cho diem dfch Wi> + ROTATE mode: b .... n go "RO" dap do~g nhac" ** STRETCH **" se co dong nhac d6i voi ROTATE mode nhu sau:
  • ** ROTA1E ** <Rotate angle>! Base point/Copy/Undo!eXit: <cho gOc quay> + SCALE mode: B~ go "SC" dAp dong nhac ",** SfRETrn **", xua't hi~ dong nhac sau: <Scale factor>/Base point/Copy/Undo/eXit: <cho h~ s6 ty l~ > + MIRROR mode: go HM!" dip dong ohic H" SIRETCH •• " thl ACAD nhic tiep: <Second point>/Base pointlCopy/Undo/eXit: <cho-diem> Diem b~n vila cho cung v6'i diim cd Sd hlnh thanh tr~c d6i xU'ng._Sau do b,~n thu du~ hlnh d6i Xll'ng cua d6i nrqng ve da ch<;ln, nhung d6i tuqng co bi xoa di. Mu6n d6i tugng co khOng bi xoa, b~n chQn diem thu 2 clla tn..zc d6i xU'ng b~ng cach dung chu"t chi dibn thu 2 trong khi dang {in Shift. Dtroi da.y la hlnh ve minh hQa la"y d6i x6ng clla m~t hlnh dung ktfp GRIP va [n Shift M vao dibn tM 2, hlnh 3-27. P1 Chuy: 1. Di,x6a GRIP, blm an Ctrl+C 2 lb. 2. C6 J¢nh DDGRIPS di co ht>p thol,li ct19n d6ng/ma, ddi mall, ci1 b vu6ng GRIP. 3.5. HUY BO L~NH L~NHU ~h nay eM huy b6 thao Ule vim tht;rc hi~n xong. Command: u Neu b~n dung nhiiu liln I~nh U so Ian IUQI huy bO e~e ~nh ~ thyc hi~n tru(;c d6 $eo thu h! ngu<;1C 1<,1i. UNDO ~nh nay bUy bit d6ng thlli I hie tac.dt)ng eua nhit:' I~nh tru(;c d6. Command: undO. . AuIo/Bac:kJCoDlrolfEntlfGruplMark<...>: + Neu go siS n' viI~, Ibl ACAD se bUy bO n I~nh trUoc d6, Nang It! nhu ban dilng I~nh. U nhi6u b i n . ' . + DUng Mark va Back: '!hIUc tien ban Mark M danh Mu ~nh vila th~c hi~n di sau nay can co the UNDO trll v6 Wi d6 bang chQn ,Back. B~n co the dUng Mark: d nhitu vi tri, sau d6 Back se trO v~ tm vi tri' glin nhitt, va tiep tt;lc teri. khi kh6ng con vi tri danh ditu nao, se thOng bao: This will undo everything. OK?<Y>: Neu dap "Y" se trd ve h~n tr~g thoii bah dfuI md ban ve; tTa 1m "N" se IX> qua chuc nang Back. 42
  • + OtQn Group va End: hie la m~t nh6m l~nh tnrac do dugc coi la m~t l~nh khi dung I~nh U hay UNDO. Group bM d!u, End I. kl!t thUc nhom. Chii y: C6 m~t s6 I~nh khOng th~ U ho~c UNOO d11t;JC, nhula: AREA, DBUSf, DELAY, END, FILES, HELP, 10, USf, QUIT, SCRIP, SAVE, SfATIJS, WBWCK, ... CO nhi~u l¢nh I~i chua I¢nh U va UNDO rieng. REDO L~nh REDO du<;'C dung ngay sau khi dii dung I~nh U hay UNDO de kh6ng thlc hi~n U hay UNDO nua. Command: redo 3.6. cAc L~NH TRA c(ru LIST 4nh nay cho b~ xem dil li~u li~n quan den d6i tUQT1g vi!. Command:. list Select object: (chQn d6i tugng dn tra diu) DBLIST (Data Base List) L¢nh nay 1i~t ke cae thOng tin cua tit ca cae yeu t6 tren ban vi!. * Oich gQi l~nh LIST' va DBLISI' tlr Menu: Screen Menu> INQUIRY> List! Dblist • G6 I~nh til ban phfm: Command: dblist ID L¢nh nay xac dinh tQa d~ m~t diem chi tren man hinh. *' each gQi l~nh ID tu Menu: Screen Menu> INQUIRY> ID >I< Go l¢nh til ban phim: Command: id Point: (chi ra 1 diem) x= y= z= DIST (Disiance = khoang each) . 4nh nay dung dt do khoang cAch giUa 2 diem, do gOc vlt giA tti djch choyin lUaIIg dili l!.x, I!.y, I!.z. • each g9i I~nh DIST til Menu: ,-~~----~~-, Screen Menu > INQUIRY> Dist * Go l~nh tU ban phim: Command: dist First point: (cho diim.thun Second point: (cho ditm tM 2) Distance = Angle in xy plane = Angle from xy plane= Delta x = Delta Y = Delta z =
  • AREA (di~n lich) L¢nh nay d~ doh di¢n ticb, chu vi eua hmh kin . • C3ch gQi I~nh AREA til Menu: rl-Sc-ree-n-M'-e-n-U->-IN-Q-U-IR-Y->-Ar-e-a' * Go l¢nh tU ban phim: Command: area <First point>/Entity/Add/Substruet: cae tn. Uri dOng nhlic oay: + N€u b:ilO cho di~m d~u (First point), ACAD coi nhu b'.lo tloh di¢n tich·cua 1 da giac luge ve tit diem nay. va nhac ti~p: Next point: <Yao di~m tiep theo> Next point: Next point: .J Area = Perimeter = + 01<;>0 E: b'.lll ch(;m Polyline ho~ d.l1Cmg tron de Hoh di¢n tich. chu vi. Neu Polyline he ,thl ACAD d6ng kin Mng 1 dO<)ll th~ng r6i mm doh. + O1Qn A (add = them): dung IlP ehQn nay ACAD so tinh tiep va e~ng them vao di~ tich, chu vi da tjoh tnl't1C do d~ co di¢n tich toan ph~n mm. + O1Qn S (substruct = triI di): lUang tl! nhu chQn A, nhung i1 day I~ tinh hi~u. Vi dl.l: Tinh di¢n rich t.bn kim lo~ (philn g(iCh cMo) nhu hinh 3-28. Command: area <First poinl>/Entity/Add/ Substruct: A (<It tinh t6ng) <First poinl>/Entity/Add/ Substruct: E (chQn d6i tuQng tinh ~n lich) (ADD mode) Select circle or polyline: (chi vAo d.ronS Polyline I) Hlnh 3-28 Area = 6213.72 Perimeter=314.2:i Total area = 6213.72 (ADD mode) Select circle or polyline: .J <First poinl>/Entity/Add/Sobstruct: S <lit linll ~u> <First poinl>/Entity/Add:E <chQn d6i IUQflg tinh> (SUBSIRUCT mode) Select circle or polyline: <chi wo du1mg trim 2> Area = 1256.64 Perimeter = 125.66 Total area = 4957.08 (SUBSIRUCT mode) Select circle or polyline: <chi wo du1mg 3>· Area = 300.00 Perimeter = 50.00 Thtal ace. = 4657.08 (SUB~TRUcr mode) Select circle or polyline: .J <First point>/Entity/Add: .J 44
  • CHrfONG4 -" ~ DIEU KHIEN MAN HINH - - 4.1. Li!:NH ZOOM L¢nh ZOOM cho phep thu, phong hioh anh tren mall hlnh rna vAn gill nguyen kich thu6'c th~t ella cae d6i tuqng tren bim ve. * each gQi l~n~ Z09M tir Menu: ,-------------------, Screen Menu> DISPLAY> Zoom Menu Bar > VIEW > Zoom O.25x 1hJOcZOOM Sau ZOOM: O.25X .Hlrih 4-1, • + All: de thu toan b~ ban ve ke ca ph~n hinh vi! a ngoai giro h~ UMITS da d~t ra man hinh m¢t each. ddy duo + Center (C): cho phep d.c dinh 1 etta sO chii' nh~t chlia phan hloh vi! de hi~n hinh. CUa s6 Day duqc xac d~nh b&ng tam va chi~u cao ella n6.
  • + Dinamic (D): IlJa ch9n nay thuemg de ZOOM vm t6c d¢ cao. Sau khi chqn "D" tf~n man hlnh xuat hi~n dau "x" d dung tim cua s6. B~n co th~ chqn V! tri dtn thi~t d~ xem bang each di chuy~n con tro tm do r6i a.n phfm Pick hay Enter se xu at hi~n 1 mlii t~n chi vao qmh elra s6. my gio b~ dung ban phfm di chuy€:n con tfO de thay d6i cua 56 xem. + Extents (E): d~ hi¢n tat dt hlnh ve fa vita khit man hlnh. + Left (L): l~a chQn nay gi6ng CENfER i1 tron, chi kMc la i1 CENfER cOn cho tam cila s6, con b d1y phiii cho g6c tnli-dum ella cila s6. + Previous (P): d~ hi¢n l~i man hinh truac do. B~n co th~ diing lien tiep 10 Ian chuc nang Pnay. + Window (W): b~ co t1i xa.c d!nh m¢t elm s6 trum l~n vung hlnh ve mu6n xem. Vung hlnh ve ella ci:ra 56 se dugc ph6ng to hay thu nhb d~ lap d~y man hinh. 4,2. Lj):NH PAN ~nh nay cho phep b~n "trugl:" i'mh teen man hlnh rna kh6ng thay d6i d¢ Ian d~ xem cae phAn khac ella ban ve iJ phia ngoai man hlnh. '" each gqi l~nh PAN tir Menu: ~-----------------, Screen Menu > DISPLAY> Pan Menu Bar > VIEW > Pan '" G6 l¢nh til ban phlm: Command: pan Displacement: <cho di~m g6c, ho{tc d¢ dm> ~cond JK>int: <cho diem thu 2, ho~ Enter> VI d~: Sallday La 2 clch dich chuyen bim ve sang tnii 50 dan vi va xu6ng dum 80 dan vi, Ktt qua 2 eAch PAN cl6LAnhu nhau (hlnh 4-2). •. Command, pari. Displacement: -50, -80 <clio ~ .•dln> . Second JK>int: ~" . ;.-- ., ' '. ,; . ".:." b. Command: pan Displacement: -150, -180 <cho diem g6c> Second JK>int: -100, -100 <cho diem ilili 2> + P' PI (lOo,tOO) (150, leO) PAN PAN TnIOc PAN Sau PAN Hinh 4-2 46
  • 4.3. LtNH VIEW Nhi~u khi b~ phili "tnrqt" di. l~ nhieu lin dt xern anh cae philo eua ban ve Ian. Nh~ v~y b",n phai si'r dvng nhi6u Hln de l¢nh ZOOM, PAN, song ACAD dua fa l~nh VIEW de thl!c hi¢n di6u do thu~n lqi han. L~nh VIEW cho ph6p b~ d~t ten vi'!. hru 1 d.nh (1 phAn ban ve), sao nay b~n co the dua doh d5. luu fa man hlnh bat ca hlc nao. * each gQi l¢nh VIEW tir Menu: r-----~------~--_, Screen Menu> DISPLAY> View * Go l¢nh tit bim'phfm: Command: view ? lDeletelRestore/SaveIWindow: <cae Iva chQn xern dum day> View name: a Y nghia cae tily chQn dong nhac tren nhl1 sall: + ? : de ke fa ten cae phfu anh(View) d3: d!nh nghia; + D: xoa bO phfin aoh d5. djnh nghia; + R: dl1a 1 ph<in imh da co fa man blob; + W: dung ella 86 de xac dinh m()t phan inh. d~t ten va 1l1U l<i1i. 4.4. LENH REDRAW L¢nh nay dung de tar t.;to l~i man hinh va x6a di cae dau "+" (dau Blip) co tren ban ve. * each gQi l~nh REDRAW tu Menu: ,--------------------, Scnren Menu > DISPLAY> Redraw Menu Bar > VIEW > Redraw * Go l¢nh til ban phim: Command: redraw 4.5. LtNH REGEN Gi6ng nhu I¢nh REDRAW, nhung I¢nh REGEN ghi I~i toan b~ ban ve, cho nM thOi gian Iii t€to Hiu han nhung an toan han . • each gQi I¢nh nay tit Menu gi6ng nhu gQi REDRAW iJ tren. * Go l¢nh tu bi'm phim: Command: regen 4.6. LtNH DRAG MODE ACAD cho phOp leOO It (Drag) rn(lt s6 d6i tugng vo tren rn~n hlnh, d6ng hOi hi¢n ra cac d6i tugngd6 bAng mltu trang(White) de b"" quan sat duqc qua trlnh leeo Ie. B~n c6 the dieu khien che'd¢ rna hay tfit DRAG nhu sau: Command: dragmode ON/OFF/Auto< ...>: (OlQn ON: kOo It dUg<:; OFF: bO che' d~ keo Ie; Auto: che' d~ leo It H! d~ng khi c~n). 4.7. LtNH VIEWRES ~nh nay dung de d~t ch€ d~ ZOOM nhanh va de d~t chI! d<;l phan giai cho ducmg trim.
  • .... each gQi l~nh VIEWRES ti'r Menu: ,--------------------, Screen Menu> DISPLAY> Viewres • Go l¢nti til ban phim: Command: Vlewres Do you want fast Zoom?<Y>: <c6 Zoom nhanh kh6ng YIN?> Enter circle zoom percent (1-2000)<100>: Duang tron duQC ve bang da giac dl!u nQi ti~'p. ~ co tIi cho s6 c~nh Clla da giac vao dOng nh!lc tren. S6 qnh cho cang 160 (1 -:- 2000) thl duemg tron dUQ'c ve ra cang mtn. Vi d~ b hlnh 4-3a, s6 c~nh da giac Ia 20, hlnh 4-3b chQIl s6 c~nh HI. 1000, ta th!iy ro dQ m!n clla hai duemg tron rat kM.c nhau. a. 56 Cf,l.l1h da gilk 20 b: 56 c~ da giac 1000. IDnh 4·3 48
  • CIWONG5 G.I;CH M~T CAT. GHI KicH_ _i _ ., THlJOC. VIET CHO CHO BAN VE 5.1. GACH MAT ckr ACAD su dung J¢nh HATCII hOflC BHATCH de vc "5' hi ~u V<., li ~ lI tn~n m~1 dt, ho~c tOlmng trlln~ n b6 m,~t. Mien 10 tlufong 1 ~lllli c n kin. Cic mfi u (Paltcrn) g<,lch sqc dlIqc chl'ra Irong fil e acad.pal(*). ~nh HATCH vii BIIATCH c6 lrong ACADI2 dung g'.lch m~t de cat; J¢nh BIIATCII (Boundary Halch) dllllg de hop Ihm,li de' b',1Il !L,ra chQn mau g<.tch, "iellg;)ch vv... 5.1.1. BHATCH , ... Cich gQi I ~ nh BIIATCII Iii Menu: Sc reen Men u > DRAW > Bhalch Me nu Bar > DRAw > Bhalch * Go I ~ nh Ilr bim ph'm: Command: bhatch Sau khi enler, h<)p thoi;li "Boundary lIalch" xlI,i! 11I¢n nhL( sau: Pattern: No hatch panern selected. Hatch -Pettons... I Define Hatch ArCI! fick Points < I '-_.!~"'e:.:'e::ct"O::b"'j.:.:ct:::.'-'<:....._.J1 --:OViC"'w--.,.,"'"C",·,-:,-:c'o.,-'' -."C<----, rl L-__~P~~~~~~H~'~"~·I'~<'-'-__JI~ .. I __~6~~~"~'.~d~O~p~tI~""~'~"~'__.J Apply I Cancel I IAnlllhl~l I I He'p... 1 IIlnh 5·1: II Op tho,u "Ikmnd'lry I hl1ch': Trcn hop Ihoai do, de 6 co y nghia nhu sau: a. lIatch option 8:;1.0 hilY {Ill ph'ln Chll()llnii (phfm Pi ck) V;IO 0 nay de chQn m;1lI (Pattcm) va kit u (Style) g;:tch sqe. Sau do h6p tho<;li phI;! xu{'t hi en nhu hinh 5-2. (*) Trong acad.pat Clla AUloCAI) co nhitu mJu gach khac voi lieu chuiHl Vi~1 Nam. T:k gi,l dii viet cae cong thlre m~lI g;~ch theo TCVN Ban n~lO dn xin 1i~n he voj tac gi.i, dic.n Ih o~ i : 869.3418
  • + 6 Pattern Type (m~u Halch Oplions S<,lch): Irong 0 nily e6 2 dong Pattern T y p e - - - - - - - , Hatching Styte-----, Iva chQn : - Stored ',latch Pattern: ch<;>n dc m~lI g'.lch da duac Jtru trrr lrong ACAD. ban [in V;LO vong tron a dau dong. Sau 1 ® Siored tiaLch PaLLern °l!"~D.I;",d P,n,," lUI '"_"_,, ® M,ormal 0 2"", ~anern ... 1~I=::::=::====~ LO_'::. _ _ _ _ _--' 9 d6 h~1Il fin phllll pick vao 6 Scale: 1,,0000 "Pallem .. .'· sc e6 bdng cae 1ll.'1I du e6 nlnr hlnh 5-3. San Angle: 10 I0 Exploded HaLch hay an (Click) v;m ndu n:..o ~=~I 0 I D ubI!!" 1I;!t:h b',111 ch<;>n va OK. Ti~p then ~opy Existing Halch ( b<,ln cho IY 1¢ vilo dong "Scalc", g6c nghicng dlfl1ng OK 1 Cancel I g~ch s<;>c vao dong "Angle" iJ phla dm]i clla h(lp Iho',li "Halch Option", rcu nluJ len Hmh 5·1: 116p thO"li "Hal;h Options" m:'ill, h<,ln chuytn con Iro 16i 6 ben ph "l i dong "PaHcrn" vi:I go Choose Hatch Pettern I~n Illi'iU vao, NOTE: ~ patterns not to scate. - User Defined Pall ern: . .. .. -. ~M~ LLLLLLL neu ban danh dli"tL V~LO vong LLLLL LL ~:17/~ tron 0 (Mu dOllg "User LLLLLLL Defined Pattern" co th~ dinh !-LLLLLL nghia ml)t m~u g,-,Ieh dan gi • .in vai die thOng s6 nhu sau: Angle: eho g6c nghicng de dltOng gaeh, Spacing: cho khming eaeh amO. ANSI34 ANSI35 ANSI36 ANSI37 girra 2 duong g:,lch kt! nhau. Double lIatch: S<,Ich '.'! chi~tI 1',10 thimh 6 IUai, Sau do ban i.11l OK d~ kc'l ANSI3B AR-BB16 AR-BB16C AR+BBB Ihue vi¢c d!nh nghia m,hl S4.eh nuli. II." I I Cancel I + 6 Hatching Style: Hinh 5-.1: 110p Iho:,11 "Choo,c Hutch 0plions", (ki~u g<,1ch) sau khi chQn m.iu g<,lch (Pattern), b:,lIl Ira l<;ti hl)p a Iho.~i "I-Ialeh Oplion" de chQIl kieu g<,lch sQC (Style) 0 "Hatching Style" n~m ben phai. a Co 3 ki~u gi)ch: - N (Normal): day la kieu ma sau khi chQIl nhit!u duong bac thl m~11 cill dl1<;'C 10 tu duong ngoai cung (s6Ie) toi duOnS bilo kc tiep, sau d6 khtlng g',lch cho 16i dtrons bao tier theo h.li S<,lch vv.. , (hlnh 5-4a), ·0 (Outer): voi kieu nay. m~H cal chi du(1C t6 IU dl10ng ngolli dillS loi duong Irong k6 n6 ma IhOi (hlnh 5-4b). - I (Ignore): m~1I cJ.1 se du(1C Itl tu dUOng bao ngoai cung va phil 10~1Il bO ben lrong. bO qua cac dlCOng bao mim Irong da du(1C chon (hinh 5-4c). Chu y: N~u han kh6ng chi m ki ~ u gach n;lo, ACAD chlln ki~u mac dmh N 50
  • 0). Normal b).O ... ler • c).lgnore Hinh 5-4 + () exploded Hatch: (phan ra kh6i gl,lch sQc) Tilt d cac duang g~ch sQc duqc xem nhu mqt kh6i (Block). Khi bi.~n mu6n kh6i do Ira thanh dc dtrang rieng bi¢t, b':lfl danh dau va~ 6 vuong nho dau dong "Exploded Hatch". D~ la.m diell do, b~n cling co the dung I¢nh EXPLODE sau khi dii g~ch roi. + () copy existing Hatch: sao cMp mall d5. g~ch. Sau khi b~n da chQn xong mau (Pattern), kieu (Style) g~ch sQc Irong hqp thm.li "Halch Option", b<.l11 an OK dong hQp tho~i nay, tro ve hQp Iho~i chfnh "Boundary Hatch". Bay gia b~n dn chon liep mien ke sQc IU dong "Define Hatch Area" bhng hai c;:"ich nhL! sall: b. 0 Pick Point B'.lll Click chuqt vao 6 nay, ACAD nhk b~1l chQIl I diem trong vllllg kin dn g'.lch: Select intcral point: a <eho I di6m ben (rong mien din g<.tch> ACAD se tlf dQng dlfng I Polyline kin bao quanh mien nay va g<;lch (hlnh 5-5). Cit.:. y: Sau khi b4n chQIl I diC:m trollg miell gf.ICh, ACAD si! di'! 11m (wJng bao giln no nhat M dl!ng lhimh dubng bao Polyline eho miCn g,!cli. Neu di6m d6 b ngoai dlIung I!m th<"iy. ACAD s;: Ihollg bilO ri1ng: Poin1 is outside of boundary (diem chc,m b Ilgoai dlIong bao). x Pick oint Chon mi~n g'.lch Hi.nh 5-5 Hinh 5-6 chi ra ding diem chQn PI a trong dtrang Iron, nhlmg l~i gan dU'ang bao hlnh vuong han, eha nen a ACAD se thong bao rang diem ngoai duong bao. B~n P~Gl hay chQIl 11;li. a B<.tn cung co the chQn Pick point mifn trong cung trU'ac roi chQn Pick Point ra mi6n ngoai sau. VI d~ tren hlllh 5-6, dau tien b<;ln co the chQn Po Irong hlnh vuong, a roi P2 ngoai hlnh vuong. XP2~ c. Select object 2) Neu click phfm chu¢t vao 6 nay d~ ChQll cac duang llinh 5-6 51
  • baa cua mi~n g<;lch sQc, b<;tJl dung dc each chQn d6i tuqng de tra 10i dong nhi1c "Select object:" . d. View sellections Nhan ph{m chu('lt vao 0 nay d~ xem I~i cac duong bao da chQn tren.a e. Preview Hatch ChQn 0 nay d~ xem tru'Oc vung g<;lch dft duqc nhu y chua. r. Advanced Options ...: cac chue nang nang cao. g. Apply B<;ln a:n vao () nay, ACAD se ap d~t ta:t cae h!a chQn g~ch SQC da d~t a tren vao ban ve va k€t thue l~nh BHATCH. h. Anolher B¥t click vao 0 nay, h"p tho~i chinh "Boundary Hatch" I~i hi~n ra de: b,.m tien hanh g~ch s(Jc mj~n khac . • Anh huimg cua cac dutmg g<;lch sQc tm dong Text, Attribute, Solide Khi chQn ca. c duemg bao mien g'.lch, b'.ln chQn d. cac d6i tuqng nay, thi cac dut'mg g~ch SQC se tI! d"ng ngat di khi g~p chung; trit khi b~n ch(Jn ki~u g~ch la "l"(Ignore). Vi df:.l: G'.lch m~t cat cho h'inh Ve tren hinh 5-7 a tren, sao cho cac duemg g'.lch kh{)ng de len chi} "Ban may". B'.ln hay tam nhu sau: Command: bhatch - Trong h('lp tho~i "Boundary Hatch" hay chi vao "Hatch Option" va chQn Pattern la ZIGZAG, chQn Scale = 24. Angle = 0 va an OK. - Trong h¢p tho'.li "Boundary MInh 5-7 Hatch", hay chi vao () "Select object", sau do chI vao dong chu "BAN MAy" va a:n Enter. Tra liili h('lp thoiili "Boundary Hatch" d~ chQn mien g'.lch bang "Pick point", cu6i cling la "Apply". K€t qua mi~n S<;lch nhu hinh 5-7 a tren. - 5.1.2. HATCH '" Okh gQi l¢nh HATCH tu Menu: ~--------~~----~ Screen Menll > ORAW·> Hatch Menu Bar >DRAW > Hatch •• C'. _ - , _ • GO l~nh tit bail phlm: Command: ' hatch. Pattern(? or namelUlStyle)< ••. >: B¥t tre! lai dong rmik do: +?: ACAD li¢t ke ra danh sach dc ten Pattern co trong file acad.pat + Go ten mao g~ch SQC vao: ACAD se hoi ti€p: Scale for pattern< ... >: <cho ty l¢> Angle for pattern< ... >: <cho goc nghicng dut'mg g'.lch> + U: dt d!nh nghla mau g~eh dan gian: 52
  • Angle for cross hatch line<...>: <cho gOc nghieng> Spacing between Line< ... >: <cho khming each cac duemg g~ch> Double hatch area?< ...>: <go Y di g~ch cheo 2 chi6u nghieng, N - 1 chitu> + S: de chon kieu g~eh (Style: N. I. 0). B~n cung co th~ xac dinh kiiu g~ch b&ng each them N, I hay 0 vao sau ten mau g~ch s,?c co da'u ph.iy ngan each nhu vi d,l sau day: ' Command: hatch Pattern? or name/U/Style)<... >: BRICK. 0 5.2. GHI KICH THUOC (DIM) . Dlmentlon nne Dimention text 5.2.1. Caeh ghi kich thuoe Nhu ta biet kich thu6c g6m 3 thanh pMn nhu sau: (hlnh 5-8) 92 1 - Extention line: dUOng dong ~ - Dimension line: dUOng kich thUdC - Dimenion text: chu so kfch thu6c * c.ach gQi l~nh DIM tu Menu: Extention / Ext.nlion fine i---------i Un. '. Screen Menu> DIM Menu Bar>DRAW> Dimentions * G5 l~nh tu ban phim: Command: dim (ho~c dim 1) . Hinh 5-8 Dim: lh Ibi dong nhiic nay b~ng each go 3 chu cai dau ella cae l¢nh con sau: HORizontal, VIRtieal. ALIgned. ROTated. ANGular. DIAmeter. RADius. CENter. LEAder. UNDo. EXIt. Y nghia clla cac l~nh con nhu sau: + HOR ho;).c VER: de dinh huemg dudng kich thuac nam ngang hay th~ng dUng. + ALI: duemg kich thuac ttl J!nh huang phil hoP vai d6i tuqng ghi kich thuac. Vi du: (hlnh 5-9) Command: dim Dim: ali First extention line origin or return to select: .J Select line, arc, or circle: PI (chi diim tren d6i tuqng ghi kieh !huGe) Dimension line location: P2 (chQn diim rna duemg !cieh thu/Jc di qua) Dimension text <... >: <cho chu sO kich thuOc> + ROT: t~o dUOng kich thu6c nghieng m<)t g6c so vai phucmg nam ngang (0°). Vi d u: (hlnh5-1O) Command: dim Dim: ROT Hinh 5·9 Dimension Hne angle: -45 (cho goc nghieng cua duemg kich thudc) rl..{s. e'l'...enon ine ori.gi.n or return to select: PI Seeond extention line origin: P2 Dimension line location: P3 53
  • Dimension text < ... >: 40 + ANG: de! ghi kich thl1ac g6c. p, Dim: ANG Select are, circle, line or RETURN: - Nell g6c do cuu I cUIIg (Arc): (hlnh 5-l1a) sau khi b~n chQn cung do, dong nhac ti~p theo la: P2 Dimension arcc line 10cation(TextfAngle): <cho V! tri dl1Cmg kich thl16"c> Dimension text< ... >: <cho chG: s6 kich thl1<Jc> . Hlob 5-10 Enter text location (or RETURN); «ho v~ tri d~t Ch[f so kich thl1<Jc> - Ntu gal' do Iii J 1'/1(111 dilimg trim (Circle): (htnh 5-11 b) Dim: ANG Select arc, circle, line or RETURN: <chi vao dl1Cmg tron t<;ti dii::m dau cung ghi kich thl1<JC PI» Second angle endpoint: <chi diem P2 la mut thli: 2 clla cung ghi kkh thl1<Jc> Dimension arcc line 10cation(Text/Angle): <vi tri dl1Cmg kich thl1<Jc P3> Dimension text< ... >: <cho chu s6 kich thl1Ctc> Enter text location (or RETURN): «ho vi tri d~t chG: s6 kich thuCtc> - Ne'u gOl" xue dfl1h hOi 2 dO(jn ,hang (Line): (hinh 5-l1c) Dim: ANG Select are, circle, line or RETURN: <chi vuo dUCmg th~ng thu 1: PI> Second line: <chi vao dl1Cmg th~ng thu 2: P2> Dimension arcc line location(TextfAngle): <vi tri dUCmg kich thl1ac P3> Dimension text<. .. >: <cho chG: s6 kich thuCtc> Enter text location (or RETURN): <cho vi tri d~t chG: s6 kich thuac> P' Hloh 5-11 - Nell gol' xul' dil/II hOi 3 ditfm (PI, P2, P3): (hinh 5-11d) Dim: ANG Select are, circle, line or RETURN: <enter> Angle vertext: <ch<;m dinh goc> 54
  • First angle endpoint: <chQn mut c<;lnh thu 1> Second angle endpoint: <ch<;>n mut qInh thu 2> Dimension arcc line location(Text/Angle); «ho v~ tri dU'Cmg kic;h thU'crc P4> Dimension text< ... >: <cho chu s6 kich thU'crc> Enter text location (or RETIJRN): <cho vi tri d~t chu s6 kich thU'crc> + DIA: de ghi kfch thU'<Jc dU'Cmg kinh cho dm'mg tron hay cung tron. Dim: Dia Select arc or circle: <chi vao dU'Cmg tron hay cung tron> Dimension text<... >: <cho chu s6 kich thm1c> Chuy: 1- DWng kich thU'l'1e sf di qua diim P dii chi ratren duemg tron (hlnh 5- !2a). 2- Neu ehi~u Jai dWng k.kh thut1e khOng diJ eho ehu ,,6 k{Ch thuCK: ml.m trong thl ACAD nhflc b,!-n dua chi~u dai dU'oog dan ra (Leader). ehu s6kfch Ihuoe n.im cuoi dUlmg dan nay (hlnh 5-12b): Enter leader cngth for text: <eho chit'!u dili dU'ong dan, ho~c eho diem E cu6i duUng dan>. ~----;: 036 E aJ hJ Hloh 5-12 + RAD: d~ ghi kfch thU'<]c ban kfnh cung tron ~ t/2 dU'Cmg tron. cac bU'crc ghi cling tU'C1I1g tl! nhU' l~nh DIR noi R 30 tren. Vi du: (hinh 5-13) Dim: RAD Select arc or circle: <chi viio cung trim t~i diem PI> Dimension text< ....>: 30 + CEN: d~ danh da.'u tAm, dU'Cmg ta.m cho cung trim ho~c dU'Cmg trim. Dl) Um cua da'u tAm dllqc di~u khien qua bien DimCEN (xem philn cu6i chuang nay). Dim: CEN lfinh 5-13 Select arc or circle: <chi vao dtKmg tron hay cung tron> + LEA: t~o dU'Cm.g dan ra ngoai hinh de ghi kich thU'oc. Khi do ta dn tra 1(:j'i ti~p cae chi dan sau : . Dim: LEA Leader start: <cho diem dau dU'Cmg dAn> To point: <cho di~m tiep theo> 55
  • To point: .J Dimension text< ....>: <cho chii so kich thuoc van> Vi d~: (hlnh 5-14) P2 P3 Dill): LEA X-------X Leader start: P1 p., }r_ _ 050 To point: P2 To point: P3 + P4 To pOint: P4 To point: .J Dimension text: 50 Hlnh 5-14 + CON va BAS (Continue, Rasline): 13. 21¢nh con de ghi.cac kich thuoc noi tiep nhau (CON), hoi,ic ghi cac kkh thu6c cung I chua.n (BAS), xem vi d~ duoi dfty. Vi d~: (hlnh 5-15a) 34 32 I: 50 80 1 • A P 20 iPl Ip2 P3 ... Command: b) dim Hlnh 5-15 Dill): HOR First extention line origin or return to select: <chQn g6c clla duemg dong thu nh<1't: P> Second extention line. origin: <chQn g6c clla duemg dong thd hai: P1> Dimension line location: <cho vi tff duemg kk~ thuac: A> Dimension text: 34 Dill): CON Second extention line origin or return to .select: <SOC duimg dong thu hai: P2> Dimension continue text<32>: .J Dill): CON Second extention line origin or return to select: <chQn g6c clla dUCmg dong thu ba: P3> Dimension continue text<33>: .J L¢nh BAS cling thl,lc hi~n woog t'! nhu CON (hlnh5-15b). o o o + ORD (Ordinate): l~nh nay dung M "' ghi kich thuac theo t«;la dQ tll 1 diem d~c tnmg (Feature) Dill): ORD .j p lp" P1 P'2 P 140 Select feature: <cho diem d~c tnmg - (100, '40) g6c xuft"t phat: P> Leader endpoint(X, V): <cho diem I P2 '20 mut Cl'ia dU<mg dan, ho~c cho r 1 105 hoanh d¢ X hay tung dQ Y> '- V 90 ffinh 5-16 minh h9:t cach ghi kfch thu6c Q dung lenh ORD. Hinh 5-16 56
  • 5.2.2. Cae I~nh hi~u ehlnh kich (huac I I / 7 + OBL (Oblique): dung M chinh duang d6ng nghi~ng di so voi khoang each can ghi kich thuGe cho kfch thuoe da c6 truac. OUI Y 50 50 rang l¢nh nay chi c6 tac d.tJ.ng khi bi€n DimASO a tf<;lng thai ON (tue 13, kich thuac la I kh6i . block). Vi d~: (hinh 5-17). Dim: OBL Select object: <ch9n kich thuac da co> DO a) Tn.rftc Ohlique b) Sau Oblique 60° Select object: --l Enter obliquing angle (RETURN for H1nh 5-17 none): 60 + NEWTEXT: d~ thay d6i n(li dung chil s6 kich thuac da co. Dim: . NEWTEXT Enter new dimension text: <cho chl1 so kfch thuac mai> Select object: <chQn chu s6 kkh thuac can thay> B~n co the dung ky hi¢u < > d~ sir dl,mg gia tT! kich thulle ACAD do duqc. + TEDIT (Text Edit): thay d6i vi tri chu s6 kich thuoc so v6i duemg kich thuac. Dim: TEDIT Select dimension: <chQu kich thlIlJc can 'slta> Enter text location (Left/Right/HomeJAng1e): <cho vi trl chiJ 56 mai: tnii/phai/ mi;ic d!nh/goc xoay> Hinh 5·18 minh h<;m cac chiJ so kfch thlIdc trucrc va sau khi dung lEDIT hi¢u chinh. 60 60 40 40 ~I Hinh goe TEDIT -Ang le20" TEO IT -L!R a) b) c) Ifmh 5·18 + HOME TEXT: neu chiJ so kich thuoc: da dai khoi V! trl m?-c d!nh, b':ln muon dua n6 tra ve vi tri cli thi hay dung l¢nh HOMElEXT. Dim: HOMETEXT Select object: <chQn kich thudc> + TROTATE (Text Rotate): dung de xoay chu s6 kich thuac di~ 1 goc (tuang t1,l" nhu dung lua ch9n Angle !rang l~nh TEDIn. (hinh 5-18) Dim: 1ROTATE Enter new text angle: <cho gOc xoay> Select object: <chQn kich thudc can xoay> 57
  • + UPDATE: c~p nh~t. L~nh nay Qung de c~p nMt cae kkh thUC1c dang t6n t<.ti. thea ki~u, bien, chu so kfch nlac dang t6n ~i. Dim: UPDATE Select object: ~~. <cht;m cae kich thuac M c<).p nh~t> + STYLE: dung de d~t kieu chu cho chu s6 kfch thuoc. Dim: STYLE New text style<... >: <nh~p len kieu chl1 vao> 5.2.3. Cae bien ,kich thudc (Dimension variables) Cac bien kich thuoc se ditu khien kieu kich thtTOC, chii so klch thU'oc, each ghi kich ,huoc. Hinh 5-19 rna ta tac dl,lng eua m(>t so bien kkh thuoc. Relotiv position .~. ..'..,~ 100 DimTXT • mnh 5-19 Dtrai day Hi cae bien kich thuOc eel ban: _ + DimALT: - On/Off - ntu d~t Off so thay c)li trj 56 ella UNIT (Default= Off). + DimPOST: - ky t~ - them cae kY I'vao ••u cbitsdklch thiI6c(v( d~: nim),.ho~ vllo tnlaC chii' 86 kkh thUC1c vOi da'u <:. >. Nluing ~u b<;tft khOilg mu6'n them c~c ky W titi cho gi~ tri bien Hi dfi'u "." - ,". -',. ' , + DimASO: - On/Off - nea~tOffihl cAe thanh phAn cua kich thu6c I. cae nguytn the ritng bi~t; ntu ~t On ~Ihlchu~g litn klt !haM in¢t kh6i - Block. (Default = On). + DimASZ: - khoang each - xlic dinh chi~u dai rolii ten ella dllCmg kfch thuac (Default = Off): . + DimCEN: - khoang each - neu d~t 0 thi kh6ng ve dl"u tam, dUCmg tam; n€u d~t Hi s6 duong se ve dati ta.m. duang tam. DQ dai dffu tam tily gia tf! so ductng do; neu d~t gia tfi am thl chi vii duang t~m. (Default = 0.0900). + DimCLRD: - m5.u - dinh mall cho dUCmg kich thuac. + DimCLRE: - mall - djnh mall cho dltemg dong. +" DimCLRT: - mau - dinh mAll cho chu so kfch thuac. + DimDLE: - kho{mg each - khoang vuqt cua duang dong qua dUCmg kkh thuO'c khi dung g~ch cheo (Tick) thay eho mlii len (Default :::: 0). ",
  • + DirnDLI: - kholmg each - dinh khoing each giii'a cac duang kfch thuoc song song nhau. (Default = 0.3800). + DirnEXE: - khoiing each - dinh khoang vugt clla duang dong qua duang kich thlJ'(Jc. (Default = Off). + DirnEXO: - kho~lng each - dinh khoang hb cua duang dong tai cac diem goc cua khoimg ghi kich thuac.(Default = 0.0625) + DirnGAP: - khoang each - dinh khe ha giii'a chii' so kich thuac voi dUCmg kich thuOc (hlnh 5-20) + DirnRND: - so -lam tron kich thuoc. Neu d~t la ·1 thl chii' so kich thuoc duqc Hlm trcm den so nguyen gan nh:1t. + DirnSCALE: - ty 1¢ - xac dinh ty l~ chung cho t:1t cii cac bien cua kkh thuac. + DirnSEl: - On/Off - neu d~t ON kho-ng ve dUCmg dong thu I. + DimSE2: - On/Off - neu d~t ON khOng ve duimg d6ng thu 2. + DirnSOXD: - On/Off - d~t ON se ngan kh6ng ve duang kich thuac ra ngoai dltang dong. a + DirnTAD: - On/Off - d~t ON thi chu so kich thudc ghi phfa tren duang kich thuoc; neu d~t OFF thi chii' so kich thuac dltqC d~t xen giua duang kfch thuoc (hlnh 5-20). (Default = OFF). + DirnFAC: - ty 1¢ - dinh ty l¢ gifra chi~u cao clla dung sai so voi chie.J cao chu s6 kfch thuac. (Default = 1.0000). + DirnTIH: - On/Off - neu d~t ON thl chii' so kich thuoc lu6n lu6n n~m ngang; neu OFF thl chu so kkh thudc duqc d~t theo huang cua dUCmg kfch thuOc. (Default = ON). + DimTlX: - On/Off - d~t ON thl chi! s6 kich thuac luOn d~t b trong 2 duimg d6ng du co dii ch6 khong; neu d~t OFF thl chu s6 kich thuac a trong hay ngoai 2 duang d6ng tuy co du ch6, hay khong, nhung doi v6i duang tron, cung trim thl chii' s6 kich thuOc siS nam ngoai duimg tr~n, cung trim d6. (Default = OFF). + DimTOFL: - On/Off - d~t ON se luOn vedumig kich thuaci>tn trong 2 duimg d6ng. (Default = OFF). + DimTOH: - On/Off - gi6ng DimTIH ,chi them Iii cb.i! ,6 kfch thooc du<!C ghi ra ngoai 2 duang dong. (Default = ON). + DirnTOL: - On/Off - d~t ON se ghi them cac, &ai l¢ch gim h~n vao sau chu s6 kich thuoc. (Default = OFF). + DirnTSZ: - kholmg cach - d~t 0 thi viS rniii ten cho dUCmg kich thuoc; n€u d~t gia tri dUdng thi ve net g~ch nghieng (Tick) thay cbo mfii ten. ~ IOn so duang do cho d9 dai net g~ch. (Default = 0.0000). + DirnTVP: - tY l¢ - di~u chinh vj tri chit so kkh thu6c len tren hay xu6ng duoi dUCmg kich thuoc. (Default= 0.000). + DirnTXT: - khoang each - de xac d!nh d~ cao chit s6 kkh thttOc. (Default = 0.1800). + DirnSHO: - neu dij,t ON thi se nhln thay duong keo re cua kfch thu6c; neu d~t OFF se kh6ng thay dttCmg keo re do. B~n co the thay d6i U:! so cac bien kich thuoc noi tren trong khi ve, ho~c t~o d.c ki~u (Style) bien d~ gQi ra ghi kich thuoc. C:kh gQi l¢nh de d~t bie'n kfch thudc nhu sau: >I< Cach gQi l¢nh de: thay d6i bien til Menu: Screen Menu> Dim> DimVAR> (go ten bi~n vao) . Menu Bar > SETI1NG> Dimension Style>(h~p tho~i) 59
  • * Go 19nh IiI bim phfm: Command: dim Dim: <el1O len bien vao> Current value< ... >. New value: <eho gift II'! bien> Chu Ihich: De xual hi~n Mp lh().~i dZll hien kich Ihlf0c (hlnh .'i-20), b~.lll con c6 lhe: g6 llr b~lll phfll1 (ACAD12) Wn l~nh DDim_ Comnwnd: ODim Sau khi Enter h<)p lho~.li "Dimension Style and Vari~lblc" xu[it hi~n (hlnh 5-20). Y nghTa ella cae 6 trong Dimension Sty1t<s and Variables helP tho<,ti nlm sau: Dimension Styles Dimension Variables--, + Dimension Style (ki~u HIENl Dimension Line ... kieh lhlroe): HIEN2 6 tren hien ten de kiell, 6 -Extension lines ... du6i eM g6 te;, kiell kieh thuae Arrows ... vao. T ...to I kitu mai, b'.ln hay di Iext Location ... con tra v~O 6 soan thilo i:J duoi va go ten kitu ~110, ten do s1: Text fllrmat. .. hi9n i:J 6 phla tren. Sau do bi;ln Features ... d~1 cae bien nhu duai day chi dan. Con de gQi ! ki6u ghi kfch .colors ... lhu6c cia co Irit Ih(mh hi~n thai, b<,tn chi vao ten kieu dang hi~n Jlimension Style: HIEN2 I ra a6 phfa tfe11 vrl an phfm pick OK I Cancel j ! Help ... I chu<)r, sau do OK. + Dimension Variable (cae bien kfch thuae): Hlnh 5-20: 11(J[llho~li "Dimension Style and V'lriahlc·: 6 nay g6m cac nut (nlg vai tLmg IO<,ti bien nhlr sal!: a. Niit "Dimension line" B<:J.n tin V~IO nut 11[IY thl h9P IhO~.li ph! Dimension line hi¢n ra nhU' hlnh 5-21. R.m d~t cae giri trj Style: HIEN2 ve duang kfch thuoe, nlur la: - Dimension line Color: mall eho feature S c a l i n g : !L1".,,0,,0,,0,,00'--_ _~ duang kieh thltoc. D Use !:aper Space Scaling - Force Interior Lines: ve dltOng kfch a thl10e trong 2 duang d6ng. Dimension line Color: Ired 1_ - Basic Dimension: ve hlnh eha nh~t bao chtr s6 kfch tluroe. Dim ension Line ..:.:.~-..':::====~~ - Text Gap: djnh khe hit bao quanh lZJ Force Interior Lines chtr s6 kleh (Imoc. D Basic .Qimension - Baseline inereament: djnh khoang each giua de dUOng kfch thude song Text Qap: 10.0900 I song khi dtmg I~nh Baseline. Baseline Increment: ~=~I 10.3800 b. Nut "Extention line" B<,tn an nut nay se hi~n ra h¢p Iho<,ti ph~l nhl1 hlnh 5-22; Imng do: OK I Cancel) Help ... I - Extention line Color: mall eho dLYang dong. Hinh 5-21 60
  • - Extention Above Line: djnh khoang vlrqt Extension Lines ctm dlfo:ng dong qua duong kfch thuac (Dim EX E) Style: HIEN2 - Feature Offset: djnh khoimg ha tu g6c ghl EeaUre Scaling: 11.00000 kfch thuoc den duemg dong. - Visibility: D Use Eaper Space Scaling Draw Both: de v6 cii 2 ctuong dong J;xtefl s ion Li ne Co..'."::"~--,Ir::'"'===I,,_,,,; Suppress First: kh6ng ve duemg dong thu I. Extension Lines - Suppress Second: kh6ng ve duemg dong th(r 2. Suppress Both: khong ve ca 2 dtrong dong. fxtensionAbove Line: 10.1800 I - Cenler Mark Size: D6 ghi kfch thuoc dfiu Feature Qff~,::,::,,-=--c--,~1=0=.=0~6~2f5=========;=~1 tam duang tron, cling trim. Visibilil;t IOrllw Both L~ Gia Ir! Ion thl dau l<lm l&n, giri Irj = a Ihl dfiu tam kh6ng dtrqc ve. tenter Mllrk Size: 10.0900 I - Mark with Center Line: veS duong tfI.m thay o Mark wilh Cenler Lines cho dau I<lm. OK I I Cancel I 1 ""p ... 1 c. NtitArrows Khi fin nut nay ht")p tho<.ti nlm hlnh 5-23 xuat hi~n de b<;ln d~t tham 56 ve mai t~n. Hlnh 5:22 - Dimension line color: chon m.3U cho mai ten. - Arraws: d~ vc mai ten, b,~n d~1I chi6u dai mili ten vila dong "Arraw Size:"; Tick: ve £q.ch llghi~ng; Dol: ve cham; hay User: ky hi¢u do nguai dimg djnh nghTa d~t vao 2 dfiu chrang kfch thuoc Ihay ch? mi.ii len. Arrows Text location Style: HIEN2 Style: HIEN2 feature Scaling: feature Scaling: "11,,.°"'°,,°:.:°,,°'-_---' D Use .eaper Space Scaling o Use .eaper Space Scaling Dimension Line Color:]Cr-ed---'I _ Qimension Text Color: 'Ir-ed-=---'I. Text Position Arrows Te~ Height: [°.18001 [ ® Arrow 0 Tick 0 Qot 0 User !olerance Height: 10.1 BOO I ~.,-----'====;=; Arrow Si~e: ]0.1800 Horizontal jOefault Ii.] ~=~ ~ertical ICentered liJ [ Alignment IOrient Text Horizontally [i.! "::J • I OK [ Can",1 I [H"P... I OK I [ Cancel I I:!elp ... I H"inh 5-24 H"inh 5-23 61
  • Separate Artaws: d~t 2 kh6i kM.c nhau cho 2 mui t~n. . Tick Extention: ~t khoang Vl1<Jt cua duemg klch thuuc qua duemg dong, khi dung Tick. dl Nut Text location B""n an nut nay de di d~t tham so clla chu so kich thudc vdi h¢p tho'.li nhu hlnh 5-24 d tren. - Dimension text color: d~t mc1u cho chu s6 kfch thudc. - lext Position: Text Height: cho chi~u cao chu. Tolerance Height: chieu cao dung saL Horizontal: d~t vi trl cho chii s6 kich thuac theo huang dQc duemg kfch thuuc: Default: vui kfch thu6'c thang hay goc thi chu s6 kfch thuuc d~t trong 2 dUOng dong. Vui kich thuac duemg kinh hay ban kinh thi chii s6 kich thuuc d~t ngoai duemg tron, cung tron. Force text Inside: ep chu s6 kich thudc a trong 2 duimg dong. Text, Arraw Inside: ep d mlii t~n va chfr s6 kfch thuac d~t ben trong 2 duemg dong. Vertical: d~t vj trl chfr s6 klch thuac theo hu&ng vuong goc v6i duimg kich thudc: Center: chu s6 kfch thuac d~t ngang dUOng kich thu6c. Above: chfr s6 kfch thu6c d~t tren duemg kfch thuac. Relative: chu s6 kich thu6c ~t ten cao hay xu6ng thap so v6i duemg kich thuuc. B€ln hay cho gia trj vao 0 so""n thao "Relative Position". - Alignment: d~nh d¢ nghieng dong cO sa clla chii s6 kich thuuc so v6i duemg kfch thu6c: Orient Text Horizontally: chii s6 kfch thu6c d~t n~.m ngang theo h~ trl,lc tQ3 dQ. Align With Dimension Line: chfr s6 kfch thuac.d~t dQC theo dUOng kich thuac. Align When Inside Only: chu s6 k(ch thudc d~t dQc theo dUOng kich thu6c chi khi chu a so kich thUdc phiH trong 2 duemg dong. Align When Outside Only: chu s6 kich thuac d~t dQC theo dUOng kfch thudc chi khi chii s6 kich thUlle phiU iJ ogoai 2 dulmg d6ng. e. Nut Text Format Df dinl'i d.;mg va hi~u chinh chu s6 kfch thuOc, dan vi do, b{m An nut nay se xuai hi¢n h~p tho~i nhu hloh 5-25. feature Scaling: @~~=:J 1If> !!lone o Use e__ pet' Spate Scaling 0 Y:ariance Basic unlts--;::::::====~ o Limits Length Scaling: Ic:':::·oo"'"=oo'---_-' o Scale In Paper Space Qnly Bound Off: Tex! Prellx; TejSl. Suffix: o Show Alternate Units? Zero Suppression 00 feet 0 L~ading o !llnches 0 Iraillng 1</100'1 I c~"" I I H"":' I Hinh 5-25 62
  • - Round off: lam trem kfch thu6c, neu b~n di)t gia tf-! = 1. - Text Prefix: ghtii~n to cho chu so kich thuoc. - Text Surfix: ghi h~u t6 cho chu s6 kich thuoc. - Tolerance: None: ghi kkh thl10c khang co dung sai. Variance: ghi sai l¢ch gioi h<;tn trt!n (Upper value) va sai It;:ch gi6i h~n duoi (Lower value). Limit: ghi kich thudc giui h'.ln dii c¢ng, tm di sai l~ch gi6i lli}n tren va dOOi. f. N ilt Features De xem va hi~u chinh cac gia tr! ve dUOng kich thuoc, v~ chu s6 kfch thl16'c, ve dl10ng dong, mo.i ten, W ... , b'.ln an vao nutoay se co ht)p tho~i nhu hlnh 5-26. . ----~ ft' " Fe~tures Style: HIENZ Extension lines feature S&81ng: jll1iUnUlI I Extension AbO"o"1: line: 10 .1800 I o Use eap~r Spaee Scaling Dimension Lille FeatUre Qffset: 10 . 0625 I o Force Interior Lines Visibility: !Oraw Both [<I o Basic Qlmellslon £enter Mark Size: 10.0900 I Text yap: 10.0900 I o Mark with Ce'llter lilies B.aseline Increment: 10 •3800 I Text P1Isltion Afrows Te~ Height: 10 .1800 I ® Ar~ow o Tick o Qot o J.!ser Iolerance Height: 10 •1800 I Ho!izolltal !Default ~J Arrow Si~e: (0.1800 I >, " I • ,.<' . I ~ertieal lCentered III o 1;,ejIUlllle ,now~; .. I . I <.IV· I I I .'d):H I I I IIiiiI llbh 5-26 .. I- • ""Ignment !Orient Text f:iorizontalty g. Nut Colors: d!~h mau cho duCmg kkh thuOc. dUCmg d6ng, chu s6 kich thl1oc. Sau khi b,:,n 'dii d~t Uit cD. cac tham s6 cho kich thuOc nhl1 dii trlnh bay tren da.y, ACAD hi¢n l~i h~p tho~i chfnh "Dimension Style and Variables", b'.ln an OK d~ ket thuc vi¢c cai di)t. Bay gib b~n da co 1 kieu ghi kich thl16'c theo y mu6n, va b'.ln co the gqi ra ghi kfch thl16'c bat ky luc nao. 5.2.4_ Ghi dung sai kith thucle (DimTOL) Muon ghi trj so sai l~ch gidi h'.ln cho kfch thl16'c, b'.ln dung l~nh DimlOL (Dimension a Tolerance) tr<,tng thai ON. B'.ln cho cac sai l¢ch gi6'i h'.ln boi cae bi!n DimTP (sai l¢ch gioi h'.ln tren), DimTM (sai l~ch gi6'i h<.tJ1 dl1oi). Vi d~: (hinh 5-27) Command: dim Dim: DimlOL Gurent va!ue<Off> New value: ON 63
  • Dim: DimTP Current value<O.OOOO> New value: 0.05 Dim: DimTM Current value<OJ)OO(b New value: - 0.05 Dim: ROR Dimension text< .. > 60 K/!t qua kich thUl.1c kern dung sai nhU' hloh 5-27. Hinh 5·27 5.3. VIET CRa CRO BAN VE Font: 1a mau ve cae ky t!. ACAD cho phep dung 2 lo~i Font File c6 duoi 13. .SHX va .PFB. - Style: Hi kieu vi/!t chao STYLE ~n co· the dung l¢nh STYLE de thid l~p 1 kieu viet chu mai vai ten kieu do b~n d~t. Ho~c b¥1 dung l~nh nay de thay d6i cac tham s6 cho mi?t ki~u chu dB. co. Comm and: style Text style name(or?)<. .. >: Textl (ten kieu, adily d~t hi: Textl) Font fi1e<txt>: Romans (ten Font cho ki~u Textl: Romans) Height<·... >: <cho chi~u cao chG> Width factor< ...>: <cho tY l¢ chieu r()ng so vai chieu cao> Ob1iquing angle<...>: <cho goc nghieng dong chft> Back words?<N">:- .<N: kh6ng viet nglIQ'C ve phia sau, Y: viet nglIqc v~ phia sao> Upside down?<N>: <N: kh6ng viet I:)t xu6ng, Y: viet l~t xu6ng> Vertical?<N>: <N: khOng'vi/!t thing dUng len, Y: viet thang dUng len> Textl .is now the current text style. <Textl ba.y gib ta kieu hi¢n thai> L$NR TEXT RO,'.C DTEXT TEXT. viet chit len ban ve, nh1D1g chu chi hi¢n ra khi b~ an Enter. DTEXT (Dynamic Text): ding nhlI l¢nh TEXT, nhU'llg l~nh nay b~n go t6i kY nao thlw hi~n ngay ra man hlnh. Chu. y rfing st,r can M hay de ky tlf d~c bi~t se hi~n dung chi khi b,!-n :in Enter. * Cach gQi l¢nh TEXT va DTEXT tll Menu: Screen Menu> DRAW> Dtext Menu Bar > DRAW> Text * Go l¢nh tu b~lfi phim: Command: text (ho~c dtext) Vai ACAD12 l¢nh TEXT dllgc phat tri€n chi tiet hon. Command: text JustifylStylel<Start point>: . 010 1 diem: do la. Ie trai dong chit. - Justify: xac dinh cae kM, nang can 16, ACAD se nhac nha: 64
  • AlignlFil/Cenler/Middle/Righl/TLffC/TRIMLIMC/MRIBI/BCIBR: Dap dong nay, ch9ll Align, Fit, Center, Middle, Right nhl1 phan tren. TL (Top'Left): can 16 bilng diem tren-trai. (hlnh 5-30) TC (Top-Center); can Ie bang diem tren-giua dong chit 1R (Top-Right): can Ie bang diem tr~n-phai. ML (Middle-Left): din Ie bang diem giCta chieu cao-tr~i. Me (Middle-Center): can M bang di~m giua chi6u cao chit MR (Middle-Right): can Ie bang di~m giua chieu cao-phai. BL (Botton-Left): can M btmg diem day dum-tnii. Be (Botton-Center); can Ie bang diem day duoi-giua dong chii'. BR (Botton-Right): can h~ bang diem day du6i-phai dong chii IDnh 5-28 minh hQa d.c can Ie do. Top-Left Top-Right Midle-Left Midle-Right Botton-left • • Botton-Right Bose line Hlnh 5-28 • Viel cae ky II!" ~e bi~1 Iren ban vi! Trang l¢nh '}ext, ~n go: %%0; b~t hay tiit ch~ d<) g~ch -tren. %%U: b~t hay tat ch€ dQ g<.tch duoi. %%d: ve ky hi~u dQ (0). %%p: ve ky hi¢u dung sai (±). %%c: ve ky hi¢u dllCmg kinh vong trcm (~). %%nnn: ve ky h! ACII la nnn.
  • CHUaNG 6 , T~O LOP CHO BAN VE .,. - 6.1. KHAI NItM V~ LOP (LAYER), MAu sAc, DUONG NET VE 6.1.LLap (Layer) ACAD cho phep b<;ln t~o fa cae lap (Layers) de ve bim ve va quao 19 blm ve d~ dang hem. MOi lOp ve co th~ xem n,hu m~t mang trong su6t. Tren m6i lap b~n co the ve cae d6i tuqng mang cae d~c tinh, firiU sofie, kitu duemg net rieng do b~n quy djnh. M~t ban ve co th~ dugc t~o boi nhi~u lOp khac nhau, nhU'l1g chung co cung mQt h¢ t<;>a dt), ding mt)t ty 1¢ thu phong va giOi h,~n ve gi6ng nhau. Troog qua tdoh ve, b',m co the cho hi~n ra ho~c tat di cae lOp DaO do ba:t cd lUe nao b'ilo mu6n. Vi d1,l m¢t b~m ve l~p g6m nhi~u chi ti€t khac nhau, mbi chi ti~t b'ilo ve treo ffi¢l lap rieng v6i mim sac khac nhau d~ quan Iy chung mQt each thuQ.ri ti¢o. Ho~c t~n ban ve eua mQt chi ti€t, b'iln co the d~t timg IO'ili duang net, mall sac vilo timg lOp kha.c nhau. Khi ve b~ gQi tUng lOp ra ve d~ dang. 6.1.2. Mau sac B<Pl su dl.J.ng mau tren ban vi! thi co the quan s,1l va quan ly ban ve thu~n lqi han. Ban ve dung ca.c mall khac nhau, khi in ra bang may ve (Plotter) co the duqc lien ket mau bim ve v&i. tUng but ve co mau tuang U'ng. HOi v~y b,~.n co the di~u khien duqc be r(lOg net ve. Command: color New entity <:010«.. >:· <choltn mau. ~ .dUng v<n m'''!>' ACAD quy dinh 7 mAu ch"", ~ "~.!6.~,b~iiW r l!i,l~ Ii: .. 1 - Red (dO) . .. '. '.' "'5'BI''''i(~;U;h iniac billn) . ,.,~ -'l-. H ... .. 2 - Yellow ( W i t g ) 6 : .~¢nla·(h6ng canh'sen) 3 - Green (xanh cAy) 7·, While (!ring) 4- Cyan (xanh c&n th""h) Chll thich: BYLAYER: III mau eUs lOp ve·hi~n hllnh. BYBLOCK: hlnh ve VOl mllu BYBLOCK se e6 milu White (trAng), chQ d61 khi nao hl;l.n dl).t hinh ve ~6 vilo m(lt kh6i (Bloc~) va-cMn (Insert) n6 vao ban ve thl n6.sl c6 milu hi¢n thbi. 6.1.3. Ki~u dulmg net 4nh LlNETYPE dung d~ thi€t I~p lo~i duimg net (net Wn. net dllt.net cham gach... ) va tai vao de dua ra ve. ACAD co cac kieu dUOng net miu nhu hlnh 6-1. * each gQi l¢nh LlNETYPE til Menu: Screen Menu> SETTING> LineType' Menu Bar > SETI1NG > Layer control (hl)p tho~i) 66
  • Continious Dashed Hidden --------------- Center Phantom Dot ............................................. Dashdot -.' - .. -. -. -. -'-.-.-.-.- -~ Border --._-.--.--.--.--.- Divide Hinh 6-1 • Go I~nh til ban phfm: Command: LineType ?lere.te/Lo.d/Se!: Dap cac I,!a ch(;m: + ? : ACAD li¢t ke danh such cac ten va mO tii cac lo~i duemg net duqc tai vilo. + L (Load): tai cac durmg net vao tu f file chua chung (vI dl,l: acad.lin). ACAD nhAc b~n dua ten d.c kieu duemg net va ten file chung vao. + S (Set): dua kieu duemg net thanh hi¢n hanh. B<,ln cung co the dua ten duemg net la BYLAYER , BYBLOCK (da noi 11 tren) di! dua kieu duimg net eua LAYER, BLOCK tbOnh hi¢n hanh. . + C (Create): t~o ki~u duemg mm va cat rieng vao mqt file thu vi¢n. Sau khi b~n dap . "C" trong lai nhac tren thl ACAD nhac nha ti€p: • Name of linetype to create: <cho ten ki~u duang> Sau do ACAD hoi b~n ten file thu vi¢n rna b~n lUll lo~i duang mm t~o vAo va ACAD hoi b.;lO v~ dinh nghia cho ki~u duemg mai: Dscriptive text: <~ mO ta kieu duang bang nef"-" hay net g~ch chAn "_", dau cham"."· trto ~ phini> .... " Enter pattern (On next line): <go ~ ky hi.mOta kieu dllllng v.odong dl'm city>: A, Trong d!nh nghla tr~~ b~ hay cho v~.ck: ~on.'86 SMi.chit cAi J'A," (Align) chung cach nhau bin Mu phAy de m6 iA 11(>. doi ~',lWih', ',hOlngM,4ID;cMlncho 1 coo I<Y eua dllllng net. Ntu eho s6 dllong 1. djnh nghla chM" d8i cIom's!Ch (loEj;oh<>s6am 1. dinh nghla ehieu doi khoimg hl1 (khOng vel, eho s60 Ia dinh ngh1a·dlfu<>hllHt. Ky tl' "A," 11 dilu dong dI! chi clng khi vo m/)t dU/l!)g !hlbAI d§u va k!t !hue d~u Ia net g~ch. Vi d1,l t~o mqt kieu duemg net ch:tm g~ch c6 chi&!, dli n6t g~ch 16: chil~u diii khe ha tir dau net g~ch tai da'u cha'm la 3 lam nhu sau: Comwand: Iinetype ?ICreate/LoadiSet: C Name' of linetype to create: CHAM_GACH Sau do hi~n h~p tho~i, b~n chQn File c5t vao la MYLTYPE.LIN. va tra lai tiEp: 67
  • Descriptive text: Enter pattem(On next line): A, 16, -3, 0,-3 Nhl1 v~y b~ da t~o ra net cham g~eh rieng eho b~n vai ten CHAM _GACH b trong file MYLTYPE.LIN, sau do b'.ln eo the tai vao de ve. 6.1.4. LTSCALE (LineType Scale) L~nh nay dung d~ dieu ehinh ty l~ dl1Cmg net. Command: Itseale New seale faetor< ... >: <eho tY 1~> Ch6 y: ACAD djnh nghia cae kiiu duemg net d~t trong file acad.lin dung don V! "Inch". Neu b<;tn dung dOll vi "mm" nen d<}t t)l I¢ khoang 25. 6.2. Li);NH LAYER B'.ln dung l~nh LAYER d~ t'.lo cac lOp mai, d~ thay d6i eac <4e tfnh nhu: rnau sac, kitu dUCmg net, tat hay rna cac lap, tam d6ng d~e hay lam tan eae lap d6ng d~e, li¢t ke ten cae lap da co, hay dua m"t lap thanh hi¢n haoh. * qich gQi I¢nh LAYER tir Menu: Screen Menu> Layer Menu Bar > SETIlNG > Layer Control * Go l¢nh til b~m phim: Command: layer ?/Make/SetiNew/ON/OFF/Color/LtypelFreeze/LOckiUnlock: Y nghia cac h!a ch(;m do: +? :·Ii¢t ke cae lOp eung cac d~c nnh clla tUng lap. + M (Make):.dua I lap thanh hi¢n thm, ho~c 4-0 lOp mm va dl1a ra hi~n thai. + S (Set): goi I lap ra hi~n thoi. + N (New): t~o lap mm. + ON: rna cac lap dang uit. + OFF: tat cae lOp, .khi do hlnh ve utn d.c lOp nay kh6ng hi¢n ra mm hinh vlt cung kh6ng in r~ duge . .+ C (Color): de d~t mau eho cae lap. VI d~ d~t m~u Green eho lap "LI" t. lamnhu sau: Command: . layer " .• . . ?/M.kelS.tiNewIONIOFll'(l~OcklUnlock:·· C Color: green (bUl clID I/lIl mAu bo~ """ 06 ii:t 1_+.225 tuang Ilng) Layer narne(o) for color 3(greenj<Ox . LI. + L (Uype): dung Mtbay dOi kieu duang netgiin vmlap. Vi d~: mu6n d~tkil!u duang khufft (Hidden) eho lap "Ll": Command: layer ?/Make/Set!New/On/Off/Color/Ltype!Freeze/LOck/Unlock: L. Linetype(or ?)<Continuous>: Hidden • . Layer name(s) for linetype IDDDEN<O>: LI + F (Freeze): Hun d6ng d~c cac lap b'.ln chi ra. Dung Freeze thl ACAD se bO qua cac 68
  • hlnh ve Iren C,-le -lap Freeze trong qu:' trlnil Cl)p nh~lt sl,t thay doi, nell vi¢c tai hi¢n lai (Regenerati on) b::l11 ve nhanh chong hOil so voi Chl'fC nung tfit OFF ella lap. + T (1ll<IW): lam tan di cae lOp da Freeze. + to (Lock ): chi dLlIlg c16i v6i ACVADI2, de khoa dc lOp. Khi khoa Ih. hlnh ve In~n dc lap do van hi¢n fa, nhung kh6ng th e sm.U1 Ih <'1.0 (Edil) c1uqc. + U (Unlock): mo khoa cho die lap. ClIo thich: ACAD 12 eo l~nh DDLMODES (Layer Mode) d<i diel1 khiC:n lop qua h¢p Ihm.li . Command: ddhnodcs ACAD 12 sc dU'a fa hop thO<;li nhu hlnh 6-2. layer Control Current layer: 0 2" II Off Thaw II Freeze Unlock II lock ' IrbW!~ Irhw!~ Set Color ... Set Ltype ... I ! ICurrent I IRename I I Clea! All I I OK I e,",,1 I I. ""p ... I Hlnh 6-1: I !(Jp tho<.li "Lllyer Control". 6.3. Lj):NH DDEMODES Entity Creation Modes ded~t mati sac, l&p, ki<~u L¢nh nay dimg dUOng net , kieu c hG', el l) cao (Elevasion) vv... I. ~'lor..J. BYLAYER thOn g qua I h9P tho<.li. * Cach gQi l~nh DDEMODES tlr Menu. 1 Layer... J0 1 Linetype ... ] BYLAYER Screen Menu > SETTING> dde.modes 1 Text Style ... jlTALICT * Go I¢nh Ill: ban phfm: flevation: 10.0000 Command: ddemodes HQP tho~i xuat hi ~n nhl1 hlnh 6-3. Ihickness: 10.0000 OK IC.ncelj I. He!!,,,. ] J-IInh 6·}: !I(Jp thO<.1l "Entity Creation Modcs'~ 69
  • CHuaNG 7 KHOI vA THUQC TiNH 7.1. KH6I (BLOCK) 7.1.1. Kluil ni~m Block Block (kh6i) la t~p hqp eua cae yl!u t6 ve rieng bi¢t dUQ'c nhom l~i thanh mN d6i tuqng ve va duqc d~t ten. Vai ten Block da d~t ta co the chen Block vao bat ky V! tff n~1O tren ban ve. Trong khi chen (Insert) b~n co th~ ph6ng to, thu nho va xoay di m<)t goc llly y. M~t khac khi dung Block chen vao ban ve, b~ giam duQ'c dang ke kich thuoc File ban ve (ACAD chi them mQt nguyen th~ khi chen m¢t Block). 'M¢t ban vi! phuc t'.lP b<;tn co the' phan fa thanh cae d6i tuqng ve rieng bi¢t va t<;to thanh cae Blocks, bien t~p chung thanh ban ve ho~m chinh. Ngoai ra ta co the: dinh nghia Block til cae d6i tuqng tren him vi! hi¢n thai, ho~c tll ban ve da co tmac. Cho nen h<,ln co th~' t<.to fa m¢t thu vi¢n rieng cae hloh vi! ma.ll (nhu Iii: clra, bulOng, mll 6c, vong hi, van vv... ) va sau nay chen chung vilO bim ve. 7.1.2. Lenh BLOCK L¢nh BLOCK de: 4.0 ra m¢t kh6i til nhom cac ytu t6 tren ban ve hi¢n .co. * Cach gQi l~nh .BLOCK tit Menu: ~-------------------, . Screen Menu> Block Menu Bar > CONSfRUcr > Block * Go l~nh til ban phtm: Command: block Block name (or 7): <cho ten kh6i> COn neu b~n dap "?" thl ACAD dua ra danh sach ten cac khai da duqc djnh nghia trong ban ve. Sau khi cho ten khai ACAD nhac nha ti€p: Insertion base point: <cho die:m co sa de sau nay chen vao bim ve> Select object: <chQn cac d6i tuqng de nhom vao mQt kh6i> Sau khi vi¢c chQn' doi tuqng k€t thuc (Enter), hlnh ve clm cac d6i tuqng duqc chQn se ma't di. Blpl muon phlc h6i chung hay dung l~nh OOPS: Command: oops 7.1.3. Lenh INSERT L¢nh nay dung M chen mQt Block vao oon ve ~i V! trt can thiet, theo ty l~ va goc xoay lily y. Ngoai ra b'.ln co the dua vao duang dAn tai mQt t~p ban vi! (.DWG) d~ chen bim ve do nhu mQt Block vao bim ve hi¢n thai. * each gQi l¢nh BLOCK. tir Menu: ,-~------------------, Screen Menu> Block Menu Bar > CONSlRUcr > Block 70
  • * G5 l~nh tir ban phfm: Command: insert Block name (or ?): <cho t~n kb6i, bo~c ? xem danb sacb t~n cac kh6i> Insertion point: <cho diSm cben, no cilng la tam xoay> Xscale factor<l>jComer/XYZ:' <cbo ty I~ pbuang X> Yscale factor<X>: <cbo ty l~ pbuang Y> Rotation angle<O>: <cho goc xoay khi dien> Neu b<;tn dap dong nhac "Xscale factor<l>jComer/XYZ:" bAng g5 "C", ACAD cbo pbep b<;tn cbl ra 2 dinb elm blnb chu nb~t, rna dinb tbu 2 la di~m cben, 2 q,nb X,Y Iii. ty I~ cben tbeo pbuang X va Y. Ol(;m "XYZ" tren dong nbAc "Xscale factor< l>jComer/XYZ:" chi dung d€: cben 1 Block duqc ve trong 3 chi~u (3D). Chli. (hich: Ncu hl;lIl cho ty I~ chen Xsca[e :::: I Xscalc == ·1 phL10ng X,Y la s6 am, Ihl nh~n uL10c hlnh Yscale =1 Ysca[e"" I chen vao Sf' d6i xUng gL1rmg voi hlnh g6c (hlnh 7-1)_ HlOh 7·1 7.1.4. qnh INSERT vOi dau " ... M¢l kboi (Block) da djnh nghia, ACAD xcm no nbu m¢t d6i tuqng dan -(nguyen tbe). Cho nen kbi b':ln cbon m¢t yeu to trong khoi tbi ca kh6i duqc cbQn. Do do b<;in kbOng tbe: tbay doi rieng ti:rng yeu to trong kboi duqc. Neu b~n muon cben m¢t Block rna vAn duy tel duqc SI! rieng bi~t cac yeu t6 trong do, b,:!n bay d~t dau "*,, vao truac ten kb6i. Vi dl,J: chen kb6i ten la "V it" vao ban ve de sua, ta la.m nbu sau: Command: insert Block name(or?): * vit Insertion point: <cbo di~m cben vao> Scale factor<I>: <cbo ty J¢> Rotation angle<O>: <cbo goc quay> 7.1.5. EXPLODE (phon ra m(it khiiij Neu b~n da cben m¢t kboi vao ban ve boi J¢nh Insert r6i rna b<:tn I~i muon tbay d6i d.c yeu t6 rie'ng trong kb6i do tbi kb6ng duqc. ACAD cung cap I~nb EXPLODE de: pban ra kboi do ra (k~ cii cac kb6i ~n: kfcb tbuac, g~cb m~t dt...) va da tuyen (Polyline) tbanb d.c yeu t6 dan rieng bi¢t, d.c nguyen tb~. Tir do b~n i':li co tbe tbay d6i, bi~u chinh cbung nbu tbUtmg. Do v*y J¢nb INSERT'*" tuang duang vai 21¢nb INSERT va sau do EXPLODE. * Cacb gQi I~nb EXPLODE tir Menu: ,-------------------~ Screen Menu> EDIT> Explode Menu Bar > MODIFY > Ex pI ode * G5 l~nb tir ban pbim: Command: explode Select block reference or Polyline: <cbQn Block, Polyline pblln ra> Chli. y: + L¢nh E~PLODE chi thi himh moi I~n mot muc. Tue Iii Ileu Block chua Polyline thl Explode Ian Ihu- 71
  • nhflt, Block se ph&n ra thanh Polyline va cae y~u t6 dan khac; Dung Explode Ian thu hai thi Polyline mai phun ra thanh cae dOl:ln thimg, cung {ron ri~ng bi~L + L¢nh EXPLODE kh6ng eo lac d~ng d6i vai mt)1 kh6i uu'crc chen vai eae ty I¢ X, Y, Z kha.e nhau. 7.1.6. L~nh BASE Neu b<;ln muon chen bim ve hi¢n thdi van m()t bim ve khac sau do thl b:~m can chi ra diim C{/ sadt co tht si'r dl;lng I¢nh Insert sau do. Command: base Base point: <cho ditm co sit> Neu b':ln kh6ng cho diem co sa thl ACAD se coi di~m (0,0,0) Iii diem co sa. 7.1.7. L~nh MINSERT L¢nh nay tuong duang vai hai I¢nh Insert va Array Rectangular. * Cach gQi l¢nh MINSERT til Menu: . Screen Menu> BLOCK/ DRAW> Minsert * Go I¢nh til ban phlm: Command: minsert 30 VI d~ dvai day minh hQa each dung l~nh nay: (hlnh 7-2) Command: Minsert Block name(or ?):. vit Insertiopn point: PI Xscale factor<l>/CornerjXYZ: .J Y scale factor<=X>: .J Rotation angle<O>: .J Pl~------------------/ Number of raws<. .. >: 2 Hlnh 7-2 <eho s6 h~mg> Number of Columns<. .. >: 4 <eho s6 c()t> Unit cell or distance between raws: 30 <khoimg dch cac hang> Unit cell or distance between Columns: 30 <khoang cach dc c(?t> Chu y: Khong the dung dau "*,, veri J¢nh MINSERT. 7.2. THUOe TiNH eVA KH6I (ATTRIBUTE) Co nhUng kh6i chi Hi hlnh ve, nhlmg co nhUng kh6i can co d. cac ghi chu v6 cac thuQc tinh du6i d':lng Text (Attribute). MQt Attribute co the chua cae thong tin cua khoi nhu la gia ca, d~c tinh ky thu~t, s6 hi¢u, vi).t Ii¢u, s6 luqng, c6ng Sutlt, noi si'm Xutlt... hlnh 7-3 13 mQL vi d~l kh6i mang thuQc tinh. 7.2.1. Lenh ATTDEF (Attribute Definition) L¢nh nay dimg d~ djnh nghla mQt thuQc t1nh DI. 3366 rS (Attribute) cho kh6i, xac djnh dong van ban gQi ia 17 the thUflC linh (Attribute Tag). 111e thuQc tlnh nay cluqc Itru trong kh6i nhu mQt doi tuqng ella khoi. The thuQc t1nh duqc chen dmg vai Block vao ban ve. Hinh 7-3 72
  • • each g9i l~nh ATIDEF til Menu: Scfeen Menu> BLOCK / DRAW> Attdef '" G6 l¢nh til ban phtm: Command: attdef Attribute modes - Invisible:N Constant:N Verify:N Preset:N Enter (ICVP) to change, RETURN when done: B~n dap dong nhac do bai cae tuy ch9n: + I : khong hi~n gia tr~ thu¢C tloh fa mall hloh khi chen kh6i. + C : gan tflIOc 1 gia. tr~ c6 d~nh eua thu¢C tioh khi kh6i duqc ch~n. + V (Verify): xac d~nh sl! thay d6i thu9C tioh trong khi chen kh6i. + P (Preset): khOng nhac nha cho vao gia tr~ thu(lc Hoh khi chen kh6i, rna ACAD tt! d(lng lAy gia tf! m~c dioh. Sau khi ChQll mode(l, C, V, P) b"n fin Enter se hi¢n fa dong nhac tiep theo 13: Attribute tag: <cho ten the thuQC tfoh> Attribute prompt: <dua vao dong nhac khi chen kh6i> . Default attribute value: <cho gia tT! m~c dinh ella thu¢c Hoh> ~ a N€u tren b:~n d~t mode Constant~ON thi. dong nh~c cu6i nay thay bang "Attribute, ',value:" . 7.2.2. ~nh ATTDISP 4nh nay cho phep b~n thay d6i tlnh tr~ng th~y (ON) hay :In di (OFF) cua thuQc tfnh fa manhlnh. • each g9i l~nh ATIDISP til Menu: ,r-'-Sc-re-en-M-e-n-u->-D-I-S-P-LA-Y->-A-U-d-is-p-,-' • GO l~nh t~ ban phfm: Command: attdi~p Normal/ON/OFF<•••>: + N: thuQc tfnh hi¢n fa blnh thuimg,tM Ithi trtldti &l b", dung Invisible + ON: dll'a Attribute ra mlln hinh. ''''', . ','. + OFF: lam an Attribute di. ~ ~ -'.' " 7.2.3. ~nh ATTEDIT 4nh nay dung di so~n thAo, Slm chila Attnbute cw.~ .e. • each g9i l¢nh ATI'EDIT tit Menu: ,-----~~-, Screen Menu> EDIT > Attedit '" G6 l¢nh til ban phim: Command: Attedit Edit attributes one at a time<Y>: <Y: Sua timg thuQc tinh, N: SUa chung> eM thich: B~n c6 the sua th~c tinh thOng qua h~p thol;li bAng l~nh DDATIE. 7.2.4. DDATTEF Bl,n thong qua h(lp thol,i bang canh g9i l~nh nay d~ dinh nghia thu(lc tfnh. H(lp thol,i hi~n fa nhll' tr~n hlnh 7-4. 73
  • Atlrlbl,lte Definition Attribute---------------, I~;~:;:;:,:; lag: O'!lerily £ rompt: ~============~ o Ere set Value: Insertion Point-~ iText Options I Pick ~oint < 1 JUstification: I'TALICT o /liqn 1)J~I!Jw previ(luG IIttfi h uit~ OK °l-=C-,-nc-e-: " I He'p ... I IIlnh 7--1: HOf1lhm.li '"AtlrihUlc Defini1ion" + 6 Mode: de' tea chQn Mode (I, C, Y, P) gi6ng nhu dJ noi a tren. + 6 Attribute: de vila ten the (1:1g), vilo dong nhac nhi1 (Prompt), hO~lc vilo gi;i Irj m,)c cljnh eha Ihu6c [nh (Value). + 6 Insertiun point: xac c1jnh di6m chen b;"tng chu(lI h;IY b~ng [9<1 c19- + 6 Text option: chQIl ki<~'1I chu, chiclI caD, crill Ie, goc nghieng chiT. 74
  • CHUONGR 7 _ , ,._ DUA BAN VE RA MAY IN. MAY VE 8.1. cAl D~T MAy IN (PRINTER), MAy VE (PLOTTER) vA CHUQT (MOUSE) cae files trong thl1 fRye DRV cua ACAD chua cae thong tin ve cae thOng so dti d~t thiet hi_D~ dli d~t may ve, may in, vai ACAD12 ta gQi tu Menu Bar> File> Configure; hoi}.c b~n go tir ban phim: Command: con fig ACAD dlIa fa cae lip chQn cua "Configuation Menu" nhl! sau: Configuration Menu O. Exit to Main Menu 1. Show current configuration 2. Allow detailed configuration 3. Configure video display 4. Configure Digitize 5. Configure Plotter 6. Configure system console 7. Configure operating parameters. Enter selection<O>: 5 Tir dAy chQn 5 de di di.it may ve hay may in; con chQn 4 de dti di.it chu~t. Neu ch<;m 5, ACAD se hi¢n ra thong bao cau hlnh hi¢n t~i va d.c thong bao nhlI sau: Plotter configuration Menu O. Exit to configuration Menu (thoat ra) 1. Add a Plotter configuration (them cau hinh I may in, may vel 2. Delete a plotter configuration (x6a ca:u hlnh I may in, may vel 3. Change a plotter configuration (thay d6i c~u hlnh I may in, may vel 4. Rename a plotter configuration (d6i t~n may in, may vel Enter selection, 0 to 4 <0>: 1 Sau khi dua h!a chQn I vao dong tren se hi¢n ra mQt bang danh sach c:ic-Io~i thi(t bi, b~n ehQn lo~i wang thlch voi may in, may ve clla b~n. Vi d~: A va:ilable plotters: I. None 2. AutoCAD file output formats(pre 4.1) ~ by Autodesk, Inc 3. CalComp ColorMaster plotters ADI 4.2 V2.8 - by Autodesk, Inc 9. Hewlett·Packard(HP·Gl/2) ADl4.2· by Autodesk. Inc Select device number or ? to repeat list < I>: 9 . Gia su b<;ln eh<;m 9, ACAD se dua ra cae h!a ehQn phl,l nhu sau: l. LaserJct III 2. PaintJet XL w/HP-GU2 Cartridge 3. DraftMaster SX/PX/MX 75
  • 4. DraftMaster RX/MX/Roll Feed 5. 7600 Monochrome 6. 7600 Color Enter selection, I to 6 <2>: Vi du ban chon I, ACAD se dua ra cac nhflc nha de ban Ira lai v& etat so b;:'m in, loai giay dua 'va~, c6ng noi voi InllY in, kh6 giay in, ty I¢ in vv... · cUeli clmg b<.'~ chQn 560 de ~a kh6i "Configuration Menu". Truoe khi ket thue vi~c cili di,lt, ACAD yell cau b;:.111 tralai "Y" hay "N" de b'.'n khiing djnh Ittll giG' hay khang nhfrng thay et6i ca.i d~lt tren: a Keep Configuration Changes?<Y>: <enter> * Cach dli d~t chuQt cung tuang t~T nhlT tren, b<.tn chQI1 4 trong "Configuration menu". ACAD se thong bao thiet bj hi¢n Ihai nhl( vi dl.1 sau day: Your current digitizer is: Current System Pointing Device Do you want to select a different one?<N>: Y B<;tll Ira lai Y de ch9n lifi voi thiet bj cila b~n. Ole buoc sau do se tiep tl!c wang tl! nhu !ren. 8.2. Lj):NH XUAT BAN VE RA MAY IN, MAY VE * each gQi I¢nh plot tir memu: Menu bar> FILE> Print/Plol... > H<)p Iho<.ti "Pia! Configuralion" Screen menu > PLOT .. * Go I~nh tlT b~n phfm: Command: plot Sal! do xuttt hi~n h¢p IhO::.li "Plot Cunfiguration" nlllT hlnh 8-1 (neu bien CMDDIA d~1 khac 0). Plot Configuration Device and Dehault Information Pllper Size lind Orientation---, fxl050 o Inf.hes -rln=-'~v-:I"~~.~n~d"D:-'-:f.~U-:It"S~,-:'e~""I~on~."".:I Pen Parameters o !fen Assignments ... I I.Qp:iimil';,1Ion .. ·1 Plot Area 2tO.90 by 284.40. Scale. Rotation. and Origin ,A,"III100",1 Parameters ® Displa-X 0 Hide Lines IRotation and Origin... 1 o E~ents PloHed MM. '" Drawing Units o .limits o Adjust Area Fill 284.4 113.916 !8l Scaled!o Fit OYkw Plot Preview O~Vind()w [gJ Plot To fite ~-~ IPreview... I ® Partial 0 Full OK I Cancel I 1 tlelp ... 1 Hlnh 8-1: I Il)p (hu,.1i "Plot Collfigul"lIlion". 76
  • 1- 6 " Device and Default Devlte 8nd Defeult Seledion Information" Select Devite- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , ACAD thong baa ve thie! bj in Manufacturer: System Printer ADI 4.2 - by Aulodesk. Inc hi¢n Ihai , b'.ln an vao nt:it "Device Port: and default seleclion" se hi¢n ra 1050 h9P tho~i phl,l d~ b~n thay deli thong tin ve Ihier bi (hlnh 8-2). + Trong (} "Select Device" : File Dei8ults b~1l chQIl thiet bj in. + " File Defaults": nut "Save Save DelaultB To File". II ~et Defaults fmm File." Device SpeciHc ConHguraHon defaults to file ... " Cat cae gia Ir! xac djnh ve kho giay, 1)1 l~, b~ f9ng Show Oevice Requirements ... !I Chnge Oevke Requirements ... blH ... vao 1l19t file. Ntlt "Get defaults from file ... ", gQi Ctlc gifl trj ch{ra Imng file dJ cat ra de xuat ban Hlnh 8-2: Hl)p lho,:!i "Device ;md Dcf.mlt Selection". ve ra in. + "Device specific Configuration": nul "Show Device Requirement" chi ra eho b~n thOng tin djnh hlnh can them dia thiet bj hi¢n thai. Nut "Change Device Requircment" dt thay deli cac yeti call dinh hlnh them eua Ihiel bj hi¢11 Ihoi. 2- 6 "Pen Parameters": + Niit "Pen Assignments ... ": nut nay x:k c1jnh dc thong 56 vt:! blit, lo<;ti QUang m~lu, net, toe 09, be [(jng net cho Ihiet bj in, ve hi¢n .thoi. HQp tho<;ti plll.l xual hi~n nhu hlnh 8-3. , Pen As.s.lgnments Modify vaIU'''~;~ Color: I :==1 1 P!;,n Width: 10.254 OK I Cancel I De dieu chinh thong so but, chill tien b~1l kich sang 11191 h[mg dn thiet sau do 1hay d6i c;:ic gia trj i:J 0 ben phai "Modify Values". C hit y: Kh61lg ncn 1~1l 1(11 girra lot.li dl1(lIlg nd ella thiCI bi vai IO,!i dlrong net IrCn bim vi::. T61 nhfft kh6ng nen dllllg IO,!-i dHOng net ella lhie'l hj. chi dlmg IO,!-i uuemg lien Iuc CUlt Ihi':l hj eho Ifil cii dc lo,!i dUO'ng Ilel Ircn biln vi!. + Nflt "Optimization ... " (toi lru hoa): ACAD cung cap dc It,ra ch(;m t6i lfU khi ve ra giay M gi{un toi Ihieu dc chu yen dQng cua bUI, giiim Ihai gian ve. Khi an vao nut nay se xuat hi¢1l hqp IhO<.li phl,! nhu hlnh 8-4. 77
  • Optimizing Pen Motion o !N9.:.~~p..!(m1?~~:Q:~l rZI Adds ~ndpoint swap o ,dds p'en sorting o l~dt1s jlmlh~i moll!)!) opllmizal1on o Jdds JuU moli!)n !~plimilal1on o Add~) e!lmin:aHon of ovn!upphlH hmiz.onlai nr vu'lk~l! V~~C1tH€ o !"IJ1d» !dlmin~lij)n of !)Y!~r!nPi*I!J dill~J(!na! ve~:1!)m Hlnh 8-4 trong do: - "No optimization": kh6ng chl;:m toi uu, ve dl,ing thu tl! t~o ban ye. - "Adds endpoint swap": them YI! sl! Irao d6i di~m mut. - "Adds pen sorting": th~m ve sl! sip xep but, (mQt but ve het to~t duang nao do mai ddi). - "Adds limited motion optimization": them ve toi I1U cac chuy~n dQng giai h.;m. - "Adds fun motion optimization": tMm ve chuytn d<)ng ho~m toan, VI d~: khi ve vong tron thl ve hoan to~m xong-mai've chb khac. - "Adds elimination of overlapping horiZontal or vertical vectors": neu co nhieu dO<;ln thAng dUng hay nAm ngang chong nhau thl chi ve mQl. - "Adds elimination of overlapping diagonal vectors": 10<;li bo d.c dUCmg nghieng ch6ng nhau chi ve m<)t. 3- () "Additional Parameters" Trong 6 nay b~n co th~ xac d!nh vung ban ve duqc xuat ra thiet bi in nhu: Display, Extents, Limits, View, Window. Y nghia cac il!a ch9n ve vung ban ve duqc xuat ra nhu sau: + D: in ra yung bi'm vi! hi¢n tren man hlnh (View .port hi¢n thai). + E: giong nhu ZOOM-extents, vung ban ve xuat ra ia toi'm b<) cac hlnh dii ve. + L: vung ban ve XU<ll ra nAm trong gi6i h<;ln LIMITS dii :d.c djnh khi ve. + V: vung ban ve xuat ra Ia mQt canh (View) rna -b~n da: d,nh nghia til tmac bAng l¢nh VIEW. + W: viIng bim ve xuat ra nam trong etra s6 b<;ln xac djnh. + Hide line: neu danh dau vao dAy, cac duang b! che khuat se kh6ng duqc ve. + Adjust Areafill: neu danh dau a dAy, cac yeu to doo duqc t6 mau nhu la Trace, Solid, Polyline co be r(mg net Ianhoo be r<)ng but se duqc ve dung nhu dii ve tr~n ban ve. + Plot tojik: dua ban ve ra thanh m<)t file kel xuat co du6i 1a ~PLT. Sau nay b<.tn dung m¢t chuoog trinh ti~ feh khac d~ dua ra thi~t bi in, ho~ dung h¢ dieu"hanh DOS de in v6l l¢nh COpy lB. . 4- 0 "Paper size and orientation" Trong 6 nay b<.tn Co the ch9n doo Vi do kich co ban ve xuat ra giay la Inches hay Mi1Iimeters (mm) bang cach danh dau vao nut tUoog {mg. De chQn co_giay in ra rna thiet bi clla b<.tn dap U'ng duqc,hay an vao nut "Size", ACAD dua ra hQp th0<.ti hlnh 8-5. Trong h<)p tho~i ph~ nay, b~n kfch sang mQt dong hi~u thj co giay nam ben trai hl)p tho~i va OK d~ chQn. Phia ben phiii til cac dong "User" d~ b<;ln d~t chieu rQng (Width) va chi6u cao (Height) clla co giA'y thea )' b'.ln (ngmJi dung). 78
  • Paper Size Size Width Height Size Width Height MAX 210 90 264.'10 USER 210.00 297,00 USER: (210.00 I (297.00 • USER1 210.00 190.00 USER!: (210.00 I 1190.00 USER.2.:! I I USERJ.: ! I I USER!: 1 II Otientation is londsc!lpe o Hlnh 8-5: Hl)p tho<;ti "Paper Si7..c': 5- 0 "Scale, Rotation, and Origin" + Nut "Rotation and Origin": b::m nhay van nut nay d~ de d~t g6c in va xac djnh goc xoay ban in, ACAD hi¢n ra h()p tho~i phI,! nhu hinh 8-6 dudi day. + Nut "Scale to fit": d~t cho Vilflg ve in ra vua khft vai co giay da chQn. Plot Rotation and Origin [OPlot Rot.tion , ........ o - @;90': ,0:::;.... 0180 OZ70 Plot O r i g i n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , X Origin: 15.00 I Y Origin: 1-5.00 H'mh 8-6: H(lp thol,1i "Plot itotation tujd Origin". 6- 0 "Plot Preview" + Dung nut n~y de xem trudc bim in tren man hinh. Trude tien ban danh dau vao () vu6ng "Partial" hay 6 vu6ng "Full" sau dOllMy vao nut "Plot Preview" 'de xem: - Partial: hi~n eho b~n xem anh hUOng ella vung ban ve xuat ra in so vdj co giay in dff ehQn. Dieu do dUQ"c bi~u thi boi hai khung mati: khung do lmg vdi co giay chQn, khung xanh ling vdi vung ve xuat ra in. - Full: hi¢n ra man hlnh ban ve gi6ng nhu se in ra giay. Cu6i cung b~n an OK de qua trinh in bat dau. i9
  • PHANHAI w "" 'I.E aA CHI.EU CHUONG9 MO. TRlIONG VE 3D 9.1. H¢ TOA vI) NGliOI DUNG VAcAcH NH~P fJlEM 3D 9.1.1. H~ tQa do ngulri dung UCS Bim ve AutoCAD dUQ'c d~t trong h~ trlC tQa d~ chuan co d!nh WCS. Ban ve 2 chien (2D) chi -llh~p t<;>a d<> x, cho nen dung h¢ tI1,lc nay Ia duo NhllI1g vo; ban ve 3 chieu, (3D) thuang phai cho cae diem trong khOng gian b&tg c3. 3 tQa d(J x,y.z. do do ACAD cho phep b~n til t<:t0 Ca cae h~ tru.c rieng ella b~, gQi 13. h~ 1I¥c nguai dung ues de chuyen sang ve 2D (xem chuang I, tit't 1.2). Ole phuong pMp djnh nghI. h¢ tnlc UCS hOi l~nh UCS nhu sau: L~NHUCS '" each gQi ,1¢nh tir menu: ,---------------~, Screen menu> ues Menu bar> Setting> ues '" Go l~nh tu ban phim: Command: ues Origin/ZAxis/3pointiEntityiYiew/XIYIZIPrev/Restore/Savei Del/?I<World>: Ok h,ta chQn co y nghia nhu sau: _ Dar 0: tjoh tien goc (Origin) h¢ trl:1C ues den di~m kh<ic, hlIang cae tn,lc x, y, z kh6ng d6i. _ ZA: chuy~n ues len phia tren thee chieu dlIong trl,lc z: . + Origin point<O,O,O>: <chQn di~m lam g6c mai> + Point on positive portionof Z-axis< ... >: a <chQn I diem phan duang cua trl,lc z> ~ 3: chuytn UCS toi g6c mai, hlIOng x,y moi dl,ta trl!n 3 diem cho: + Origin point<O,O,o>: <chQn diem g6c mai > + Point on positive portionor X-axis< ... >: a <chQn I di~m phan duong clla tn~c x> + Point on positive -Y portion of the UCS XV plane < ... >: <chQn diem b phin Y dlIang trong m~t ph~ng XV> KO
  • _ E: xac d!nh UCS mai bang each chi vao mQt nguy~n tM nao da: co (trtt 3Dpline, mesh hay b Viewport). _ V: thiet l~p UCS mai co m~t ph~ng XY song song vai m~m hlnh cua bl;ln, g6c kh6ng thay dOi. _ X/Y(Z: quay M UCS hi¢n tl;li quanh tflc x, ho~c y, ho~c z. _ P: tay ll;li ues tmac do. ACAD co hru ll;li 10 h¢ UCS sau cung. _ R: gQi ra UCS da: llID. _ S: llID UCS voi ten bl;ln tt! di;it (t~n UCS co th~ dili 31 ky U!). D: xoa d.c UCS dfi llID. = W: dua h~ UCS ve trimg vai h¢ tQa dQ chuan WCS. U):NH UCSICON ~ b;;m de hlnh dung h¢ tryc tQa dQ, ACAD dua ra cac bi~u tuqng (icon) tren man hlnh. Tuy lo~i h~ tflc WCS, UCS hay tuy mOi Viewport rna bieu tuqng co dl;lng khac nhau. B'.ln thay d6i hi¢n, tat, dua icon tai goc tQa d¢ ... bang l~nh UCSICON: * Cach gQi l¢nh ttt menu: Menu bar> Setting-> UCS> icon * Go l¢nh ttr bim phim: Command: UCSlcon ON!OFF!ALLINoorigin! c ORigini<. .. >1: _ Dap ON/OFF: hien th! hay tat icon. _ ALL: cac thay dOi dugc gan vai tat cii cac Viewport. _ N: hi¢n icon b goc duai-trai. _ OR: hi~n icon tl;li goc h¢ tfl;lc. Vi d~: Cho hlnh nem (hlnh 9·11. vo duemg th~ng di qua die diem giiia E, F cua BC, AD r6i ve duang tron nam trong m~t phfing ABeD, co tilm Ul di~m giiia EF, ban Hinh 9-1 k(nh 40mm. Command: UCS Origin!ZAxis!3pointiEntity!ViewIXlY!ZlPreviRestoreiSaveiDeli?!<World>: 3 Origin -point<O,O~O>: <chQn dit'!m A b~g Osnap modes! END> Point on positive portionof X-axis<... >: <chQn D> Point on positive -Y portion of the UCS XY plane < ...>: '<chQn B> Command: line From point: <dung Osnap modes/ MID chi v~o do~n AD> To point: < dung Osnap modes/ MID chi vila do*n Be> To point: .J Command: circ1e 3P!2P{lTR/<Center point>: <dung Osnap modes/MlD va chi vila EF> Diameter/<Radius>: 40 .J eM thich: huang tryc z trong hi) ues duqc xac djnh theo quy h1c ban tay phai; tuc Iii. &.it ngon cii theo chit"u ducmg x, ngon tro thea chi6u ducmg y va g~p ngon giG'a vuClng g6c vai long ban tay thl n6 chi chi~u· uuong tryc z. 81
  • 9.1.2; Cac each nh.i> dii!m 3D • Ta co cac phuC1ng phap nhtJ.p diim 3D nhu sau - Cho t9a d~ tuy~t d6i: x,y,z - Cho tQa d(> tucmg d6i: @x,y,z so vai diem truoc do xl,yl,zl. - Cho' tQa d(> tn,l WOllg d6i: @p<<p, z trong do: p Ii khoang each til diem vi! tai diem truoe do, cp lit gee tir trl,lc.x tai di~m ve (trong XV), con z 13. tQa d(> thee tfl,lC z. - Cho tQa d(> cAu wong d6i: @p«p<cr trong do p 13 khoang each tir diem vi! loi diem trube do, <p HI goc lit diem ve so voi tflc x (trong XV), a Ii goc tit m~t phing (XY) toi diem vo (xem hinh 9·3). - Dung phim pick chu¢t. - Dung bl) lQc tQa d(> di~m. Du6i day tdnh bay CI,l the phuong phap nay. * Lt;Jc tqa 49 diim(Point Filter) Trong qua tdnh ve, khi nh~p cae tQa d¢ diem b<,m co the dl,l'a vao tQa d(> x, ho~c y, ho~c z cua cae diem thu¢c d6i tm;mg da co bfing each dung bl) lQc tQa d¢ diem. B(> IQc nay d~c biet ti~n d~ng khi dung k€t hqp vai OSNAP MODES. Khi dang b trong mQt l~nh, ACAD yeu du nMp di~m, bI).n c6 the dap nhu sau: + Dap ''.X'' ho~c ",Y", ''.Z'': h1"y cimg tQa d¢ x ho~c y, Z ooa diem da co nao? + Dap ",XY" ho~c ".YZ", ".ZX": lay cung tQa d¢ x,y ho~c y,z ho~c Z,X v6i diem da: co nao? Ta xet each dung b¢ lQc diem qua cae vi dl,l sau day: Vi d~ 1: eho kh6i h¢p, ve tfl,1 co tAm day du6i (x=x M2 , Y=YMI' :z=60), chi6u cao 13. 20, ban kinh Hl 40. Command: ucs Origln/ZAxisl3pointiEntilyNiew/X/y/Z/PrevlReslore/SavelDel/?1<World>: 0 Origin point<. ..>: .X Of <bAt diem gifr. M2> (need yz): .Y Of <bAt diem giila MI> (need z): 60 Command: circle 3P/2PfTIR!<Center point>: 0,0,0 Diameter/<Radius>: 40 Command: change Select objects: 1 (last-ch<;m dubng tron vua ve xong) Properties/<Change point>: P Change what property(ColorJE1ev/ LAyer/LType/LtScalefThickne,,): T New thickness< ... >: 20 Change what property(ColorJElev/ LAyer /LType/LtScalefThickness):.J ... Vi d~ 2: Vi! dubng gap khue A'EFB' Hlnh 9-2 mai nha va ve eira MNPQ nhu sau. 1. VO mai A·EFB' Command: Line LINE from point: <dung Osnap mode/END de bat mut A'> To point: .XY Of <Osnap mode/MID biit diem gilia ella A'D'> 82
  • (need z): 160 To point: .XY Of <Osnap mode/MID bat di~m giua cua B'C'> (need z): .z >. Of <Osnap mode/END bat diem E> To point: <Osnap mode/END bi! diem B'> To point: .J . Command: .J LINE from point: <Osnap mode/END bat D'> To point: <Osnap modefEND bat E> "To point: .J Command: .J LINE from point: <Osnap modejEND bat F> To point: <Osnap modelEND bat C> To point: .J 2. Vi! eira MNPQ Command: line From point: .YZ of <bat dinh A> (need x): 20 To point: @0,0,90 (diem N) To point: .yz of <bat N> (need xl: 60 (diem P) Th point: .. xy of <b~t P> (need z): 0 Th point: ;,J Hinh 1).3 9.1.3. Si'1 d1ng I~nh 'CAL {calculator) xoic dinh di~m Sir d~ng l?nh 'CAL e6 th~'xae dirih eae diem bang cae bieu thUe vt<; to va cae s6, de t(nh toan cae ham s6 thOng thuemg, cae phep tlnh v~c tao o Ctic phip tinh va cae htlm thllltng g~p trong CAL +,- c¢ng, trlr cae 56 va vecta 0,/ nha.n, chia cae 56 va vecta () nh6m bi~u thuc lGy thua ella 1 56 abs(x) gia tr, tuy~t d6i cua s6 thl!c abs(vector) do dai vecta ang(PI,P2) g6c giua duang thing PIP2 va t~c x ang(vector) g6c giua 1vecta va tn.lC x. dist(PI,P2) khoimg each giaa 2 die:m Plva P2 dpl(A,PI,P2) khoang each giua die:m A V.l duang thing PlP2 dpp(A,PI,P2,P3) khoang·cach giua di~m A va m~t phing piP2P3 ill(PI,P2,P3,P4) giao di€m 2 duang th~ng PIP2 va P3P4 ilp(A,B,PI,P2,P3) giao diem coa duang thing AB voi m~t phing PIP2P3. 83
  • mee hay (end+cnd)/2 11m c1i~m giLra ella do~n (hang dUQ'c xac djnh bai 2 eti~m mut. rad • tim ban kfnh cung tron pld(PI,P2,dist) tIm dj~m trcn dlf(lng thfing PI P2 vii each PI do~n Ihtmg dist cho tmoc. r2d(x) d6i radian x sang dO d2r(x) d6i goc x di? sling radian rol(A,P I ,a.) quay di6m A quanh tam PI di ·1 goc u. rol(A,PI,P2,a.) quay diem A quanh tn.lc PI P2 eli I goc a u2w(P I) dOi IQa di? di~m PI tlt h¢ UCS hi¢n Ihai sang h~ WCS w2u(PI) d6i IQa di? diem PI tit h~ WCS hi¢n thai sang h~ UCS Tn!n day 13 mi?t s6 h~l.111 thOng thuang nhat(xem trong AutoLlSP). * Cach g9i /¢Ilh CAL Command: cal »Expression: <nh~r vao bi~u thuc > Vi d~l 1,' Trnll vccto Command: cal »Expression: ISO, I00,-60]+11 00,200, 160] (ISO,300, I 00) Vi d~1 2: Cho ttr di¢n APIP2P3, {rang eto A(70,40, I 00), PI (0,0,0), P2(S6, I 00,0), P3(160, IS,O) (hinh 9-4). a. Ve dUOng thtmg AB vuOng goc K vai m~t phlmg PI P2P3. b. Ve duong thrmg ILt giao diem H clla dLtang. thAng AS vai m~t phang PIP2P3. c. Tim khoang each tlt chan duang vuOng goc (K) ke tit H toi AP3 voi m~t ph5ng API P2. - Vo duong AB Command: line From point: <bAI dinh A> To point: @0,0,-170 (di6m B) To point: .J - Vi; duong HK Command: line ' Hinh 9·4 From point: 'cal »Expression: ilp(cnd,end,end,end,end) (tim giao diem 1-1) »Select entity ror END snap: <btl! A, B,PI,P2,P3> (70,40,0) <cho ket qua t911 dt) giao di~m H> To point: per (ve dUOng vuOng g6c HK) To <chi vao dUOng AP3> To point: .J - Tim khoang each tit K tOi mi.t phang APIP2 Command: cal »Expression: dpp(INT,END,END,END) X4
  • INTor <chi van K> END of <bal A, PI ,P2> 65.9145 (ke! qua nay la kholmg each tit K to', m(lt phftng API P2) Chu thich' [)ung l~nh 'CAL Iro giup khi nh(p 11;1<1 dt) ella diQm ella llwi lflnh ve. 9.2. DI!l:U KHI!l:N HlEN HINH ANH 3D 9,2.1. Di€m nhin (Vpoin!) Trong kh6ng gian v~t th~, bi).n cOlhe thay deli diem nhln (Viewpoint) de quail sal v~t the avi trf thfch hQ'p bc;lO mu6n. T~i do b<;tll co the thl.rc hi¢n de thay deii mai eho d6i tll'Q'ng ve. L$NH VPOINT (ChQn di6tn nhln) * Ckh g<;>i I¢nh III menu: Menu bar >View > Setview > Viewpoint> Set Vro int Screen menu> Display> Vpoin! * Go I¢nh Itr ball phfm: Command: Vpoint Rotate/<View point.> < ... >: + Dar m~c djnh: eho diem nhil1 mai, diem dich m~c djnh Ii (0,0,0). V~y mu6n co hinh chieu bling chQn di~m nhlo (0,0,1); mu6n co hinh chien d(mg ch<;m diem nhlo (0,-1,0); chc;m di€m (-1,0,0) cho h'inh chi€u cq,nh, va di€m (1,-1, I) eha hlnh chieu tn:le do vuong goc cI€u (hlnh 9-5). , p y"""JX mnh 9·5 H'inh 9·6 + R: cho di€m nhln mai b~ng cae g6c xoay: Enter angle in XYplane from X axis <..'>: <eho gOc xoay tir tfl:le X trong m~t phtmg XV> Enter angle from XY plane< ... >: <cho goc xoay tir m ~t phling XY len hay xu6ng> Hinh 9-6 a !fen chi ra dch xac d,nh cae goc nay. C hii. thich: + N!!u l~j dong nh,ic dau tien fin Enter sc hil;11 ra m(H la han (Compass) h1nh 9-7 b'.lll chi vi~c di CO!llro qtLanh vong Iron sc chon UIlQC ui~m nhl.n Ilong ling lleo y h~pl. 85
  • rr~=:~ 1 45' z 30' 10' 1BDO 0' " .... - 0 x Hlnh 9-7 Ilinh 9-X + CO th~ eha hi~n fa la bim (hlnh 9-7), hO~IC eho di~m nhln hrmg de g6c qua hic:u do (hlnh 9-8) llt menu· Menu bM> View> Setvicw > Viewpoint> Axes I Presels ... LENH DVIEW L¢nh DV1EW (Dynamic View) eila ta quan sat duqc hlnh anh 3D d(Jng. day dCmg a kh<ii ni~m Camera (m,lY ilnh) va Target (dfch nhln t6i) d~ quan S<II quanh v~t lhe. * each gqi I?nh tir menu: ,-----------------, Menu bar> View> Set view> Dview Screen menu> Display> Dview * Go l¢nh Ill' ban phim: Command: dview Select object: <chQI1 cae d6i luqng> CAmeraiTArgetlDistanceiPOintiPAiZoomiTWistiCLipiHidei OtTiUndoi<eXil>: Dap cae h!a ch(;m: ~ CA: eho cae goc quay camera. _ TA: quay dfch (c16i tuqng ve) quanh camera. _ D: di chuyen camera dQc tia nhln, cling 1a mode ph6i canh. _ PO: eho dj~m dich target va dicim camera. PA: xe d!eh imh tren m~m hlnh. _ Z: eh(re nang Hay co 2 ch€ d<): n£u i:J trong mode ph6i canh thl gi6ng nhl1 tang giam ti~u ei! ella may nnh; th{r 2 IS. tit ehc c19 ph6i canh, thl Zoom gi6ng nhtr thOng thuong. _ TW: xotl11 ho~c xoay camera eli I g6e. _ CL: dlfl1g m<)t m~t cal vuOng g6e vui tia nhln, do d6 phiin v~1 tlui phfa sal! ho;::te phfa tnr6'c m~t cat do b! ehe khuat tlly theo b<.'n It.ra ch<;m Baek/Front. CGng co th6 Ilion IliOn b! chc khuat neu b~n ch<,>n OFF Hinh 9-9 lil dui tlrqng 3D sau khi dung ¢nh Dview/ CL/Fron!. _ H: giau cae net khuA't tn~n cl6i Itrqng chQIl. _ 0: tfit mode phei dlllh. _ U: hlly be, I~nh vira lh~re hi~n.
  • _ X: k~t thuc I~nh Dview va gilt I'.i k~t qua cua I¢nh nay. Chu y rang tlll.tc hi¢n Dview rna b~n kh6ng chip "X" thl k~t qua cu6i cling kh6ng duqc gifr l<.1i. LENH PLAN L~nh nay thiet I~p hlnh chieu bang etta d6i tuqng ve (diem nhin 0,0, I) theo m¢t h~ tr~c b'.l1 chQIl. * Cach goi lenh tir menu: Menu bar> View> Setview > Plan view... Screen menu> Display> Plan ... * Go l¢nh tir bim phim: Hinh 9·9 Command: plan <Curen! UCS>/Ucs/World: + O;:ip m~c dinh: 'hiet I~p hlnh chieu bang thee h~ UCS hi¢n hanh. + U: ,hie' l~r hlnh chieu btlllg thee UCS da: duqc lUll tnrac do, ACAD se hoi ttn UCS. + W: thiell~p hinh chieu bang thee h¢ tr~c chufin. 9.2.2. Che duang khuat, to bong v~t the LENH HIDE L¢nh nay se be di dc net khuat tren d6i tlTqng 3D (hlnh 9-10). Chu y: TruOe khi gQi !¢nh HIDE. b,.tn dn hi¢n solid dl.tng !u6i: MQDEL> Display> Mesh. * Okh g9i J¢nh tu menu: RENDRE> Hide * Go I¢nh ttf ban phfm: Command: hide Tn.r& I- -!IDE Sau IIIDE I-I'inh 9·10 LENH SHADE L¢nh SHADE de: phtl len d6i ,uqng 3D bong ella mau g6c va che giau cac net khual. No kht'mg chiu anh IHrOng eua anh sang. B{m ve SHADE ch'; dung de xem, kh6ng xu{!, ra dtrqc. X7
  • L~NH RENDER L¢nh RENDER dtmg de 10 bong d6i tuqng 3D thea cli~m chien sung, cuang d(:t s:ing va lo<.ti <'inh sang (hlllh 9-11 ). Hlnh 9·11 D~ d~t c<lu hlnh render, co cae J¢nh sau day: L¢nh LIGHT: dung d~ them vao nguon sang m6i, 10<)1 ngu6n sling, cuang di:) silng va hi~u chinh ho~c x6" eli ngu6n S{lllg cHi co. L¢nh FINISH: de t<.to fa d.e lrau chuot eho k€t qLl~ 16 bong v; hi¢u chinh mall 0 eho lUng doi LUqng. h¢ s6 ch6i s.ing. cit? khuech Ian, cit) siing eLla anh sang b<lO qunllh, d(:t rc,mg eho dom eh6i sang. 9.2.3. Kh6ng gian v*t the (Mspacc), kh6ng gian gia.r ve (Pspacc) va viewports 1. Khong gian "(it thl va khOlJg giml giay ve- ACAD eho b<.tn khil nang nun vi¢c (rong hai kh6ng gian: kh6ng gian V(lt the (Mspace= Model space) V~ khong gian giay ve hay khang gian phrmg (Pspacc= Paper space). Trong kh6ng gian v~t tht b<;ln co th~ vc cac d6i Ilwng 2D hay 3D. Con trong kh6ng ginn giay ve d~ b<,ln ghi ehu, s~p x€p va in cae hlnh chieu khae nhau clla doi tuqng. Khi chuyen cl6i gii1a Mspacc va Pspacc, ACAD se nhttc b<.111 d~t bien h¢ thong TILE- MODE i. OFF(O) va goi ienh MSPACE hal' PSPACE. y W x x Msp<1cC icon I'space il:on Hlnh 9-12
  • LENH MSPACE&PSPACE * each gQi l¢nh MSPACE, PSPACE IiI menu: Menu bar> View> Model space .../paper space ... Screen menu> Display> Mview > Mspacc ...!pspace... ' * Go J¢nh tll: bim phfm: Command: mspacc (ho~c pspace) Ghi ch(i: + Bl,In c6 th~ chuytn dbi giua kh6ng gian v~t the va khOn-g gian gifly vi: bang dieh th"y dOi gia tr! cua hien TILEMODE 0/1 + ,-nnh 9~ 12 Iii de bieu lltt;1ng (icon) ell<l kh6ng gian v~t Ihtf va khOng gian giay ve. 2. Viewports Viewport 14 ITIQI khung nh'in anh 20 hay 3~. No co d<;lng hlnh ehu nh~t tren m¢t phdn hay toan b¢ m~m hlnh. ACAD eho phep b~n rna cae viewport s cung m¢t hie. M6i viewport co the chQn diem nh'ill vpoin! khac nhau de c6 hl11h chieu dung, hinh chieu btmg, hlnh chieu q.nh, hlnh nOi, vv... eua v~t Ih~ 3~. LENH VPORTS L¢nh nay chi thL.rc hi¢n khi bien TILEMODE Ht ON(I); no t;w ra cae khung nhlll eo dinh ke nhall. Command: vports Save/RestorelBelete/Singlel ?/2/<3>/4: ;AD - {DraWing dwgJ I!!I~ EI uioCAO ... pOlis: ayoul: -rQ} Save Retlme Oelete m. "; ingle IS] 1 ~2_.J~ • I:) Horizont el'tical bove Below left ~ Right fh • .J _,_~d ."._yports _ Sa~e/Restare/Delete/Join/SIngle/?/2/<3>/4 3 ':'-60~317127984a9.bjjOCib' .. ,.- ,<=-"" - -I:,~!,.. ftRIOiOFITI--!' J F'1,~;;jAP[Mb'6EL iTill ff ~Stalll!f ~oItWQld. C9.Do'f1lS'!Aut!lCAO -(Drawing... > Hlnh 9-13: Dung I~~h Vports 1'.10 3 vicwports k~ nhau. 81
  • Dar de Iva ch<;m: + $: cat m!)t dinh d<;lng viewport v6i ten bi.1ll d(lt d~ si'r d~lllg v6 sau. + R: dlra ra Ill!)t viewport cia luu. + D: xoa di viewport dang 1m, + S: t<.t0 mQt viewport don. + ?: hi~n danh sach cac viewport dang hm~t d(>ng va V trf eLla chung. ·! + 2,3,4: t~o ra 2 ,3 hay 4 viewports k~ nhau lien tiep. Chli y: Khi c6 nhieu vit:.w(XJns Iren man hlnh, b'.lIl chi c6th':: lam vi¢c lrcn lUng viewpon mit Ih6i Innh 9-13 lit man hlnh duqc 140 vai ~ viewporls ke nhau btlllg l¢nh VPORT, Ll;.NH MVIEW L¢nh nay eOng dung de t<.lo cae khung nhln d(>og(Floating viewports), de: b~t/t~t cae viewports, Ih~re hi~n vi¢e giau cae duemg khl!at tren viewport khi in tren kh6ng ginn gl<ly ve. 't,' - Cae viewports t<,to ra bang l¢nh nay eo d~e diem: ACAD eoi dc viewports n~ly nhu la cac nguyen the: ve ella n6, do d6 b"m co the: I,-~o vii hi¢u ehinh cae vicwp0rls V! trf tLIY y,a cac vicwports co th~ eham Jen nhau. Ngtrai la IJurong dtlng J¢nh MVJEW t<,IO ciie khllng nhln d(>ng de: t~o hlnh chieu dung, hlnh ehicu bang, hlnh chieu c1.ll1h va hinh chieu 3D ella v~t the:; Sal! do dung J~nh ZOOM v6'i Iy J¢ bt.ng nhau d~ co Ueh thu6'c wO'ng (rng gifra ba hinh chieu; tiep t~e dLl1lg I¢nh MVSETUP vai I~ra chqn Align chi hi~u chrnh vi trf cac hinh chieu dllllg duang gi6ng vai nhau. CluJng dl(q'e in ra nhu HI Tl1(>1 nhom Irong kh6ng gian gia"y ve (Pspace), -C9.DDe I '" 15:48 IIlnh 9·14: Dung J¢nh MVmW 1,.10 de Vicwports Illy 9. 9U
  • ~nh MVIEW chi th~c hi?n khi dill biEn TlLEMOD I. OPP(O). * each gQi l¢nh MVIEW tir menu: 0----------, Menu bar> Mview... Screen menu> Mview ,.. Go l¢nh tu b~m phfm: Command: mview ON/OFF/Ridepiot!Fitl2/3/4IRestore/<First point>: Dap cae l",a ch<;m: + ON/OFF: b~t/t:il viewport . + H: khi in se bi> cae duang khu5t tren cae viewport.s bl:.lll chQn. + F: tl:.lO mQt viewport vi'ra khir man hloh. + 2/3/4: tl:.lo 2, 3 hay 4 viewports tren man hloh. + R: dua m¢t viewport da hru fa man h'inh. + Dap m~c d,nh: cho diem goc thu nhAt ella viewport, sau do cho diem thu 2 Iii dinh d6i di~nella viewport. Hinh 9-14 1a 3 viewport.s tuy '9 duqc tl:.lO fa bi1i l¢nh MVIEW. 9.3. Mt). T PRANG co s6 (CP) TRONG VE 3D M~t ph~ng co SfJ (Base plane) hay m~t ph.ing kien tl:.lo (Construction Plane) HI. cae m~t ph~ng dung lam co sa xac d!nh cae diem ella ~t tM' (day tf1;l, day n6n, ml)t m~t ben ella kh6i hl}p. m¢t ll1~t ph~ng nghieng ella v~t the vv... ). M~t philng co sa (CP) thuemg dung de X3.c d~nh ml}.t tQa d<,? XY ella hi} tQa ~ nguCri dung UCS khi nh~p cac diem trong 3D. M6i khi thl!C hi¢n m~t l~nh ve 3D rna can nh~p vao 1- diem, se xu""t hi¢n dong nhac nhu . vi dl,l sau: Command: solcone (ve kh6i hlnh non) Baseplane/Ellipical/<Center poin><O,O,O>: B <de Iflp m~t phllng co sa day non> Baseplane by Entity/ Last! Zaxis/ View/ XY/YZ/ZX/<3 points>: Dap cac ll!a ch(;m tren: + E: thiet l~p m~t ph.ing co sa trimg vui m~t philng cung tron, phan do~ polyline da ro. + L: tn1 l~i m~t phllng ·co sil ngay tHroc do. - + Z: dinh m~t phllng co sa m6'i song song v6i m~t cu, nhung nling len de.') cao z. + V: d~t m~t ph~ng co sa vuOng g6c v6'i tia nhln, din nh*p diem g6c. + XY: d~t m~t philng co sa /I v(ri m~t phang XY cuah~ UCS. + YZ: d~l m~t phiing ca sa //vo; m~t ph~ng YZ ciiah~ ues. + ZX: d~l m~l phling ca sa // vo; m~l plr.lng ZX cila h~ Ues. + Dap m~c dinh: xac dinh m~t phAng co-~a b~ng 3 d:i~m: 1 st point on plane: cho diem thu nn!{t 13. g6c . 2nd point on plane: cho dio!m thli 2 lUic clinh.hllOng dU(I!lS tf1!c x. 3rd point on pliJne: cho diemthu 3 d.c dinh hu6ng duang t~c y. Chu y: B<:ln nen dung O~nap Mode." de cho CDC diem cho nhanh vA chinh xac. 91
  • CHUONG 10 cAc . LENH VE DUONG vA MAT 3D . Tie-t nay gi6i thi¢u each vi! trong 3D ella cae polyline, m~t khung (wirefram), m~t (surfaces), m~t ke ... LI;;NH3DPOLY Vnh nay vi! polyline 3D g6m ca.c phan do'.lo thAng. * each g<;>i l¢nh tit menu: r--M-en-u-b-a-r->-D-r-a-w->-P-o-Iy-I-ine > 3D ] Screen menu> Surfaces> 3D poly * Go l~nh til ban phfm: Command: 3dpoly From point: Vi¢:c thl!c hi¢:n tiep thea lUang ti! nh112Dpolyline. Vi d~: (hinh 10·1) Command: 3dpoly From point: 7, 51, 0 <cho PI, dan vi Iamm> Oose/Undo/<Endpoint of line>: 67.131,50 <1'2> Oose/Undo/<Endpoint of line>: 97,151,20 ~ <1'3> Oose/Undo/<Endpoint of line>: 150,44,0 <1'4> Oose/Undo/<Endpoint of line>: 87,-9,-50 <1'5> Oose/Undo/<Endpoint of line>: Po C .J mnh 10-1 Ghi eM: - Da tuycn 3D cung co the hi¢u chinh gi6ng nhU da tuye'n 20 boi l¢nh PEDIT - ACAD.rl3/rJ4 cothern l¢nh SPLINE d6 ve <luemg cong xOlln 3D. LENH3DFACE r.¢nh nay t~o ra m¢t m~t bao g6m cac mtf.t pluing ke' nhau 3 chitu, m6i dinh c6 t<;>a d¢ x,Y,z kM.c nhall. VI d~: (hinh 10-2) Command: 3dface First point: 80,180,0 <di~m-Pl, dan v~ 180 mm> Second point: 200,250,40 <P2> Third paint: 250,100,80 <P3> Fourth point: I .J (Invisible-ve qnh ti€p thea khOng tha'y) 130,-20,-50 <P4> 92
  • Third point: 80,180,0 < P5=PI> P2r--____ _ _~P3-P6 ?ourth point: I .J 250,100,80 < P6 = P3> Third point: .J Chli thich: 'Bi~n SPLFRAME di).t Iii I, cae c:.mh eua 3DFACE deu hien thj ra di b:.m co thi SO!;III thao nhlt m~t 3DFACE e6 cae e~nh deu thay. L1~.NH 3DMESH L¢nh nay t'.lO fa mt!t lum kh6ng gian g6m M hang va N ct')t. Chn y r~ng cae dinh co the cho tQa dt') z tuy y. • Vi du: (hlnh 10-3) Command: 3dmesh Mesh M size: 4 Mesh N size: 3 moh 10-2 P4 Vertex(O,O): 80,70,80 <dan vi mm> 3,2) Vertex(O, I): 80,110,85 (2.2 3,1 ) Vertex(0,2): 80, 160,80 Vertex(l,O): 120, 70, 85 (3,0) Vertex (I , I): 120, 110,80 Vertex(I,2): 120, 160,70 Vertex(2,0): 180, 70, 80 Vertex(2,1): 180,lfo,.85 Vertex(2,2): 180, 160,90 (0,0) Vertex(3,0): 240, 70, 90 Vertex(3,1): 240, llO, 85 Vertex(3,2): 240, 160,75 Vertex(3,3): .J L1;NH PFACE Hloh 10-3 L¢nh PFACE dung de t~o cac m{lng lum cua cac da gwc 3 chieu (3D polygon mesh). B~n phai xac d!nh m6i dinh va m6i m~t cua cac da giac. Vi d~: (hlnh 10-4) P4 Command: pface Vertex I: 90,70,0 <dinh I> PO Vertex2: 70,140,50 Vertex3: 170,50,100 Vertex4: 220,170,70 Vertex5: J Facel, Vertex1: 1 Face I, Vertex2: 2 Face I, Vertex3: 3 Facel, Vertex4: 4 Facel, Vertex5: .J Face2, Vertex 1: 1 Face2, Vertex2: 3 Face2, Vertex3: .J Face3, Vertex 1: 2 H'ioh 10.4 93
  • Face3. Vertex2: 4 Face3. Vertex3: 1 Face3. Vertex4: .J Ghi chu: Cac m~t IWi da giac 3D mesh, pface co thi hi¢u chlnh boi I¢nh PEOn: L~NH TAB SURF Tabsurf (Tabulated Surface) la l¢nh t'.l-o mij.t tr~ vai mN dU'Ong chuAn va m¢t dU'Ong th&ng vec to dinh hU'ang dU'Ong sinh t~. Command: tabsurf Select path curve: <B<.lfl chQn dU'Cmg chuftn C> Select direction vector: <aWn dU'Cmg thfing lam vec to hU'Cmg dU'Ong sinh s> CM y: + Vec to d,nh hUOng e6 g6c ia mut ella do~n thang g.1n diem b~n eh9n. + DuOng thang vec to d,nh huang cho trong 3D. + Bl,ln c6 thi d6i m~t d¢ cac duang sinh bang bien SURFTABl, SURFTAB2. Hinh 10-5 la VI du ve cac mat trl! voi cae dU'Cmg chua~ c va hU'an·g dU'Cmg sinh s boi l¢nh TABSURF trong 3D. L~NH RULESURF L~nh RULESURF (Ruled Surface) de tao miit kJ bdng each cho dU'mtg thfing ·(dU'mtg sinh) di Hinh 10-5 chuyen trtn 2 dU'Ong khac trong khOng gian (gQi la dU'Ong chuan). Hai dU'Ong chuan co the la dU'Cmg cong. dU'Cmg thing, co the ph~ng hay ghenh. Command: rulesurf Select first defining curve: <chQn dU'mtg chua.n c 1>. Select second defining curve: <chQn dU'Cmg chmln c2> ChUy: + Ca 2 duO'ng chuan phai ctmg la dong kIn, hortc cung ho. M¢t trong 2 dUOng chuan c6 the 13 1 di~m. + Thay d6i m~t d¢ c~k dUang sinh bang cae bi€n nhu trong l¢nh TABSURF. Hinh 10-61a VI du ve cac mat ke bilng l~nh RULESURF. . L~NH REVSURF (Surface of Revolution) L¢nh nay de t~o m{lt tron xoay dung mQt dll'Cmg lam dll'Ong sinh va m¢t dU'Cmg tha.ng lam trl!c xoay. Command: revsurf Select path curve: <chQn m¢t dttOng lam dU'Cmg sinh> Hinh 10-6 94
  • Select axis of revolution: <ch<;m tfl;1c xoay> Sta.;t angle<O>: <cho gOc ban dlu lam g6c xoay> Included angle(+=CCW, -_CW)<Full circle>: <cho g6c,xoay> mnh 10-71a VI dl,l t<,Lo cac m~t tron xoay boi I¢nh REV SURF. Hlnh 10-7' Li;,NH EDGESURF (Edge defined surface) ~nh nay <;10 m~t m~t luoi d,fa tren C(1 so 4 q.nh ta 4 duemg ghep kin voi nhau. Command: edgesurf SelQCt"edge 1: <chQn c~nh 1> SeIec1 edge2:~ch<,ln qnh 2> SeleCt edge3:' <chgn c'lIlh 3> ., Select edge4: <cht;>n qmh 4> Xem vi d1,l trtn hinh 10-8, eM thich: BI,IIl c6 thi! thay d6i mfl,t d¢ lrai cua m~t b~ng cac bi~n SURFfABl, SURFfAB2. L~NHEI,EV 4nh ELEVchopMp b'lIl nlog,', ' " i d~ cao z (Elev) ban 114Q 16nril!)t gill tri v~ lam nhO len ffilt hi! d~y , , ", ,,' , ffmh 10-8 (Thickness) cho dc nguyen the b~n v! se sau do, M~ pbang XY co cao d~ lit 0, d6i nrgng co be day 0 tuc lit khOng nhO len (ph/lOg), d6i nrgng nhO'len ttil: Iii co hi! day duong va ngugc 1<,Li. ' Command: etev New current elevation< ...>: <b;:m cho cao d~ ban d1.u m(tt gia tr! mob New curent thickness<. .. >: <cho be day mcri nhO l~n> HinhlO-91a VI dl;l cho d¢ cao ban diu va nAng bt day Itn t~o thanh cac m~t 3D tlr cac nguy~n the 2D. Vi dl,l 1: Ve binh dvng sua nhuhlnh 10-10. HUCmg dan dtroi day siIdl,lng l~nh REVSURF, ELEV vit TIlICKNESS, 95
  • 1- GQi ban ve khOi thuy ra (vi d~ b~n da: covm ten "A4.dwg"), t~o cac lap 2D, 3D, va cho di~m nhin vpoint (1,·1,1). 2· Xlic dinh 1 m~t. phAng kinh tuyen cua binh sila - Command: line. From point: 0,0 (diem A) To point: @0,100 (diem B, hlnh 1O·l) - Nang Thickneess dllbng AB len 150: Command: change Select objects: <chi vito AB> Properties/<Change point>: P mnb 10-10 Change what property (Color....• Thicknees)? T New thicknees< ... >: 150 3· Chuyin UCS tell vi tri m~t phang (XY) trung vell m~t phang kinh tuyen do (hlnh 1O·l) 4· Ve dllimg kinh tuyen (Path Curve) vii tay dim - Hi~n ml.it phclng (XY) song song voi man hlnh de ve dllCmg kinh tuyen (Path curve) va tnJ.c xoay (t). a day dung l~nh PLAN/current ucs. - Dlla lOp 2D ra hi¢n thai. d~t bien FILLMODE=O (kh6ng to den be r(lng pline). dung l~nh PLiNE voi be r(lng width=3 de ve path curve (hlnh 10-12). . Vi! tay dm b~g I~nh PUNE vai width=6 (btl day tay clim). Sau do dung l~nh CHANGE/ thickness=12 (btl r(lng tay d.m). Hinh 10-11 96
  • 5- Dung I~nh REVSURF t~o blnh trim xoay - Xac djnh s6 dui'mg khung luai: SURFfAB1=32, SURFfAB2=12. t - Command: revsurf Select path curve: <chi vao Path curve> Start angle<. .. >: 0 Include angle<Full circle>: .J - Lam dong(Freeze) liip 2D; chon Vpoint(l,-I,l) va ROTATE3DI goc 60 0 b~n se co blnh sua nhu hlnhlO-lO atr~n. VI d~ 2: VO nha kh6ng mID nhu hlnh 10-13 duai day. Hu6ng dAn sir d~ng l~nh ve trong 2D, sau do dung I¢nh nang dQ cao z de thilnh d6i tuqng 3D. 1- Mil biin ve khiri thuy da cO, t~o ole liip 2D, 3D A'---------' B 2- Ve m~t Mng ngbi nh. Hlnh 10-12 '. HlohlO-J3 - Dull lap 2D r. hi¢D thlli, ~tbitn ~Dl!=6 (kit6ng to den be rQng pline), dung l¢nb!'LINE vm be rQng width=4dl eve tui'mg, cQt;eOn cktaiiilAt ttU6r; eira chon be rQng . width=20 ve dQc chi~u ~ng em. (hlnb 10-4), . '" 3- NAng d(> eao z ehuy~n bin ve 2D .!banb ban ve 3D - Nang d(l cao tulmg va c(lt len 100: Command: elev New current elevation< ...>: 0 New current thickness< ...>: .... 100 - Na.ng d~ cao cae til'm lat dla len 4: Command: elev 97
  • IT&=======dn~========~ Ng"e' K. ... o.' NG_V Hl(N 1i!f'I.I Hlnh 10-14 New current elevation<... >: 0 New current thickness< ... >: 4 - L~h VPOINT/(l, I, I) va I~oh IflDE che net khu~t ta c6 hlnh vi! 3D cua og6i oM (hlnh 10-13). 98
  • CHUaNG 11 CHUONG TRiNH AME VE SOLID vA. REGION ILl. GI()I TH~U AME AME (AutoCAD Advanced Modeling Extention) Ht. m()t chUang trloh dung de t~o mAll v~t dn (solid) 3D, hay ph&ng (region) 2D trong mOi tntilng AutoCAD. V 6i solid sir dl,mg cae kh6i co sa ia hinh h()p, n6n, tr1,l. ca.u, xuyen, hloh oem, hloh trcm xoay. V6i region cae kh6i co sala cae nguyen the khep kin cuaACAD nhu Ia circle, ellipse, 2d polyline, polygon. cae kh6i co sa solid c6 the duqc hqp hay dUQ'c tm vo; nhall, ciing co the tim phltn giao eua chung bbi ham boole de t~o thArth cae solid m6i hay mall v~t the da hqp. D6i. ven d.c region cling c6 the UlITl ttrong U!. KhOi d/ing AME ,. Oich gqi l¢nh tir menu: ,--------------------, Screen menu> Model> Utility> Load Menu bar > Model> Utility> Load Modeler • Go l~nh til blm phlm: Command: (xload "arne") * Khi gQi mQ:t'l¢nh cua AME • neD AME chua duqc tai thl ACAl) se nhac blp} tii h! dQog bAng lIri. dAp eho clie dOng sau dAy: No modeler is load yet. Both AME and Region Modeler available. Autoload Region! <AME>: <chQn R thi chi thl,lc hi~n l~nh region, chQn AME thi thl,l'C hi¢n ca dc l~nh ve region va solid> ThaogaAME Khi b~ khOng dung AME nila. b~n nen ,Mo go AME de giiIi ph6ng bQ nba. • each gQi l~nh tiI menu: '--O&=re=e=n~m=e=nu~>~M~~~I=>~U~t~il~it~y~>-U~ru~o=a~d---' Menu bar > Model> Utility> Unload Modeler ,. Go l¢nh tiI ban phim: Command: (xunload "arne") n.2. cAe SOLID G6C SOLBOX (l~nh sol box de ve hlnh hQp) Command: solbox Baseplanel Center/<Corner of box>:. Dap cac IJ!3. chQn: _ B: xk l~p m~t phAng ea sa (Ci'), tile m~t dAy eita hlnh hQp. _ C: cho tam hlnh hl)p, san d6 nha.c nha tiejt cho cac tham s6 ve box _ Dap mij.c dinh: cho cac dinh cua hinh- h¢p. 99
  • Vi d~: ve· h"p co cae c;;mh day 13 150, 100 va chieu caQ 13 70 nhu san: Command: box Baseplane/Center/<Corner of box>: <cho dinh PI tuy y> Cube/Length/<Other comer>: L Length: 150 <dQc IflC x> Width: 100 <dQc tn,lC Y> Height: 70 <dQc t1"QC z> Xem hinh 11-1. Height SOLWEDGE (vo hlnh nem 3D) Command: sol wedge Raseplanel <Corner of wedge>: _ Dap B: xac l~p m~t phfing ca sa, m~t ph~ng nay chua 1 m~t Mn lang tll (m~t day nem). C1ton mac dinh: chol dinh cua Hinh ll-J Wedge(pl sa~ do ~6 thi ve n6 b~ng 1 trong 2 each sau: a. + 010 P3: Ia dlnh d6i thu 2 ella day Wedge. + Height: cho chieu cao Wedge. b. + Length: cho chieu dai day Wedge. + Width: cho chieu r"og ella day Wedge. + Height: cho chieu cao Wedge. Vi d~: Ve kh6i hloh nem co chieu da,i va chi~u fQng day nem la 150 va 100, chieu cao nem HI 70. Command: sol wedge Baseplane! <Corner of wedge>: -<'~ <cho dinh PI> ~Q,,""~' Cube!Length!<Other comer>: L Length: 150 <dQc tr1;lC x> Width: 100 <dQc trl,lC y> Height: 70 <dQc tflC r> K€t qua nhu tr~n hlnh 11-2. HiDh 11-2 SOLCONE (vo hlnh non) Command: solcone Baseplanet EllipticaU <Center poinl>: _ Dap B: de dinh m~t ph&ng co sl1, (&y n6n) • . _ Dap E: cho day non I. ellipse, sau d6 v! lit'p bing 1 Irong 2 each: 1- Apex: cho' dinh n6n; ho~c . 2- Height: cho chi~u cao non. ' _ Dap Ih~c d!nh: cho tam duang trim day n6n, sau do ve tie'p ba.ng 2'c4ch: 1- Apex: cho dinh n6n; ho~c 2- Height: cho chi~u cao n6n. Hinh 11-3 lit d.c non duqc vi! Mng l¢nh solcone. SOLCYL (vo kh6i "u) Command: soleyl Baseplace! Elliptical/<Center point>: 100
  • Hinh 11-3 Dap B: xac dinh m~t phing co sir (day tI1!). _ Dap m~c dinh: cho tam duang tron day tfl,l, sall do ve· ti€p bAng 2 each: 1- Center of other end: cho tam ducrng tron clla day thu 2 tm; hoac 2-' Height: cho chiell cao tn,l. _ Dap E: de ve tI1,l co day Iii ellipse, sau do ve ti€p bang 1 trong 2 cach nhu tren. Hlnh 11-4 Iii vi dl,J. ve tI1,l btiog l¢nh soleyl. Hioh 11-4 SOLSPHERE (vo kh6i cAul Command: solsphere Baseplane/<Center of sphere>: _ Dap B: sa chQn m~t ph~ng ca chua tam cau. _ Dap ml[lc d!nh: cho tam Call va cho ban kinh hay dUUng kinh cau. Hlnh 11-5 chi ra call t<;o ra bang I¢nh solsphere. Hioh 11-5 101
  • SOLTORUS (ve kh6i hinh xuy€n) Command: soltorus Baseplane/<Center of torus>: sa _ Dap B: xac dinh m~t ph~ng cC1 chua tam xuy€n. _ Dap m~c dinh: cho tAm xuy€n, sall do cho cae thOng s6 khac: + Diameter/<Radius> of torus: <cho dlICmg kinh/ ban kinh xuy€n> + Diameter/ <Radius> of tube: <cho dlICmg kfnh/ban kfnh ella vong trOD siuh> Vi dl ve xuy€n nhu chi ra tren hlnh 11-6. Hinh 11-6 11.3. KEO cAc NGUYEN THf 2D THANH cAc u61 TUQNG 3D SOLIDIFY L¢nh nay de chuy~n cae nguyen the eua ACAD trong 2D (circle, ellipse, donut, trace, polyline, polygon) thanh cae solid hay region. Neu cae nguyen th~ da: c6 be day (thickness) se dugc dOi thanh cae solid; cbn cae nguyen the khOng co bt day se dugc d6i thanh cae reglou. Command: solidify Select object: < chi vAonguyen the clln dOi> Xem vi dl,l tren hloh 11-7: ,~ ;.,.- KIl6NG THICKNESS CO THICKNESS Hinh 11-7 102
  • SOLEXT (extrusion = keo len) ~nh nay t<.LO fa cae solid bang ca.ch k~o ten cao tit cae nguyen the 2D (circle, ellipse, polyiine, polygon, donut) hay tu cae region d§ co. Command: solext Select objects: <ChC;>D nguyen thE 2D hay region> Height of extrusion: <cho chieu cao keo "ltn, co the am ho~c dl1cmg> Extrusion taper angle<O>: <cho gOc. vu6t so v6'i dlJCmg th:1ng dUng z, tu 0-90> Hinh 11-813 ml)t 86 solid t<;to fa bang each keo len. mnh 11-8 11.4. SOLID TRON XOA Y SOLREV (revolution = quay) Dung l¢n"tl nay t<.LO fa cae solid bang phep quay cae nguyen th~ 2D hay cae region cua ACAD di I gOc tily y. Command: solrev . Select objects: <chQn d.c nguyen the 2D hay region> Axis of revolution-EntitylXlYl<Start point of axis>: _ Dap E: chQn tr~c xoay lit dO<:m thing da co, hay phAn do ...." ella polyline. Clui y rfing chc;m chieu duang eua tn~c xoay litn quan den chi~u dl1cmg cua goc xoay. D6. lit chieu tit diem chqn gcin 1 dciu ella dUCmg-thDng d~n dil~m mut tha 2 clla dl1Cmg thcing .do; coo cbieu duang cua goc x6ay d1}ll thea chi~u ~c xoay vll ngugc chi~u quay ·kim d6ng hi!. _ D~p X hay Y: dUng tfl,lc x bay tfl,lc y clla M. ues hi¢n thai lam tn,Jc xoay. _ Dap m~c djoh: cho 2 diem cua trl,lc.xoay. Sau do cfin cho goc xoay til 0-360. H"inh 11-9 la m(lt s6 bloh tron xoay t<:t0 ra til solrev. Hloh 11-9 103
  • u.s. cAc PHEP ToAN BOOLE DOl VOl cAc SOLIDS VA REGIONS SOLUNION (hqp C..lC solids va regions) 4nh nay lien kii cae solids vai nhau, ho~c cae regions vai nhau Ihanh cae solids hay regions moi. Command: sol union Seleclobjec[s: <chQIl d.c solid hay region> Hlnh 11- 10 chi ra d.c VI d~1 1;:.10 de solid V~I region da hqp. UNION UNION a.V&i regions h.V6i solids Hinh 11·10 SOLSUB (Irtr cae sol ids vll regions) T~o rnQl region hay solid da hqp bang each trit cae regions hay solids ch<;:m IhCt I vOi cae region hay solid chc:;m sau. Command: solsub Select objects: <ch<.>n region hay solid bj Irlr> Objects to subtract from them ... Seleclobjects: <chQIl cae region hay solid duqc tril> Hay xem hlnh 11-11 ia cae vi dlJ. I~O da hqp subtract. SOLINT (giao de solids va regions) L¢nh nay l<:t0 fa cac solids hay regions da hqp iii phtin chung ella cae d6i tuqng duqe ehQn. Command: solint Select objects: <chQn cac d6i tuqng lay phAn giao> Hinh 11-12 la vi dy. lily giao cla 2 kh6i Ir~l. 11.6. HIj:;U CHiNH ,TRA cOlJ VE SOLID, REGION SOlSEP (sep"rale = pMn raj L~nh nay de pMn di cae solids hay regions da hQ'p (IiI cae I¢nh sol union, solsub, solint) tMoh cae solids, reg ions goc ban diiu. 104
  • SOLSUB SOLSUS u. V oi regions b.Vui solids Hlnh 11-11 SOLI NT SOLINT a.V6i regions b.V6'i solids Hlnh 11-12 105
  • Command: soisep Select .object: <chQn d6i tuqng d~ phan ra> SOLCHP (change propoties) L~nh nay cho b~n dieu ki¢n thay dOi d.c d~c tinh v~ mau sac, kich thubc, xoa, copy... d_c solids, regions goc cung nhu da hqp. Command: so1chp Sele"ct a solid ro region: <chQn solid hay region> Color/ Delete! Evaluate/ Instance/ Move/ Next/ Pick/ Replace/ Size/ /eXit/ <N>: Dap cac ll!a chQn: _ C: thay d6i mau sac _ D: xoa kh6i g6c _ E: evaluate = u6c luqng, cho phep b'.ln ubc luqng xem cac thay dbi anh huirng the nilO tbi da hqp. _ I: t'.lo ra m¢t bim sao kh6i goc rna kh6ng phan ra da hqp chua no. ~ M: di chuy~n kh6i g6c. _ N: chQn kh6i g6c ke tiep trong da hqp. _ P: chi vao kh6i g6c khac trong da hqp dil chQn. _ R: thay th€ kh6i gOc da chQn boi m¢t solid hay m¢t region khac. _ S: cho' phep thay dbi kfch thuGC cua khoi goc dil chQn lrong da hqp. '. _ X: exit - ket thuc I¢nh solchp va ghi l~i cae thay d6i. SOLMOVE L¢nh solmovc cho phep b'.ln di chuyen ho~c quay solid, region. Command: solmove Select objects: <chQn cac d6i tm;mg> Sau khi chQn d6i tuqng, m!)t h¢ tr~c t<;lm thai MCS (Motion Coordinate System) XUllt hi¢n de chQn phm;mg thuc di chuyen. Sau do b<;ln hay dap dong nhac sau: ?I <Motion description>: }' T'.li day b~n dua vao d.c mO ta chuyen d!)ng bang cach dap cac ll!a chQn sau: _ e: d~t tr!,lc z cua h¢ MCS dQc theo 1 c'.lnh solid, region _ f: d~t tfl,lc Z clla h¢ MCS dQc theo I m~t clla solid, region. _ u: d~t MCS trlIng vbi h¢ UCS. _ w: d~t MCS trung v6i h¢ WCS. _ ae: (align to edge) di chuy~n MCS cung v6i d6i tuqng chQn tai mQt q,nh cua d6i tuqng khac. _ af: (align to face) di chuyen MCS cung vai d6i tuqng chQn tai m¢t m~t clla d6i tuqng khac. _ au: (align to UCS) di chuy€n d6i tuqng chQn sao cho MCS trung voi h¢ UCS. _ aw: (align to WCS) di chuyen d6i tuqng chQn sao cho MCS trung v6i h¢ WCS. _ rxd: quay d6i tuqng quanh x di mQt goc d dQ. _ ryd: quay d6i tuqng quanh y di m¢t goc d do. _ rzd: quay d6i tuqng quanh z di mQt g6c d dQ. _ txl: (translate) dai d6i tuqng dQc theo x di m¢t dO<.lI1 I. _ tyl: dai d6i tuqng dQc thee y di mQt do~n 1. _ tzl: dai d6i tuqng d<;>c thee z di m¢t dO<;ln I. . _ 0: (origin orientation) dua d6i tuqng dil di chuyen trt1 ve V! tri dau. 106
  • . Vi dl!: am hlnh ban d~u (hlnh 11- 3a), hay di chuytn kh6i tr~ Itn trtn kh6i h¢p v~ titl'p lye di chuyen kh6i non len tr~n kh6i tf1:l. Command: solmove Select objects: <chQn kh6i tIl;l. d~t h¢ ues vao tAm day tnp ?1<Motion description>: af <di chuyen MCS cilllg tev da chQn tm ml)t m~t coa doi tUQllg kbac> select face to define destination coordinate system: . <chi VaG I c<;lnh a m~t trtn eua hlnh h9P> Next/<OK>: <dap N de chQn m~t ke vOi m~t da cbt;m, OK - d6ng y> Sau khi OK, kh6i In! chuy.!n tm I g6c tren cua kh6i h¢p (hlnh 1l-3b). ?/<Motion description>: tx60 <tinh tien tl1,l dQc x di m¢t do~ 60=1/2 c~nh kh6i h¢p> ?1<Motion description>: ty60 ?1<Motion description>: .J <tr1,l chuyen tai tam m~t tr~n kh6i hQp. hlnh 11-13c> Command: ues <chuyen ues tai tam day non> Command: solmove select objects: <ChQD kh6i non> ?/<Motion description>: at select face to define destination coordinate system: <chi vao day tTlP Next/<OK>: N • Next?<OK>: OK ?1<Motion description>: .J <kit qua hloh 11-13d> b) a} c) d) Hinh 11-13 107
  • SOLSECT (sol sect = mat dt) B<.tn co tht dung I~nh nay de thie't l~p m~1 cal (thift di~n) cua solid. Command: sol sect Select objects: <chQIl solid> Select plane by Entity/LastiZaxislVicw/XY/YZ/ZX/<3 point>: B<,lll dap cae Iva chon m~t phllng eftt lUang II! nhu each xac dinh m~t phang cct sa. Chli y di.il cae bien xac d,nh ch€ d¢ g'.leh g<;tch m~lI citt !lhl! sau: + SOLSECTYPE: 1- kh6i ciu;m t<,lo thanh Ill' cae duans Ihdng, cling Iron. 2- kh6i chQn l<.t0 Ihanh tit de polyline. 3- kh6i ch<,>11 1<,0 thanh Il! de region. + SOLlIPAT: ehe mall S<.tch (Pattern). + SOLANGLE: eho g6c nghicng eua dubng g~ch soc. + SOLSIZE: cho khm'mg dch giua 2 dlt<rng g~ch. H1nh 11-14 it!. vi dy dlmg I¢nh soiseci g<.tch m~lI cItl ehe solid. IIlnhll·14 SOLCHAMP L¢nh solchamp de vat mep solid da chQI1 b~ng deh 1:,0 ra kh6i xi~n theo kich Ihu6c b<,lll ehe va It! dQng hQ'p vao hay tru di vai solid chQn. Command: solchamp Select base surface: <chi van I c~nh ella m~t co so Clla solid> Next/<OK>: <nell m~t co so chon dung thi .J, nell khOng dung hay go N de chQn m~tI kt ~n> Pick edges of this face 10 be champhered (press ENTER when done): <chi vao dc qnh ban dn val, r6i U"n ENTER> Enter distance along base sucrface < ... >: <cho dOi.1Il vat dQC theo m~t co sCt> Enter distance along ajacent surface< ... >: <do~n vilt dqc m~1 ke ~n> Tren hlnh 11·15 la vi dy. v6i I~nh solchamp. SOLFILL B~n c6 the Iltf!11 Iron cac g6c ella solid bang I¢nh nay. 108
  • l-finh 11·15 ' Command: solfill Select edges of solidto be filleted (Press ENTER when done): <chQn dic c<,lnh can luqn Iron Clla solid, r6i a'n ENTER> Diameter/<Radius>of fillcl< ... >: <cho duCtng klnh hay ban kfnh cung luqn> I nnh 11-16 chi ra VI d~ up d~ng I¢nh sol fill. l-finh 11·16 SOLCUT oay 111 I~nh dung de: dt cae sol id bOi m~t m~t phAng va co the giG' I~i nlia flaO d6, hay giG' l'.li cit 2 mia. Command' <;olcut Select objects: <chQn cae solid> Otting plane by Entity/Last(Zaxis/View/xYIYUZX/<3 point>: <chQn m~t phang cM, gi6ng nhu chQn m(I phc1ng cd sC!> Both side/<Point on desired size of the plane>: _ Dap B: gilt c.a 2 Illla duqc cat. _ Dap ~n~e dinh: eho I di~m a phla ben Ilaa v~t the dll'qc giG' l'.li. Vi dlF dung I~nh SOLCUT cat b6 m~t nih v~t the. Command: soleut Select objects: <chQn solid > Cutting plane by Fntity/Last/Zaxis/View/XYfYzn:xJ<3 point>: <m~l phAng cat di qua 3 di~m gilia ella 3 e .... nh ben song song nhau> Both sideJ<Point on desired size or the plane>: <osnlp1END bat I dinh thu<>c nira 53U e6a solid> Hinh 11-17 minh hQa ka't qua dung I~nh soleut tr~n VI d~ d6. 109
  • Hiohl1-17 SOLPROF (Profile = d~g bao hlnh, nhln thay) L¢nh nay dung de thiet l~p d~ng hlnh bao eho cae solid (Profile image). Oie buoe thl!e hi¢n: 1- D~t bien TILEMODE gia tfj 0 (off). 2- Chuyen sang khOng gian v~t the MSPACE: Mview>Fit>Mspaee.J 3- Command: solprof Ssleet objects: <eh9n cae solid> Display hidden profile line on separate layer?<Y>: <b~ co mu6n cae duang bao khuAt duqe d~t tren cae lap rieng bi¢t khOng> + neu b'.ln dap N thl teft d. cae duemg proftle d~u la duemg thi'fy. + nell dap Y se d~t cae duang bao thay va khU<lt vao 2 lap (layer) rieng: PV - lap cae duimg bao thay, PH' lap cac duimg bao khuat. Project.proflle line onto a plane?<Y>: <e6 ehieu duemg bao len mQt m~t ph~ng?> + neu dap Y se thiet I~p cae profile thay va khuat l~n mQt m~t phing (2D). + neu dap N thiet l~p cae profile thAy va khllAt d~g nglly~n the 3D. Delete tangential edges?<Y>: <co xoa cae qnh tiep xlle, cae dut'mg ehuyen tiep ella hai m~t khOng?> 4- Sau do b~ mu6n xem hlnh bao!ren nguyen 1M, hay dlmg I~nh LAYER de t~t (OFF) lap ban d~u chua solid g6c. Hlnh 11-18 neu ra vi d~ dung l¢nh solprof. Hioh 11-18 SOLFEAT (Features = net d.c trung) L¢nh solfeat eho phep b1,ln trieh cae qnh hay cae m~t d~e tnrng tit cae solid, region. Command: solfeat Edge! <Face>: _ Dap E: de ehQn cae e1,lIlh d~e tnrng eua solid hay region. AME eho phep b1,ln eh9n loan b¢ cae qnh (ALL) hay ehQn tUng qnh (Select). Neu solid hi~n thi khOng phili d~ng khung (wire) thi AME nhae b'.ln co ehuyen sang d1,lIlg ~hung kh6ng (YIN ?). 110
  • SOIFEAT/~dge Sol FEAT/Faoe mnh 11·19 _ Dap m~c dinh: d~ chQn ca.c m~t d<Jc tnmg ella solid hay region. B<;ln co the ch<;m tat c3 cae m~t mQt Ilk (ALL), hay chQn timg m~t (Select). Neu chQn timg m~t thi ca.n lra li1i ~'Next/<OK>: chQn m~t ke' tiep N hay d6ng y m~t do OK", VI solid co hai m~t chung mQt c<.tJlh. Xem vi dl,l leto hloh 11-19. SOLAREA L¢nh solaTea de Hoh di¢n tkh ~ m~t cua solid, region. Command: solaTea Select objects: <chQn d6i tlIqng tfoh di¢n tfeh> Vi~c hien th~ ra ket qua ph1,l thu¢<: vi~c dij.t hai bien sall da.y (xem SOLVAR &phln sau): SOLSOLIDIFY = 1,2,3 SOLAREAU = sq em < cm 2 > SOLINTERF Nhh~u khi ohin loh trong 3D kh6ng thiy ro cae solids c6 giao nhau kh6ng, l~nh SOUNlERF dung de thcm Ira xem cae solids co phan giao nhau kh6ng~ neu co thi AME se hoi b,~n: Creat interrerence solids?<N>: <co 1'.10 solid tir phan chung do kh6ng> SOLMASSP L~nh nay ti'nh toan kh6i Im;:mg va cae d~e tinh khae (nhlIla the tich, di¢n tieh be! m~t, tQa d¢ trQng tam, m6 men quan Hnh ... ) cua solid •.region d6i vOi h¢ ues hi~n ~i. Command: solrn~sp Select objects: .. <chQq d6i tuqng> Sau d6 lren mw hlnh hi~n I1l ba.1!1 cae ktl qua, va ohio Dha b¥ eo cAn ghi kel qua do thanh mQI fIle khOng: . Write to· a fi1e?<N>: SOLMESFf& SOLWIRE _ Solrnesh: de hi~n thi cae solid hay region d~ng fum (mesh). M~t d¢ m~g lu6'i eua chung phI! thU¢C vao gill tei bitn SOLWDENS «em ph~n SOLVAR).· _ Solwire: de hien th! cae solid hay region <4ng cae dlIoog khung tren cae m~t. M~t d¢ cac dlt/mg khung phI! thu(lc vao bi€n SOLWIRE. Hinh 11-20 eho vi d1,l hi¢n cac solid bCri cac l~nh solmesh vaf solwire. SOLMAT: (gan v~t li¢u cho solid, region) L¢nh sol mat gan lo~i v~t li¢u cho cac solids, regions. B;;m cung eo the thay d6i va d~nh nghia l<;li eac lo~i v~ li¢u dang t6n t~i. 111
  • SolMESH SolWIRE Hinh 11·20 Command: solmat ChangelEditILIsI/LOadlNew/Remove/SAve/SETI?I<eXil>: Dap cae h!a ch<;>n d6 nhu sall: C: d~ thay d6i v~t li¢u gan vm solid, region; cae nhie nha tie(>: + Select objects: <chQn d6i tuqng tbay> + New material< ... >: <cho ten v~t li¢u, hay gO ? de xem danh sach v~t li~u> E: cho phep bc:m thay d6i cae tham s6 ella v~t li¢u. + Material name: <ten v~t li¢u dn thay d6i, vi du copDer> + Material COPPER: . 1. Density,kgicu_m ......................... 8940 <kh6i luqng riengkgicm3 > 2. Young's modulus,GN/sq_m ........... 17.5 <mOdun dan h6i GN/m2 > 3. Poisson's ratio ............................. 0.345 <he s6 dan nO> 4. Yield strength, MN/sq_m ............... 330 <db ben u6n MN/m2> 5. Ultimate strength, MN/sq_m ......... .380 <d~ tin k60 MN/m2> 6. Thennal conductivity coeff ............. 386 <h¢ 86 dAn nhi¢t> 7. Linear expansio coeff, x/le6 ......... .16.7 <b.¢ 86 din no nhi¢t> 8. Specific heat, kj/(kg des-c) ......... 0.383 <nhi~t dung liens> . Enter the number of a value you,wanttO cb,.ange or PJ;Css EN1'ERlO'EXlT. <cho con .6 Ilng vUi l,,",ch9n'b~ mulSn, ho¥: ili. enter.M hoot> Update COPPER &fmition in drawing.' . Save the material to a file?<N>: ' <.c~p' nh~t dinh nghia cho COPPER vao I ~Bn ve. co ghi v~t li~u n~y vao 1 file kh6ng?> _ U: hi¢n fa djnh nghia,,*t li~. _ LO: tAi dWt nghta v~t li~u vao ban ve ella b~. _ N: dinh nghta v$t li~u mm. _ R: xoa dinh nghta v~t li~u kh6i bin ve. _ SA~ ghi l~ dinh nghia v~t li~u "trong ban ve fa 1 file. _ SET: cho m~t v~t li¢u thanh m~c d!nh va gan vao solid, region. _ 1: hi¢n danh sach cae v~t 1i~u. X: kft huc l¢nh. SOLUes L¢nh nay dung d.! d~t h¢ UCS16i m~tc~h (Edge) hay m~t m~t (Face).cua solid, region. Command: 501ucs Edge/<Face>: <g6 E d~t UCS v10 m~t qnh, go F d~t UCS too m~t m~t> 112
  • SOLVAR Unh nay de dat cae bitn cua AME. Bang ke cae bi€n chinh nhtl sau: Ten bien tLo~i Gia tri Y ngh1. I.So1WDENS s6 nguyen 1-12 M~t dQ khung lucri 2.SolDELENT s6 nguyen 1,2,3 1. khOng x6a nguyen thi goc 2. hoi co xoa khOng 3. luOn lu6n xoa 3.So1DISPLAY string wire/mesh hi~n solid d~ng wire hay mesh 4.SolHANGLE s6 th"c s6 thl!c goc ella dUCmg gC).ch s<?c 5.SolHPAT string hatch pattern m~u gC).ch SQC 6.SolHSIZE s6 thl,IC so th,=,c khoang each 2 duemg gC).ch SQC • 7.So1LENG1H string don vi chieu dai dan v~ do df> dai 8.So1AREAU string dan V! di¢n tlch dan vi tfnh di~n tich 9.So1VOLUME string dan vi tM deh dan v~ ttnh the tlch 1O.So1MASS string dan vi khai luc;mg dan vi tfnh kh6i lUl1llg 11.So1RENDER string COs, Unifonn COS - Solid da hqp hi~n nhi€u mall khi render. Unifon» - Solid hi~n mt')t mall khi render 12.So1SECIYPE s6 nguyen 1,2,3 1- wire fram (4:0 tir solext) 2- polyline 3- region 13.So1SOLlDIFY so nguyen 1,2,3 1- d6i .hl<;mg chQn kh6ng t1,l' chuyen thanh solid. 2- 5e hoi. 3- lll0n tl,l' chuyen thanh solid. 14.SolUPGRADE s6 nguyen 1,2 1- nang dt'} chfnh xac cua solid don tMoh kep. 2- khOng. 15.SolDECOMP string x.y,z huang phan ro cua d~ nnh , kh6i luqng x, ho~c y, ho~ z. i16.So1SUBDIV s6 nguyen 1,2, .. ,,1t ,mac chlnh x~t d~c ,nnh kh6i luqng . 17 .SolPAGELEN s6 nguyen is ' s6 dOng tnmg text. 18.So1MATCURR string ttn v~ lI~u hi~n Ihm. 19.5o1AMEVER string bien s6 release cua AME . " • each goi l~nh M ~t bien AME Command: solvar Variable name or?: <go ten bie!n vlo, ho~c ? hi~n danh sach ten bi~n de xem>. 113
  • * each gQi l¢nh AME Ill' menu MENU BAR > MODEL>hi¢n ra Pull·down menu dudi day: 4- • Help Tren bang Pull·down menu do eo cac Ii!a ehQn Ihi E;~ h~l.I1h tn!c tiep de I¢nh va co cae thlfc dO'r1 phl,l chua cae nhom l~nh rieng nhu sau: Revolve ~olidiF}J '" Cae liJ'a ehQn ling v(ri cac I~nh Efimi~ive~ ... + Extrude = I~nh solex! + Revolve = Solrev Union + Solidify = Solidify SUQlrad + Union = Solunion Intersect + Subtract = Solsub Modif,Y • + Intersect = sol int Se!up • '" Cac thiJ'c don pht,J Inguir~ • _ Primitive: khi b';ln ehQIl nll,lc nay AME dua fa hlip lhO<;li "AME Primitive" eM b<).n I<,tO cae solid g6c: box, D..Lsplay • U lilitl! • sphere, wedge, cone, cylinder, torus (hlnh 11·21). _ Modify: ehQn ml,lc nay b<;tn eo Ih~ sLta d6i solid, region. Trong do chua cac hla ehQfl li"ng v6i d ,c I¢nh sau: + Move Object = I~nh sol move + Change Primit = Solchp AME Primitives m + Separate = Solsep r-____';create Solid Primitivr=e_ _ _ _- , + Cut solids = SolclI! + Chamfer solid = Solcham + Fillet solid = Solfill _ Setup: cai d~t cae bien AME, dan vi do vv... . _ Inquiry: d~ tra Cllu ve d6i IUQ'ng Box Sphere Wedge ve, di¢n tfeh, kh6i luQ'fl p ... _ Display: kieu hien th! dUQ'e ehQIl Lrong hlip lho<,li sau day. + Mesh = l~nh sol mesh + Wire fram = Solwirc + Set Wire Dens = Solwdens (m~1 Cone Cylinder Torus dli khung ILt6i) Baseplane - - - - - - - - - - - - - , + Copy Feature = Solfeal + Section Solids = solsect aOn + Prom Solids = Solprof Mode: 13 Points Ell _ Utility: de l¢nh li¢n feh. + Material material = hi¢n hQp Ihm.li Object Snap Mode... I + solves = Solucs + ASM in... = Solin OK Cancel I I Help ... + ASM out... = So10Ul + Purge Objects = Solpurge ll'inh 11·21 + Load Modeler = tai AME + Unload Modeler = [hao lui AME gi<li ph6ng bli oh6". 114
  • 11.7. TAO RA cAc lliNH CHIEU 20 Tif MO HINH 3D Gill Slr chung la da co m6 hlnh gin dil3D (vo Iren lap 3D) nhl! hinh 11-22 dLtoi day. Bay gia hay xfty dt!1lg cae hinh chieu dting, hlnh chicu b~ng, hlnh chieu canh Ilr ml) h111h do. Ban Ihue hi¢n then cae bu6c sau day: 1-Dat bien T1LEMOOE=O. chuyfn san'g kh6ng gian gi<'fy (Pspace). + L¢nh LIMITS d!Tlh gi6i h<.l.Il viS trong kh6ng gian giay (kh6 A4=297.21O). Va Icnh ZOOM / All. + Hi (load) duimg dUt Hidden bling l~nh LINETYPE vao ban vi! de sau lao net dUt Iren de hlnh chieu. 2- Dung I¢nh MVIEW 1<;10 4 khllng nhln d9ng k6 nhau (ch<;m Fit) (hlnh 11- Hillh 11-22 23), Dimg I¢nh Mspacc chuy~n sang kh6ng gian l:no hlnh. 3-01111g I<;nh VPOINT chQn cae diem nhln eho tiOlg khllng nhln de c6 hinh chieu dUng, hlnh chicu b~ng. hlnh chicu cq.nh. . . IT ·dol dwol I!lIOIEI :.f!staltl -tT-dol .dwg1 lYMicro$otWord·Chgl1b ._1 mnh 11-23 115
  • 4- Dung I¢nh ZOOM vai ty I¢ bang nhau (VI d~L scale= I) de chinh klch thLIoe cae hlnh eh ieu tren cae khung nhln eha ILIong (mg bang nhau. Sau do dung I¢nh MVsetup/Align M ehinh V lri cae hlnh ehieu [ren cae khung nhlEl eho cung dltong giong dttng va ngang. ! 5- Dung I¢nh SolPROF t<:ta cae chtctng bao thriy va khuat laLl lttQ1 eho lung khung nhlLl. 6- OllOg I¢nh LAYER lam dong lap chua 1116 hlnh gia dO' nay(lap 3D). - T<,lo l&p mai len la "KHUNG", roi lam dong lOp nay. - L¢nh PSPACE chuy~n sa ng kh6ng gian gi5y. - L~nh DDchprop d~ dua cae dLtcJng vien cua cae khung nhln(Vpolrs) sang lap " KHUNG " da lam dong(b6 de duong vien khung di). 7-Ghi kfch tillroe tren cUc hlnh chieu va ve khung ban ve, khung len. Chu y: N6u ehlI~ thay net elm d6i v6i die dlrO'ng khua't lhl (lung I ~ nh LTsca lc lang h~y giam Iy I¢ cho thily dlIq'C net chn. Ket qua ta co ban ve de hll1h chieu va 1116 hlnh 30 elLa gi, dO' nhu hlnh I J -24 . .:AD . IT ·do2.dwg) I!!I[!] EI J:!elp -- , -- , , c- c,- -- o 0 0 -- I I '" ;0 "''' - - " • •- . ¥. " - - -- --- - ~ - - "".~ .' -~ • - _. • .- Hinh 11-24 116
  • CHUONG12 -'? - -' ... - XUAT BAN VE 3D RA GIAY VA RA T~P TIN 12.1. XUAT BAN vi<: RA GIAY Khi ve xong ban ve 3D, b~n ca.n phii Xll:ll ra giay h~c xut(t thanh t¢p tin ph1,lc VI,I cho vi~c lrao d6i vai cae ph:in mern khac. otrong khOng gian rnO hloh (Mspace) thi b'.lo chi in duqc hloh aoh tren khung ohin hi¢n thai. Nhtnlg atrong khOng gian giay (Pspace) b~n co tM in hloh imh tr~n tl1t d. cae khung ohin d~ng l¢nh Mview. Neu in cae hloh chien ph6i doh h<;ln ch(;>n ty l¢ in ia Scale t<.t0 bm to Fit. • - TrInh tt! in him ve trong kh6ng gian gi5y (Pspace) thea tUng buOc wang tt! nhu d.c a buoc t~o cae hioh chi€u 2D tir mO hloh 3D da trloh bay chuang II, tiet 11.7 tren day. Cu6i cimg dung I¢nh PLOT de in fa gil1y qua may in (Printer), hay may ve (Plotter). - B<:Lo cung co the chuy~n mO hloh 3D thanh d6i tm:;mg 2D qua t¢p tin DXB file. Sau do t¢p tin nay dugc g«;li vao ban ve AutoCAD bang I~nh DXBIN va duqc in fa nhu ban ve 20. - Mu6n in mO hlnh duqc to bOng, b'.ln co thi! chen no vao ban ve AutoCAO ho~c cben V30 t¢p tin van ban vv... + Dl chen m6 hlnh duQ'c to bOng vao ban vi! AutoCAD, b'.ln dung d.c l¢nh GIFIN, TGAIN. Command: GIFlN Gif file name: <go ten t¢p tin .GIF vao> Insertion point< ... >: <cho diem chen> Scale factor<. .. >: <h¢ s6ry I~> Sau khi chen, cac hlnh 3.nh do co th~ hi¢u chlnh dUl;1C bang l¢nh Clla AlltoCAD, va in ra. nha bim ve 2D. + D<l chen him vo m6.hlQh d';<1G«'~ h<ng.lIp{¢i> tin~n bAn; b~n ~em ti~t duai day (WMF file). «< << <; 12.2. XUAT BAN vi<: THANH ~PTIN ACAD co the duqc xua:t thanh cac ~p tin: + WMF (windows Metal File)- de chen vao t¢p tin van ban, d6 hQa khac. L¢nh xu5t la WMFOUT. + BMP (Bitmap file)- hlnh anh m.nh raster. 4nh xu~t I. BMFOUT. + EPS (Encapsulated PostScript)- dung Irong ch€ ban, in ~n. 4nh xu~t I. PSOUT. + DXF (Data eXchange Format)- trao d6i dii li¢u v6i pMn mem CAD/CAM khac. 4nh xu~t 13 DXFOUT, I¢nh gQi vao ban vo ACAD Ja DXFIN.< + DXB (Data eXchange Binary)- chuyi!n mo hlnh 30 thanh 20. L¢nh gQi vao ban ve ACAD Ja DXBIN. 117
  • * B~n co the S11 dl,lng I~nh xuAt thanh c;],e t~p tin bang hQp tho~i til menu nhu sau: FILE> Export> HQP tho<.ti "Export Data"> Ch(;m kieu file xulit > Save Vi dr,t: B~n dn chen ban ve mo hlnh 3D e6 ten la "Gia-do.dwg" vao t~p van bim sO';1n trong word 97, hay lam nhu sau: I. Ma ban ve "Gia-do.dwg" trong AutoCAD for windows. 2. Xulit bim ve thanh d<;lng .WMF bang I~nh WMFout (ho~e Export v6i ACAD.rl4) ho~c gQi I¢nh xuat til menu FILE. Luc d6 hc.jp tho~i "Export WMF" (ho~c "Eexport Data") xuat hi~n nhl1 hlnh 12-1. iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii EXPOft WMF E3 FiIe.ll_: llirectOfiM: OK I liI!!Ilill I c: scadwinsupport long.wlnf 'd c : ..!. Cancel I a acadwin @) support • • list Files of Type: Drixu; .101...,;10 ('.WMFJ B I~c:kee 3 Hinh 12·1 + DOng "Save as type:" b,,1n ehQn Metalfile[.wmf]. + DOng "File name:" b<;lJl go len file xuat, vi dlr "Gia:'do" va chQn nut "Save". + Sau do xuiit hi~n dong nhile: "Select objects", b;;tn ehQn cae d6i tuQ'Og ve xutlt ra t~p van ban. + Thu nho elra s6 AutoCAD/Win. 3. Vao Word 97 va rna t~p van bim. Nh~p file "Gia-do.wmf' vao nhl1 sau: + D~t con tro vao dung eho eua van ban mu6n chen hlnh ve. + Tu menu: Insert>Picture>From file> hi¢n fa h¢p thO';1i "Insert Picture" Trong do b'.ln file "Gia-do.wmf' va nhay vao nut "Insert" de chen. 4. Sau khi ban ve dugc chen, b"m co the dung chuc nang Picture cua word de hi~u chinh duemg net, mau sac. 12.3. Ti).O HiNH A.NH DONG TRONG AUTOCAD a. Script file AutoCAD co kha nang thl!c hi~n dl1qc mQt chuoi dc I¢nh. Vi the chung ta co th~ lam cho hinh anh hien thj Ian 111<;rt lien ti€p nhau, t';1o nen hlnh anh dQng (gi6ng phim hO';1t hinh). m Hlm ditu d6 ta dn t~o mQt t¢p van ban (co the dung EDIT cua DOS) gQi Hl Script file (duoi la .SCR) hay con gQi la t¢p tin k!ch ban. Vi dl;l: Ta t;;tO mc.jt Script file de ve mc.jt kh6i h"p co Length=60, Width=30, Height= I 00, sau d6 dai n6 dQc trl,lc x mc.jt do;;tn 150. B~n gQi I~nh EDIT clla DOS va so~n ca.c dong sau day:
  • Solbox 0,0,0 60 30 100 delay 1000 move all 150,0,0 delay 2000 redraw erase all Rscript B~n ghi l~i t~p tin nay vm duOi ".SCR", vi dl,l: "Hop.ser", • Dil eh~y ~p tin nay, viio ACAD va go ten I~nh "Script" sau dong nhiic l~nh "Command:" ; Command: Script Script fIle: Hop <go ~n ~p vao, kh6ng dll!,c go 4u6i> Ghi ch6 + Trong cae dbng SO¥! thAa coo script file, mOi khoeing trong (Space bar) tUOIlg duong y{fi m¢t 1:10 ENTER. + ~ dUng yi¢c thl!C hi~n I l~nh trong script file, b¥l dung I~nh DELAY. Thi'ti gian di:rng ii sO duong nhb han 32767ms (milliseconds), + Mu6n I~p di I~p l~i chuOi I~nh. b~ cho I~nh Rscript yaO cooi t~ tin script file. + Khi l~nh Script dang thl,fC hi¢n rna mutSn dimS lilli, ~ An Ctrl+C (v(ri ACAD.rI4 go phim ESC:). Vii. mutSn tilp h,lc, ~n dung I¢nh Resume. b. Cae I~nh ch~p anh va g~i anh ra Gi6ng nhu phinl ho~t h9a. khi ta dung l~nh gQi Ian lUgl cae blob cinh ra. Chung ta co the cht,JP cae 3nh tren man blob bang l~nh Mslide ho~c l~nh Shade cho cae mO hloh to bOng; va gQi cae anh da eh~p fa ta dung l~nh Vslide. + Ch~p anh b~ng I~nh Mslide: Command: Mslide Slide file: <d~t ttn ~p hnh va; duOi .SLD> + GQi imh fa: Command: Vslide Slide file: <chi ten ~p Anh .SLD clln g~i ra> + T~o Script fIle Anh dong: Vi dl! 1: VO mot hlnh hOp c6 cae ~ length=60, width=30, height=IOO vAchyp Anh IJ cae vi ttl di cbuyen kh3e nhall. B!m Imn theo c4c bme sau: I. Vi! kh6i hop biri. I~nh SOLBOX. 2. DUng I~h MSLIDE ch~pilnbven ten "Hop1.sld" 3. DIri vA xoay blnh hOp dobiri. I~nh DVlEW de c6 vi tri !hu 2 cu. Anh. Sou d6 dung I~nh MSLIDE ch~ hnh ven ten "Hop2.sld" 4. DIri va xoay hlnh hOp do biri. I~nh DVlEW di! c6 vi ttl !hu 3 cua anh. Sau d6 dimg I¢nh MSLIDE chyp hnh ven ten "Hop3.sld" 5. DIri vA xoay hlnh hOp do biri. I~nh DVlEW di! c6 vi tn thu 4 eua hnh. Sau do dung I~nh MSLIDE ch~ hnh ven ten "Hop4.sld" vv... 6. G~i I~nh EDIT eua OOS di! so~ !hao Script file nhu sau: Vslide hopl delay 1000 Vslide bop2 delay 1000 Vslide hop3 119
  • delay 1000 Vslide hop4 delay 2000 Rscript Ghi th1mh Script file c6 ton "Hop.SCR". 7. De ch~y Script file, b~n vao I~h: Command: script Script file: Hop V{ d1.l2: T~ cu6'n phim hO'.lt hioh htrang dill ve mO hloh chi tiet may 3D (hloh ve). 1- Bu9c 1: rna ban ve khdi thuy "A4.dwg". + 4nh MSLIDE chvP 'nh dot ton la "b l.sld" 2- Bucrc 2: lenh VPOINT/(-I,-I,l) + 4nh MSLIDE chVp anh dot ton la "b21sd" 3- Sucre 3: lenh SOLBOX vo d€ c6 length=IOO, width=90, height=30 (chua v~t 2 gOc). + lenh MSLIDE chVP 'nh ~t ten I. "b3.sld" 4- Bucre 4: lenh ues chuyen he ues Ion dlnh A. DUng I¢nh SOLBOX vo kh6i h¢p ben ph.i c6 length=22, width=90, height=90 . + lenh MSLIDE chVP "nh dot ten Iii. "b4.sld" 5- Bucre 5: I¢nh SOLMOVE /tx80 de doi kh6i do sang phii tir A tm B. + lenh MSLlDE chVP Imh d~t ten la "bS.sld" 6- Buoc 6: I¢nh SOLCYL (ues van a A) de ve trl,! ngoai tam A, r=30, height=40. 4nh SOLCYL /B vo trV ben trong co day d116i la m~t du6i d~, r=15, height=70.. Jfmh 12-2 + I¢nh MSLIDE chVP anh d~t ton lA "b6.sld" 7.Bucre 7: lenh SO'LMOVE /tx4O va ty45 + lenh MSLIDEchvp aM d~t !!IlIa "b7.sld" 8- Bucre 8: lenh uCS,Io cit d1ri h¢UCS Wi diem giu. e cua c'!llh diii Irlii-ton cUa th1mh bon phiti. 4nh SOLBOX, chodlnh thll nMlla (0;-30;-2'), length=20, width=60, height=25. + I~h MSLrDE chvp.nhd~hen l1t'''b8 ..sld". :. . 9- BuOc 9: lenh SOLCHAM de vat 2 gOc tmi cu~ de, cl)qn'm~tv't la(l!~t tnli d€, 2 C'!llh vat th!ng dUng, do~n vat=IO.· . '. + lenh MSLlDE chvP 'nh ~t ten I. "b9.s1d" .. 10- Bucre 10: l¢nh SOLWEDGE vo gan(hic nay v~n c6 ues d C), cho dlnh thu nh~t qo,O,O), lenglh=15, widlh=lO, heighl=15. + lenh MSLlDE chvP 'nh dot ton la "b lO.sld" 1- Buoc II: lenh ROTATE 3D xoay gan d6 di I gOc 180" + lenh MSLIDE chVP anh d~t len Ja "bl1.sld" 120
  • 12~ Buac 12: l~nh ALIGN de can dung gan vao vi trt B. + I~nh MSLIDE ch~p anh d~t ten Ia "bI2.sld" 13- Buac 13: l¢nh SOLSUB chqn kh6i hI tm 13 thanh phaj, d€, tn,I Ian va cac kh6i trir la ranh chu nh~t, tn~ trong. 4nh SOLUNION lien ket de, thanh phai va gan thanh solid da hqp. . + I¢nh MSLIDE ch~p anh d~t ten H. "bl3.sld" 14-Buoc 14: l~nh SHADE to bOng v~t th~ vita t~o ra . . , + lenh MSLIDE ch~p imh d~t teilla "bI4.sld" lS-T<;lo script file voi t~n la "cachve3D.scr" trong h¢ so~n thao EDITcua DOS nhu sau: Vslide bl Delay 2000 Vslide b2 Delay 3000 Vslide b3 Delay 3000 . Vslide b4 Delay 3000 Vslide bS Delay 3000 Vslide b6 Delay 3000 Vslide b7 Delay 3000 Vslide b8 Delay 3000 Vslide b9 Delay 3000 Vslide blO Delay 3000 Vslide bll Delay 3000 Vslide bl2 Delay 3000 Vslide bl3 Delay 3000 Vslide b14 Delay 3000 Rscript 121
  • 1. HlfONG DAN cAc BAI T~P VE TRONG 2D BAIT~P 1 T~o biin ve khOi tbUy (Prototype Drawing) 1. XlIe I~p dan vi ve, dung I~nh UNITS - Doo vi dl) dhl ChQD h~ 2-Decimal (ddll. vi co sO Iii mm). - Do g6c chQn h~ 2-Degrees/mimutes/seconds, g6c 0° 6ng v(ri kim d6ng h6 hie 3 gio, chieu dUdl1g eua g6c 13. chieu quay nguqc chieu kim d6ng h6. 2. D~t gio; h~n b3n ve (Ung vo; khO giay A4=297,210), dung I~nh LIMITS - Cho diem g6c tnU dum (Lower left comer) ia 0,0 - Cho di~m g6c ph3i tren (Upper right comer) HI. 297,210 3. Hi~n thJ toan-bQ giOi h~n ve ra maD binb, dung I~nh ZOOM vOll"a ch9D ALL 4. Ve khung baD ve va khung ten, dung I~nh LINE. Chu y dung cae each cho tQa dl) tuy¢t d6i, tl1dl1g d6i (@). 5. D~t cae thOng s6 khae - D~t lum treo man hlnh: + l~nh SNAP: d~t luCri. + lenh GRID: bien luOi ra man blnh. - T~o lap cho ban ve. dung I~nh LAYER·' . - T~o kieu ghi kich tlmac. diing I~nh DimVAR de xie djnh eac bien kichtbuac tboo kieu ghi ella ffilnh: . _ DimCEN: d~t dQ dai dail tam dllt'lng tron, vi <ill cbQn ~mm. DimDU: d~t khoang each cae duOng U:h thujc. N nhau. YO: 6mm. Diml'X'r. d~ dQ cao chil siS kiclo IhuiicrYO: 4mm. . DimEXE: dQ dhl duimg kich tbuac '1lQl quadueJng d6ng. YO: 3mm. DimASZ: dQ dhl ~mfii ten duimg kich dluac, VD: 4uun DimEXO: dQ hiJ cua duimg dOng to; g6c gbi klcl).tbuac, VD: 2mm DimCLRD: m~u cho duimg kich thuac, VI): red DimCLRE: milu cho duimg d6ng. VD: red DimCLRT. milu cho chi! s6 kich tbuOc, YO: red DimTAD: dot ON de ghi chi! s6 kich tbu6c len teen duimg klch tbuac DimTIH: dot OFF ghi chi! s6 kich tbu6c hUUng dQC tboo duimg kich tbu6c a DimTIX: d~t OFF chi! s6 kich tbmJc do dQ dai. do g6c du<;IC ~t trong hay IJ ngoai 2 duiing dong tuy du chb hay khOng; elm d6i vo; chi! s6 kich tbuac duiing kinh, ban kinh tbi se ghi ra ngoai cung tron. D<}.t ON thl chu s6 kkh thuOc dAi, gOc se luOn ghi 0 trong, con kich thuoc ducrng kfnh, ban kinh ghi 0 trong cung tron. 122
  • DimSCALE: d~1 tY I~ cua dch thu&:, VD: 12 DimlOFL: d~1 ON thl dulmg kich thu&: luOn vo ben trong 2 duimg d6ng. - T~okii!u viel chil, dilug I¢nh STYLE. 6. C~I giil ban vi! khiri Ihuy (PD) vita Il,lo, dung I~nh SAVE AS vOl ten mm, vi dl "A4.dwg". BAIT~p 2 Sir dmg cae each cho t<;>a d() tuy¢t d6i, t<;>a" d() mang d6i (@) ella diem de vi! hlnh. a. Ve tam giae deu nhu hinb 1 -I¢nh OPEN rna ban vo khi1i thuy (A4.dwg, bili I~pl i1 tren) - Command: line From point: <chi con tro cho 1 diem tren man hinh> To point: @60<60 <choP2> To point: @60<-60 <cho P3> To point: c <dong kin tharm tam giac> ~p~,--L------------L--~~P4 P'f-_--,,60"-_-1.1"' Hlnbl H"mh2 b. V@ hinh thang C3n nhu hlnh 2 Hiiy sit dl:mg d. 2 each cho tQa de) tt1ang d6i: - @ p«p (loa d¢ cIC luang d6i ) -@ x2,y2 (so vm diem xl,yl da c6) BAIT~P 3 VO hlnh duOi day vm be rQng ntl a 0,7. Hiiy. oiI dyng I~nh PLINE(l~nh nay dn thiel trong vo 3 chieu) voi Osnap rnode/CEN vlIl~nh PEDIT. HuUng d!n vo bftng 2 each: a. Cach 1: cho b~ t1)ng n~t(width) IJ1Itjc khl ye polyline 1. ~nh open rna ban vi! khiri thuy .. A4.dwg" (bal ,*p 1 da lam) 2. Vi ebu vi ngoai, drra hi r~ng n~t 0.7 vao b"rl6r khi 1'1 Command: pline From point: <dung con trb cho P1> Current line wi""th is 0 Arc/Close/Halfwidlh/Length/Undo/Width/<Egd poinl of line>: W Den day b~ dap W de! cho be r¢Ig 001 0.7 thl ti'r.day vo polyline se c6 be [~ng 1.0.7; Cl the nhu sau: . Startingwidth<... >: 0.7 Ending width<... >: 0.7 123
  • Arc/Oose/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>: @120,0 Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/UndofWidth/<End point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwith/Line/Radius/Secondpoint/ Undo/Width/<End point of arc>: @O,-IOO Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwith/Line/Radius/Secondpoint/ Undo/Width/<End point of arc>: I Arc/Close/HalfwidthjLength!UndofWidth/<End point of line>: @-120,0" Arc/Oose/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>: @0,20 Arc/Oose/... /Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Line/Radius/Secondpoint/Undo/ Width/<End point of arc>: R Radius: 30 Angle/<Endpoint>: @0,60 Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwith/Line/Radius/Secondpointl UndofWidth/<End point of arc>: 1 Arc/Oose/Halfwidth/Length/UndofWidthl<End point of line>: c P1 P2 3. Vo du/mg Iron $50 eli b~ r(lngnet 0.7 Command: donut Inside diameter< ... >: 49.65 Outside diameter< ...>: 50.35 Center of doughnut: <dung Osnap/CEN va chi V30 cung tron> Center of doughnut: .j b. Cach2: ve vOi be rQng net m~c dfnh, chua cho be r(mg net 1. Ve chu vi ngoai Command: pline From point: <dung con tro cho PI> Current liI)e width is 0 Arc/Oose/Halfwidth/Length/UndofWidth/<End point of line>: <cho P2> - Ve ti€p cac do~n khac tUC1Ilg tl;t nhu phAn a 0 tren. - G9i I¢nh PEDIT d6i b< rQng net thanh wdJ.7: Command: pedit Select polyline: <chi vao polyline da v~> Open/Join/width/Editvertex/Fit/Spline!Decuve/LtypeGenjUndo/eXit<... >: w 124
  • Enter new width for all segments: 0.7 Open/Join/width/Editvertex/Fit/.../LtypeGen!Undo/eXit< ... >: .J 2. Vo duimg trim $50 c6 be r(lng net 0.7 nhu;' philn a lJ tren BAIT~P 4 Ve ehi tiet may dum day. Huang dan sau sir d~ng cae ·l¢nh CIRCLE, LINE, COPY, Osnap/CEN ... theo tdnh tv sau: 1. Vo 2 duimg trim d6ng tam $30, $50 phia tren dinh - l¢nh open mb ban vo khlri thuy (A4.dwg) - Command: circle (ve dUOng tron ~30) 3P/2PfITR/<Center point>: <dung chu¢t chi 1 diem> Diameter/<Radius>: 15 - Command: offset (ve duemg trOn ~50) offset distance or Throught<Throught>: 10 Select object to offset: <chi vao duemg trim ~30> Side to offset: <chi 1 diim viing ngoru duang tron ~ 30> Select object to offset: .J o ~ Ii '80 2. Vi! 2 duimg Ir/)o $30, +50 phis cltnlI.WI plulJvlt Wn Inii - Command: copy Select objects: <Chi vao 2 duimglron+30, +.50> Select objects: .J <Base point or displacement>/Multiple: cEN of <chi vao du<mg tron ,SO> Second point of displacement: @90,-110 - Command: copy Select objects: P <Previous> Select objects: .J <Base point or displacement>/Multiple: CEN 125
  • of <chi vao dui1ng tron ~SO> Second point of displacement: @-90,-llO 3_ Ve 2 tie'p tuy€n ben ph.i, ben trai - Command: line Frompoint: TAN To a <chi vao dUCmg trOD $50 tren dinh> 10 point: TAN To <chi vao duang tron $50 ben trai> To point: .J - l~p l~i nha v~y de ve tie'p tuyen ben phai. 4_ Ve eung tiep xue R150 - Command: circle 3P!2PfTIR/<Center point>: TTR Enter tangent spec: <chi vao dUCmg trOD $50 ben tnii> Enter second tangent spec: <chi vao duang trlm $50 ben phai> Radius< ...>: 150 - command: Trim (ch~t cae cung thua) Select cutting edges .,_ Select objects: <chi vao 2 dUOng trOD ~50 ben trai, phai va 2 duemg th~ng ti€p tuy€n tnii, phai> <Select objects to trim>/Undo: <chi vilo phAn dum cung R150 va phla dl100 duimg tron ~SO trtn dinh> <Select objects to trim>/Undo: .J 5_ Ve trlle d6i xUng - I~h linetyPe/set de g9i ki~u dui1ng center ra vi!: Command: Linetype ?/Create/LOad/Set: L Linetype(s) to load: Center Linetype(s) to load: .J - Command: line' Line From point: CEN <vi! In!C di qua tAm dui1ng trOn <>SO ph!a trtn dinh> of <chi V30 tron $50 tren dinh> To point: 4n F8 va di chu"t xu6ng duOi d~ chi di~m tha 2 cua ~c> - dung I~nh MOVE dm trl!c nay len cho clln Mi. BAIT~P 5 Ve hlnh chieu cua chi tiet may dum da.y, ~ r(mg net ve Ii'!. O.Smm. 1. Ve cbu vi Dgo~i - I~nh open mo bim vi; kMi thuy (A4.dwg) - ve chu vi ngoai dung l~nh PLINE (hay PL) : Command: pi From point: <cm 1 di!m A tren man hlnb> Current line width is 0.000 Are/Oose/Halfwidth,lLengthNndo/Width/<End point of line>: w Starting width<...>: 0.5 Ending width< ...>: 0.5 Arc/Oose/Halfwidth/LengthNndo/Width/<End point of line>: @11S,0 126
  • -1'> .r, , 7 5B 1 , B , < 94 74 Arc/Oose/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLoselDirection/HalfwidthlLine/... /Width/<End point of arc>: @0,-90 Angle/CEnter/CLoselDirection/HalfwidthlLine/... /Width/<End point of arc>: L Arc/Oose/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width/<End point of line>: @-168,0 Arc/Oose/Haifwidth/LengthfUndo/Width/<End point of line>: a Angle/CEnter/CLose/DirectiooJHafwidth/Line/... . /Width/<End point of arc>: @0,68 Angle/CEnter/CLose/Directioo/Haifwidth/Line/... /Width/<End point of arc>: L Arc/Oose/Haifwidth/LengthfUndo/Width/<End point of line>: @53,0 Arc/Oose/Halfwidth/LengthfUndo/Width/<End point of line>: c 2, Dung I~nh FILLET d~ IU<!D trim 2 goc I.:!i A va B Command: fillet PolylinelRadius/<Select first objest>: R Enter fillet radius: 7 Command: .J Polyline/Radius/<Select first objeHl>: . P Select 2D polYline: <chi v~o polyline dii vi!> 3, V~ CiIc du/mg Iron _ trong F34 va F4S .' - Qe vi! dutmg tron 4>34 c6 ~ ~ng n6t Il 05, ~ dMg I~ DONUT (xem bai ~p 3) 4, Vi! 16 khuill va CiIc dU/mg I",c . - l¢nh line vi! tt1!c dUng di qua tarn duimg tron b!n pOOi <1>45 nhu sau (I> dAy vhl dilng dUOng continuous): Command: line From point: CEN of <chi VB-O dumag trim <D45> Th point: <Jfn F8 va keo Ie con tro len sal mep tren mm hlnh, blfrn phfm chu~t de! xac dinh dic!m thll 2 cus tt1!c dUng> - l¢nh MOVE diJi trl,lc d6 xu6ng cho can d6i Ve cae trl;lc ngang cling tuang ll! 127
  • - l~nh OFFSET VO trl!c cua lO khu~t va 2 dUOng khuM: Command: offset Offset distance or throught<Throught>: 74 <ve tr~c 10 khua.:t> Select object to offset: <chi vao tIl,lC dUng da ve> Side to offset: <chi 1 di~m 0 ben tnii ~c> Hai duang khua't cung dung l¢nh offset wong tt! - l~nh CHANGE de thay dOi kieu dUOng: Command: change Select object: <chi V3.0 cae- ~c dUng va ngang> Properties/<Change point>: p Change what property(Color/Elev/Layer/LTypefThicknees)?: LT New linetype< ... >: center De thay d6i d.c dl1Cmg continuous thanh cae dl1Cmg dlit{hidden) cung lam tl1C1ng tl. BAIT~P 6 Ve hloh chit!u eua chi ti~t may dum dAy. . 10 YO dau ben Irai - rna blm ve khOi thuy A4.dwg - l~nh RESfANG vo hinh chi! nhAt, dlnh tha nhilt cbo bfutg 'con tro, dinh tha 2: @96,-80 - l¢nh circle ve duemg tron ben trong: Command: circle 3DI2DfITR/<Center point>: oX of <bat diem giua MID q.nh nAm ngang eua hloh chfr nh~t> (need YZ): oY of < bat di~m giUa MID qnh thfing dUng eua hloh chii' nh~t> (need z): 0 Diameter/<Radius>: 24 - l~nh FILLETlugn 2 goc R13 20 YO pMn ben ph"i - l¢nh line ve cac t~c th~ng dUng, n~.m ngang qua HIm 0 - l¢nh OFFSETtIQc mam ngang voi khoang cach 5 de ve 16 ~10. khoang cach 20 ve tn~c $40; sau do offset tflc thkg dUng v6i khoiing cach 54 va 176 - l¢nh ARC v6i h,ra ch9n Start, End,Radius de ve cac eung R13 - l¢nh trim eh~t cae do..,.n thira 128
  • - ~nh CHAMFER vat d~u 2x45° 3. Dung I~nh change dili cae duimg true tMnh dUimg cenler, duimg bao 16 +10 !banh duimg hidden. BAIT~P 7 Ve hloh chieu cua chi tiet sau day. Hu6ng dan nay se dung cac l~oh CIRCLE, LINE, OFFSET, CHANGE, 1RIM. Osnap/CEN ... theo cae bucle: ". 1. Vi! 2 duimg Iron d6ng lam I~i 011a +60,+100 - rna: ban ve khOi thuy A4.dwg - l~nh circle ve duang tron $60 - I¢nh ofset ve dUCmg trim +100 2. Vi! 2 duimg Iron d6ng tam I~i 02 la +60, +30 - l¢nh copy de copy duang tron +60 sang trai khoang each Ia 150. ~ dung l~nh circle vai osnap/CEN di ve duemg tron $30. 3. Vi! liep tuyen dulii viii duimg Iron +100 v8 +60 - l¢nh line v6i osnaprrAN. 4. Vi! eung tjep xue R80 vOi +100 v8 +60 - I¢nh eirclefITR - l~nh trim ch~t cung thita 5. Vi! cae duimg lAm Ihang dUng, nam ngang Il!i 01 V8 02 - l~nh line vOi osnap/CEN va F8 6. Vi! 2 duimg ngang each nhau 15, va cae 16 +16 -1~nh offset, chQo duemg tam ngang di qua 0102 dua 1m 7.5 va xu6ng 7.5 - l~nh offset, chQn duang tam thiing dUng qua 01 dl1a sang tnii 8 va sang phai 8; tuang tI! chQn duemg tam thiing dUng qua 02 va dl1a sang tnii 8, sang phai 8. - l~nh trim ch~t cac phan thua. 7. D6i ki~u dU<mg net -l~nh change vai Iva chQn LTYPE d6i cac duang 16 +16 thanh net dm(hidden}, dOi cae duang tam thanh net tam(center}. 129
  • BAI T,,"P S Vi! hlnh chieu cua chi tia may dtroi ! .. dfiy. Trong huang dAn n~y sir d~ng cae I~nh CIRCLE, OFFSET, MIRROR, I ... MOVE, TRIM, CHAMFER, Osnap '" theo cae buOc sau: I! ~ ~ 1. Mlr ban ve khOi thuy, ve 2 trl!c & thiing d(mg(>170), nam ngang(>220) qua A: dung I~nh line vOi FS. ~ ~f-J $60 2. YO 2 duimg trim d6ng tam $30, -l~nh circle ve duemg trem ~30 tam t~j diem A(giao ella 2 t"!c) ~~ " 5'.,1 r ,. ,. "?... ~~ - I~nh offset vo $60 tiI $30 tfim A -l~nh move doi 2 duang tron$30, $60 do toi Ol(@-80,O 3. Vii phan treD - Offset tr1,lc dUng sang tnii 40, offset tf'.1C ngang sang len treo 140 - l¢nh chamfer vat goc giua 2 dl1tmg thAng do voi 2 phia vat 18. 8 - l~nh circle(lTR ve cung tiep xt1c v6i dUCmg tron ~60 va dUCmg thang dUog - l¢nh trim chiflt cung thua cua duemg trim ti~p xuc d6 - l¢nh mirror My d6i xling Uit ca phAn btn phai tr~c dUng sang btn tnii 4, Ve tlep tuyen duO! vOi 2 duimg tron $60 - l¢nh line vOi osnap(fAN 5, V~ duOng bao 16 ben trong -I~nh circle vi! dullng tron R15 c6 tAm tai A(giao 21n!e) -I~nh.copy <Ii copy R15 do len tren doan 70 - I~nh line/I1R vo 2 tieF lUyen tra~ pMi vOi 2 duang tron R IS - l~h trim ch~t coic cung thira cua duang tron ~ 15- - l¢nh move dM duemg bao trong vila viS tu A len B 26 54 BAIT,,"P 9 Ve ban ve lfip nhu hinh 1. Huang dAn n~y chu yeu v6 t~o lap, kh6i, chen kh6i, g~ch rn~t cat, ghi kfch thl1ac cho ban ve; phin ve CCJ ban coi nhu da thl!c hanh. 1. T ....o cae lOp - rnb b~m ve khbi thuy (A4.dwg) - I~nh LAYER tao lOp "crt" ~t rn~lU blue, duemg continuous va lap "Cf2" d~t mau white, duemg continuous. 2 Hinh 1 130
  • 2. V~ chi IfEI 1 va I~o kh6i -I~nh LAYER dua lap "CTI" ra hi~n thm • - Ve vit l(dung l~nh line, phfm F8 ve duemg nam ngang va thimg dUng, sau d6 du_og CaG lenh offset, trim, arc ... ) . -I~nh BLOCK dua hlnh ve vit I th'nh block d~tttn I. "Vit", diem co so I. A (blnb 2a). 3. Ve chi li<'1 2 - I~nb LAYER dua lap "CT2" ra hi~ thm - l~nh line ve dU(mg n~ ngang va th~ng dUng di qua diem A, sau do dung cae l~nh offset, circle, trim ... lJ day chua dn ve 16 ren, chua g<;lch m~t ck , 4. CMn block "Vii" vao hlnh ve chi liel 2 , - l¢nh INSERT. de ch~n block "Vit" vao hloh ve chi ti€t 2, diem chen 13. A, ty 1¢ chen=} , gOc xoay=O - dung cae l¢nh trim ch~t cae net thua, l¢nh line ve them phlin 16 ren BLOCK "Vit" "<0 a) OJi tit"t 1 b) OJi lilt 2 Hinh 2 5. G~cb m~1 dlt, gbi kich thOOc, vlEI cbit vii" ban vi _ - I~nh BHATCH (ho¥ HATCH) di ~h nt~t<,:At. ; . ' -I~nb DIM ghiklch tillm;:(chuy klt,~I,d61~.I>nc>des vill~ zoom) , -,Itnh DTEXT eli vitlehll,'iIao bOn.e'" .. " -',. ,',- - '~-' ",' " BAI T.,.P 10 Ve bOn ve I~p 3 cbi titl moiy dum day. 1. T~o dlc 16p cho ban ve - mer biin ve khiri thily -lap thd nhlit ttn lap la,HCft ", mau blue, duemg continuous -lap thtl 2 ten lap 13. "CT2", mau white, duemg continuous - lap thu 3 ten lap la "CIT', mau green, duemg continuous 2. G9i 16p "CTl" ra d~ ve chi liil Irllc 1 va ~o khOi - g9i lap "CTI" ra bi~n tboi (ltnb layer) - viS tflC 1 (l~nh line, offset, chamfer, trim ... ) 131
  • -lenh block tao kh6i e6 ten "TRUC", ehQIl diem co sir 13 A . .' 3. G1)i lOp "CT2", "CT3" ra ve chi tie'! 2,3 - gQi lap "CT2" d~ viS chi tiet 2, gQi lap "CD" de viS chi tiet 3, viS duang tfl;lc nam ngang cua 16 di qua diim A (ll dfty chua viS 16 va chua g~ch m~t catcho 2 chi tiet nay). 4. Chen kh6i "TRUCr' vao hlnh ve chi tiet 1,2 - l¢nh INSERT de chen kh6i ten "TRUCI". diem chen Ia A cua 16; . - dung cae l¢nh trim ch~t cae net thila. 5. G:,tch m~t cAt, ghi kfch thuac, viet chfi V30 baD ve - l¢nh BHATCH (ho~e HATCH) de g~eh mat cAt; . -l¢nh DIM ghi kich thu<Jc (eho y kiOt hqp bfit d6i tm;mg-osnap modes va l¢nh zoom); - l~nh DTEXT de viet chu vao ban ve. BAIT~P 11 . Ve ban ve U.p ella 4 chi tiet may (hlnh 1). Huang da.n cae builc thl,tc hi¢n nhtl sau: Hiob 1 1. Tao 3 lOp - rna ban ve khai thuy; - l¢nh layer t<.t0 cae lap c6 ten Hi "CT3,4", mall blue, ki~u duemg continuous; lap "CT2", mall white, duemg continuous; lap "crI", mall red, ducmg continuous. 2. Vi! chi tiet 3,4 va t~o khoi - l¢nh layer g,?i lap co t~n "CT3,4" ra hi~n thai; 132
  • - ve nhom chi tiet 3,4 (xem each ve- dliu vit 6 qmh duOi day, hinh 2); - Mnh block tao kh6i cho nhom chi tiet 3,4, ten kh6i Ia "VIT", diem co sa Ia A. . . 30 Ve chi tiet 1,2 - g<;>i lOp "crl" de ve chi tiet I, g<;>i lOp "Cf2" ve chi tiet 2. 40 ~Dh insert de chen kh6i "Vit" V30 16 chi tiet 2, diem chen la A - dung d.c l~nh trim ch~t d.c net thua. 50 G ....ch m;)t cat, ghi kich thucJC, viet chi! va cat baD ve trong thu ml;lc "TEM" vOi teD "op-trt,Ic"o CACH VE DAU VIT 6 C~NH Cac kich thu6c clla dAu VIt 6 c<,mh dl1qc Hnh nhl1 sau: cho vit M34 --) d=34 mm khoang cach tit t:n,Ic thftng dUng tai dc qmh dUng dAu l1,lc lang = d/2 = 17, ban kinh cung giua qua B Iii R= 1,5. d = 51. (hlnh 2a) ill 4 .r + + I , 3 ~. " ~ I , I I M a) b) Hioh 2 I. Vi! cac t~c th~ng dUng (>100), nam ngang (>80) di qua A. 2. L~nh offset dua t~c ngang qua A ten, xu6ng thea cac kich thu6c 3, 30, 60, 43; dua tr1,lc dUng qua A sang trai dO<,ln 17 va 34. 3. Ve dUCmg tron R51 di qua B, lenh circle/2P (duang tron qua 2 mut clla 1 duemg kinh) 4. Ve duang th!ng di qua giao di6m I clla dl1Cmg tron Rl5 dt duemg th:ing dUng ngoai qua D. Sau dol~nh trim ch~t phfin ~n phai di~m K cua dUCmg th!ng d6 (con l~i dO<,ln IK). 5. Vi! dUCmg tron tam E ta diem giUa doan IK, ban kinh ia EC. 6. VO do.n thAng di qua D va nghieng 30", d~ dai toy y (@20<30), . 7. L¢nh trim chi~.t dc dO<,ln thua, I¢nh change d6i kie-u net clla t~c dUng AB thaoh net center, ta co hlnh 2b. 8. L¢nh mirror My d6i xUng dc hinh vtra vi! sang phai tr1;lC dUng AB, ta co hlnh ve ho~m chinh cua vong d~m 3 va vit 4 nhu hlnh 1. BAr T~P 12 Ve ban vi! lllp cua 4 chi tiel nhu hlnh du61 da.y. Huang din co sir d1,lng cac l¢nh circle, line, copy, offset, trim, layer, block, insert, dim, hatch, dtext, osnap/CEN,lNT, sketch ... thea cac buac sau: 133
  • 1. T~o cac lap - rna ban ve khbi thuy; - l¢nh layer ~o ca.c lap co t~n "CTl,2", mall blue, dl10ng continuous; lap "Cf3", mall '. white, duemg continuous; 16'p"CT4", mall red, net continuous. 2. VO cbi tiet 1,2 va t~o tMnb kMi - gQi lap "crl,2~' fa hi¢n thOi; - ve chi tiet 1 va 2; - l¢nh block ~o kh6i cho chi tiet 1,2 co ten Ia "CAN_SO", di~m co sa Iii A. 3. Ve.chi tiet 3,4 - vo 2 duimg tron $20, $40 d6ng tAm iJ 01; - l~nh copy de copy duimg tron $40 tm 02. sau do vo $68; - l¢nh line v6i osnapffAN de ve 2 tiep tuyen vm $40 va $68; - I~nb line vm osnap/CEN vo tnJc dUng (> 130), ngang (>200) qua 02; - l¢nh offset dua tI¥c ngang xu6ng 60 de cotrl,lc ella 16 vit qua A. Ll;li offset dua tn,Ic 16 vit xu6ng 11 len 11 va xu6ng 27; -l¢nh offset d~a ~c dUng sang tnii 130 de co tI¥c di qua 01, sang trai cae do'!." 3,28 va sang phiii 3, 18; - l¢nh circle/TIR de ve duemg trim tiep xuc R30 vCri. 2 duemg thAng; - de ve duemg Im;m song gi6i h~ philo cat rieng philo tren chi tiet 3 c6 2 cach sau: a- l¢nh pline ve duang gAp khuc (do~n ngan) lien tii!p, sau d6 trim chJilt bOt pM.n thita ~n ngoai; b- l¢nh sketch ve duemg ttl do theo duemg di con tr6: Command: sketch Record incremend< ... >.: 1 <cho dt) dai buac di con tnh Sketch Pen eXit Quit Record Erase Conect B~ An phim tnii chut)t giG' va di theo duemg b~n mu6n, khi dUng l~i hay nhay phim trai chuQt Ian nITa deng&t. Cuoi cimg go R ghi vao ban ve; - l¢nh trim chJilt cung thita va cac do~n th~ng thita. 134
  • 4. Unh insert chen khm eliten "CAN SO" - lenh insert chen kh6i "CAN SO" vito hlnh viS ella chi tiet 3,4; diem chen Hi A; - d'rmg l¢nh trim, line df ch~t ~ac do~n thua va. ve them duemg 16 ren; - l¢nh bhatch g<:tch m~t cat. 6. L~nh save as-cat ban ve vao thu m~c "TEM" v6i. ten bim vi!: 13 "can_so.dwg" 2. H110NG DAN cAc BAI T~P VE TRONG 3D BAI T~P 13 VO vAt the d~e(Solid) nhu hinh duai dAy. Hu6ng diin nay sil dl,lng cae l~nh SOLBOX, SOLCYL, SOL- MOVE, SOLCHAM, SOLEDGE, SOLSUB, SOLUNION, ALIGN, UCS, MIRROR '" tien hanh theo cae Quae sall dfiy: I. Vi! de duO; - rna ban ve khdi thuy va dung I¢nh VPOINT/(I,-l,l) ho~e DVIEW. Command: solbox Base plane/Center/<Comer of box>: <chi 1 diim PI> Cu be/Length/<Other corner>: L Length: 00 Width: 90 Height: 30 2. Vi! Ihimh ben pha; (hlnh h>p ehii nh~l) • l¢nh UCS /0 duo UCS tm dinb A iJ m~t Iren: Command: UCS OriginlZaxis!3 points/.. ./<World>: 0 Origin point<... >: <bAt dinb A phi. teen de> Command: UCSicon (hi~n bic!u tIIQI1g UCS iJ s6c ,moo) ON/OFF/All/Noorigin/ORigin/<ON>: OR" , • l¢nb solbox, cho dinb cu. box l~ A, 1.=20, W=90, H=90: Command: solbox.· , Base plane/Center/<comer of box>: <bat dinh A> Cube/Length/<Other comer>: L Length: 20 Width: 90 Height: 90 - l¢nh solmove/tx80 de dCri thanh nay sang phai tit A t6"i B: Command: solmove Select objects: <chi kh6i chu nh~t wa ~e>
  • Select objects: .J ?/<Motion description>: txSO ?/<Motion description>: .J 3. Ve kh6i tr~ . -I~nh soleyl (DCS vAn" A), t~m day In! Iii A, R=30, Height=40: Command: soleyl Base plane/Elliptical/<Center point>: 0,0,0 (UeS vAn" A) Diameter/<Radius>: 30 Center of other endl<Height>: 40 -l¢nh so1cyl/B de ve t~ trong co m~t ph~ng co so (day du6i trl,l) la day dum de, R=15, Height=70: Command: . soleyl SOLCYL Base plane/Elliptical/<Center point>: B (UCS vAn iJ A) Base plane by Entity!Last/Zaxis/XY /yZaX!<3 points>: 3 Fist point on plane: <bat dinh A> 2nd point on plane: <bat dinh B> 3rd point on plane: <bM dinh thu 3 cUa day tren> Base plane by Entity!Last/Zaxis/XY/YZaX!<3 points>: .J Diameter/<Radius>: 15 Center of other endl<Height>: 70 - l¢nh solmove/tx40 va ty45 dCri 2 kh6i II¥ do too tam day tren: Command: solmove Select Objects: <chi vao 2 II¥> ?/<Motion description>: tx40 -?/<Motion description>: tx45 ?/<Motion description>: .J 4. Ve rAnh tr~n thiinh ben phili - l¢nh UCS/o chuyen UCS tm diem giUa Cella qmh dai wii-tren cua thanh phai: Command: ues OrigirvZaxis/3 points/. .. /<World>: 0 Origin point< .. >: MID of <bat diem giua C > -I~nh solOOx, cho dinh dAn Iii (0,-30.-25), L=20, W=60, H=25: Command: solbox Base plane/Center/<Comer of box>: 0,-30,-25 Cube/Length/<Other comer>: L Length: 20 Width: 60 Height: 25 5. Ve mop vat cu. de Command: solcham Pick base surface: <chi c~nh du61 ~n trai de> Next/<OK>: N Next/<OK>: .J Pick edge of this face to be chamfered(Press ENTER when done): . <chi 2 c~nh dUng ben trai cua de>
  • Enter distance along base surface< .. >: 0 Enter distance along base surface<...>: 0 6. Vo 2 gan lam giac - Command: solwedge Base plane/<Comer of wedgex... >: <bat diem B> Length/<Other comer>: L Length: -IS Width: 0 Height: IS - Command: copy Select objects: <chi vao gAn wedge> select objects: .J <Base pOint or displacement>/Multiple: <bat g6c gan B> Second point of displacement: @O,80,-90 (UCS vAn iJ C) 7. Tao Ihanh solid da hqp - Command: solsub· Select objects: <chqn kh6i b! triI a thllnh chi! nh~t ~n M, kMi trilla rfulh chu nh~ ben tren cung> - Command solsub- Select objects: <chon kh6i b! trill. de, In! (m, kh6i triI a In! bl!> - Command: solunion Select objects: <chQn all> BAI T~P 14 Vo v~t thl! ~c duai day (hlnh I). Huang dAn sir d~ng cac I¢nh SOLBOX, SOLCYL, SOLREV, SOLSUB, SOLUNION, SOL- MOVE, SOLEXT, SOLFILL, SOLSECT, SOLCUT, UCS. ALIGN. COPY... theo dic bucrc sau: 1. Vo d€ duOl - rno bIIn vo khm thuy va goi I¢nh VPOINT(I,.I,I) hay I¢nh DVIEW xem anh 3D; - l¢nh solbox,' cho dinh B, L=150, W=IOO, H=30, (chua lU1!l tron g6o). 2. V. gil b~n Irai de' - l¢nh ues chuyen h¢ ues lfmh 1 tm g6c A; - l¢nh pline ve duemg chAn de b m~t tren de; - l¢nh solext nang l~n chifu cao h=8, g6c vu6t a= 106 ~ 137
  • 3. Ve2 IH20 ciia go - I~nh UCS.chuyen ues tm g6c B; -I~nh soleyl chQn tam day In! dum (0,0.0), R=IS, h=1O (16 rong dum); -I~nh soleyl/B de cho tam day In! nhi> tren t~i'(O,O,IO), R=IO, h=40 (cao hon de); - I~nh solmove/tx20 vA ty20 de dlri 2 In! d6 tm dung vi trl; - I~nh solsub, kh6i bi trir lil de, glr, kh6i trir ta 2 16 In!. 4. V~ kho. chii' nh,t ben ph,,; - I~nh ues, dua h~ ues tm C; -I~nh solbox,dinh dOu lil C, L=-60, W=IOO, H=70. 5. V~ ranh cua khO; chI} nhj).t - I~nh UCS, dlri ues t6i D; a - l¢nh pline ve profile Tanh m~t tren kh6i elill nh~t (profile va tf1:1C khep kin pline); - I~nh solrev quay polyline quanh dulmg thing n6i 2 diem gifta 2 qnh tren kh6i chii nh~)l t<.to thanh kh6i tron xoay; - l¢nh solsub, kh6i bi triI lit kh6i chu nh~t, kh6i tru la kh6i tron xoay. 6. T~o solid da h'1P - l¢nb solunion, chQn de, ga, kh6i chu nh~t. 7. T~o cae g6c lu(,ll1 - I~nh solfill, chQn 2 c~h dUng ben trai de, R=20; - l¢nh soltill, chQn c'.lIlh trai-du6i kh6i chu nh~t, R=15. Den dAy b~ do vo xong v~t the. Nhung de lilm ro cau ~o ben ttong v~t the, b~ ~o tMm m~t ciit vA g6c cat cho v~t the (hlnh 2) nbu sau: a) , ~ b) I Hlnhl • '-/ 8. TaO m~t dlt qua tam 2 16 cUa go - I~nh UCS, dlri M ues tm g6c mm 1A tam duimg trOn day dUm 10 In!; - l¢nh soisect, chQn m~t elit HI. (YZ); - l¢nh move, dCri. m~t cAt fa ngo~i. 138
  • 9. T~o g6c cit - l~nh soleut, m~t phing cat la (YZ) va (ZX), lua ch9n B (both); - l~nh move dui ph.in gOc cat nhc, ra ngoai; - l¢nh solunion, ch(;m d.c pMn hi cal d~ ~o l<;li solid da hqp. 10. Gtch m~tclt - l¢nh bhatch g~ch m~t cat v~t the dang iJ trong m~.t ph~ng (ZX); -l¢nh UCS/z de xoay h¢ ues quanh z mQt g6c 90°, trung '-(oi m~t cat th6 2 cua v~t the. Bay gicr b~n dung l~nh bhatch d~ g~ch m~t cat thu 2. BAI T~P 15 Vo cita s6 trong 2D (hinh I) va dua vao khOng gian 3D (hinh2). Huang dan c6 sir di)ng cac I~nh PLINE, OFFSET. COpy. MOVE, DIVIDE, VPOINT ho~c DVlEW, CHANGE, SOLIDIFY. SOLSUB, SOLUNION. SOLMESH, HIDE ... , ""l. - - - . thea cae bu6c sau: I ~ D' 1. VO duimg bao cira s6 trong 2D (hinh I) '. - rna him viS khm thuy; - I~nh PLINE vo dulmg bao ngoal; -'& - I~nh OFFSET vai khoimg cach = 10 M vo , duang bao trong; , £ - l~nh PLINE vo d6 thing dang fQng=4, dili han duemg bao trong nhung be han dUOng bao , ngoai; viS fn;ic d6i x6ng thing d6ng ella d6 (hay , viS do d ngoai); B - I~nh PLINE vo d6 ngang rQng=4, dai hun 'duemg bao trong nhl1I1g be han dl1Cmg bao ngoai; (,4. viS ~c d6i xling Dam ngang cua do; - l~nh MOVE ho~ ALIGN d11i d6 dang, d6 ngang v~o I1lm 0 cung tron cira s 6 ; ' mob 1 - l~nh DIVIDE chia dO(lIl AB (c~nh trong thing dUng) fa 3 ph4n; - l~nh COpy M copy d6 ngang xu6ng 2 ditm chiapbia dum. 2. T"o cira s6 trong 3D (hlnb 2) - l¢nh VPOINT vm ditmnhln 1,-I,l)h<$:DVlEW Mc6inlin6i5D; - I~nh CHANGEJthicknCs, chi~u . day khung ngoa; = 6, chi6u dAy d6 = 4;. - l~nh SOLIDIFY chuyen thAnh solid; - lenh SOLSUB, kh6i bi nil chi khung ~om ngoai, kh6i trir chi khung vom trong; - I¢nh SOLUNION lien ke"t l~i thanh kh6i da hqp. 3. Xem ilnh trong :m - I~h SOLMESH hi~n solid d~ng lum mesh; lfmb2
  • - L~nh HIDE xem v~t the! be cAc ducrng n6t khu~t ; ho~c RENDER d~ng t6 bOng. BAI T~P 16 qp ban vo chi ti€t GlA DO nhu hlnh 1. Sau day huang dan 1 cach vo: 0 '" -. N til ; I : , ,, , , , , " I. 112 ,I R24 o ~l 1. Vo val Ih~ 3D aj Chudn bi bdn .t" kMi thrl,.: . • OPEN: l~ rna bOn.ekhl!i tluiYfvl dl/: M.d,i..gj.N6u chilli c6th! ~ mm.. • VPOINT: cho dic!m nhln (1,-1,1) de .quan~aim v~t 1M 3D d~ hlnh chieu lI1!C do VUOng g6c dc!u. Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point>: i.-I,I • LAYER chon M: de! t~o I~ mm. Wn 18 3D ~ dua III hi~ !hOi . Command: layer ?/Make/Set/New/ON/OFF/... /Unlock: M New current layer <>: 3D ?/Make/Set/New/ON/OFF/... /Unlock: -' bjVi"2kMidt: • PLINE: dimg l~nh nay vo chu vi 1 chan d€ (hlnh 1) Command: pline 140
  • From point: chi 1 dibn tily Ybang chu"t Arc/Close/Halfwidthl .../Widthl<Endpoint of line>: @0,70 Arc/Close/Halfwidth/ .../Width/<Endpoint of line>: A (M ve cung) Angle/Center/Close/ .../Line/Radius/.../Widthl<Endpoint of arc>: .@36,0 Angle/Center/Close/ .../Line/Radius/ .../Widthl<Endpoint of are>: L (ve line) Arc/Close/Halfwidthl .../Widthl<Endpoint of line>: @0,-70 Arc/Close/Halfwidth/ .../Width/<Endpoint of line>: A (M ve cung) Angle/Center/Oose/ .../Line/Radius/ .../Width/<Endpoint of arc>: CL * CIRCLE: vi! 2 duemg tron 0 18 ben trong dUCmg pline do Command: circle 3P/2PfITR/<Center point>: CEN of (b3.t tAm cung tron cua pline da vel Diameter/<Radius>: 9 Command:.J (Hip 1~ l~nh de ve vong tron thil 2 tuoog n!, xem hinh 2a) 0) c) /Ilnhl • SOLEXT(Extrljde): nang dlllmg pline vA2 dullng tron (2D) th8nh solide (3D) Command: solexI (hoAc trenmenu chon MODEL> Extrljde) Select objects:· chQll daang pline va 2 duemg troD Height ofextrljde: 24 (chieu cao) Extrusion taper angle<>: 0 (g6c nang O· ) • COPY: de t~o dE thu 2 Command: copy Select objects: chi vao de thu 1 <Base point or displacement>{Multiple: CEN of (bat Him cung tron dum de) Second point of displacement: @1I2,0 (xem hlnh 2b)
  • c) Ve kh6i chu n~ trtn dE: • SOLBOX: vo kh6i Mp Command: solbox (ho~ MODEL> prinfttives>box ...) Baseplane/Center/<Comer of box><>: 0,0,0 Cobe/Length/<Other comer.>: L (cho chi~u dhl ~) Length: 160 (huang x) . Width: 30 (huang y) Height: 80 (huang z) (hinh 2c) • SOLCYL: vo riinh tfl trtn kh6i h~p vim vo Command: soleyl (ho~c MODEL>primitives>cilynder) Baseplase EllipticaV<Center point><>: B (cho m~t phAng co sO day lf1:1 ZX) Baseplane by Entity(Last/...fXY{Yza;xJ<3 point>: ZX Point on ZX plane<O,O,O>: .J (cho 1 diem t.-tn ZX I. g6c 0,0,0) Baseplase Elliptical/<Center point><>: MID of (bilt diem giiia c'!fib trtn - tnli cua kh6i h~p lam tam day Ifl) Diameter/<Radius>: 40 Center of other endl<Height>: 30 (chieu dhllfl) «em hinh 2c) • MOVE: di chuyen kh6i h~p vi. kh6i Ifl vim vo len trtn 2 de Command: move Select objects: (chi vao cae kh6i ciin di chuy~n) Base point or displacement: MID of (bAt diem giiia c'!fib ngAn ben tnii dum kh6i Mp) Second point,of displacement: MID of (bAt men giiia cua c'!fib trtn de ben tnii) «em hinh 2d) d) T(JO thank .oUd 4a h'!P : • sOLSUB: .~ trlI clio kIl6i tao thAnh 10, rinh Command:" ~ ~M~t) SOurce ob~i.{~·< " ,'." '-~~"-<;,',., -' "~' -.:,- '. • Select objeCls:' (#~#c kblltbjtrikll:" &::"kh6i~tien de) Objects to subtlactftrii'n,ihem...· . . ' -''':''. .' . Select objects: . (chi"Wo "'" kh6i trlIll i«t ciSkb6i Ifl) Bay gill ta dli civ~t th~ 3D . . 2. T~o 4 khuDg cw s6 hlnh chilo • TILEMODE: d~t lil 0 (off) chuy~ _ khOll8 gian gi~y (PSPACE). • LIMITS: d*t gim hlpl VO A4(297 ,2')0)vlll~nh ZOOM/all duo ra man hinh. • LINETYPE: chQn L: ill duilng hidden, center vlo ban vi!. • MVIEW: t~o 4 khung clm sO hinh chi':u Command: mview (ho~c VIEW>Mview>4) ON/OFF/Hideplot/Fit/2/3/4/ .. ./<First point>: 4 Fit/<First point>: F (4 khung clm sO vira khit man hinh) • MSPACE: chuyen ve khOng gian mO hinh. • VPOINT: de chQn diem nhin t.-tn timg khung clm sO hinh chiEu bang, hinh chi€u dang. hinh chi':u c'!fib. TnIOc Mt kich con 1r0 v'o clm sO hinh chi':u bAng :
  • Command: vpoint (ho~c VIEW>setview>view point) Rotate/<View poio!>: 0,0,1 Chu j: nfu hinh chie.. bdng celn xDay, b~n dungl¢nh ROTATE. Bay gio b',m nch chu¢t vao Clla ·s6 hinh chleu dUng (ho~c hlnh chieu qmh) va lam tuong W de cho diem nhln hlnh chiou dUng (ho¥: hlnh chiou.c;mll). • ZOOM: cho ty I¢ b~g nhau (1,2) dtl chioh dQ IOn tren tUng hinh chi€u. Command: zoom All/Center/ .../wiodows/<Scale(X/xp»: 1,2 • MVSETUP chon A: chinh vi trf gi6ng dUng (V), gi6ng ngang(H) giila cac hlnh chieu: Command: mvsetup Align/Create/Scale viewports/... /Undo: A (cm chinh) Angle/Horizontal/Vertical alignmentl ... /Undo? V (chinh dUng) Base point: kieh ehuQt vao hlnh ehieu dling va go END of (bat dinh tnii tren eua hlnh ehieu dUng lam di~m eel sa) Other point: kich ehuQt vao hinh ehieu bang va go END of (Mt dioh a hlnh chiou b~g tuang Ung chinh dUng vm diem co sa) Angle/Horizontal/Vertical alignmentl.../Undo? H (chiohngang) Base point: kich ehu¢t vao hlnh ehieu dUng va go END " of (bilt dinh trai tren cua hlnh chiou dUng lam diem co so) .' Other point: Dch chu¢t vllo hlnh chiou c;mll v~ go END of (bAt dinh i:J hlnh chiou c;mll lUang Ung) Angle/Heriwntal/Vertical alignmentl.../Undo? .J AJign/Create/Scaie viewports/.../Undo: .J Kot qua ta duqc cae hioh crueu nhu tren hlnh 3. IDnh3
  • 3. Hoan chinh hlnh chieu tr':lc do Kfch con tro vao cUa sO hlnh chi~u t:n,J.c do. • VPLAYER chQn N,T: ~o lap mOi(N) ten la TDO va lam tan (T) lap nay. Command: vplayer. ?/FreezefThaw!Reset!Newfrz{Vpvisdflt: N New viewport frozen layer narne(s): TOO ?/Freeze!Thaw!Reset!Newfrz/Vpvisdflt: T Layer(s) to thaw: TOO All/Select/<Current>: ,J ?/FreezefThaw!Reset!Newfrz{Vpvisdflt: ,J • LAYER chQn S: dua lap TOO ra hi~ thm (current). • SOLPROF: di6u khien hi~ imh v~t tit<! 3D chi c6 cac duimg bao vien. Command: solprof (ho~c MODEL>Display>profile solids) Select objects: chQn v~t the 3D select objects: .J Display hidden profile lines on separate layer?<Y>: .J (hi¢n ca.c dUCmg bao .dlua:t tr~n lap ri~ng kh6ng ?) Project pro(t.le lines on to a plane?<Y>: .J (cac duiJng bao d!).t tren 1 m/phiing) Delete tangential edges?<Y>: .J (x6a cac qtnh tiep xuc tren cac m~t?) • LAYER chQn?: xem ten lap duimg khu~t iJ hlnh chi~u tfl!c do (vi du: PH-CIE) • VPLAYER chQn F: Jam dOng 2 lap: 3D va PH-CIE. Hlnh chiEu truc do chi con cac duong bao tha:y Command: vplayer ?/Freeze!Thaw!Reset!Newfrz{Vpvisdflt: F New viewport frozen layer name(s): 3D, PH-CIE All/Select/<Current>: ,J ?/Freeze!Thaw!Reset!Newfrz{Vpvisdflt: ,J • UCS chQn V: chuyenh¢ UCS rOi vi ill co (XY) song song vOi man hlnh d<! hi¢u crunh hlnh chieu tfl:lc do. • Dung eae l~nh hi~u chinh: + EXPLODE: phan ra kh6i v~t the 3D del hieu chinh. + PEDlT: ddi be r<lng net (width) la 0.5 • UCS chQn P: chuyin ues ve vi tdCll. 4. HOlm chlnh hlnh chieu dUng (HCI) Kich con tro vao ciia sO hinh chi·eu dUng. • VPLAYER ch9Jl N,T: M tao lap mOi(N) ten I. HCI va lam tan (I) lap nay. • LAYER chQn S: duo lap mOi HCI ra hi¢n thm. • SOLPROF: dieu khiin hi¢n anh hlnh chieu dUng chi Co cac duimg bao vien. • VPLA YER ch9Jl F: Jam dOng lap 3D. Hlnh chi~u dUng cO cae duimg bao ~y va khMt. • UCS chQn V: chuyen he UCS rOi vi Iri co (XY) song song vOi man h1Ph de hieu chinh hlnh chiEu dUng. • Dung cac I~nh bi~u cblnb: + EXPLODE: phlln ra kh6i V~I Ihe 3D de hieu chinh hlnh chieu dUng. 144
  • + ve th~m duang tI1;lc, ghi kich thuOc ... + PEDIT: dO; b<! cQng net (width) I. 0.5 • UCS chQn P: chuycin UCS v~ vi tri cu. 5. Hoan chinh hlnh chieu bang (HC2) Kfch con teo vao clla s6 hinh chieu bAng. • VPLAYER chQn N, T: ~o lapmm c6 ten HC2 va lam tan lap nay. • LAYER chQn S: dua lap HC2 ca hi~n thm. * SOLPROF: dieu khien hi~n imh hinh chieu bang chi c6 cac duang bao vien. • VPLAYER chQn F: lam dOng 3D. '" UCS chQn V: chuyen h~ ues too vi tei c6 (XY) song song vOO man hinh de hi~u chinh hInh chi~u ba.ng. * Dung cac l~nh hi~u chinh : + EXPLODE: phan ca kh6i v~t tM 3D d6 hi¢u chinh hlnh chieu biing. + ve tn,Ic, ghi kich thuOC ... + PEDIT: dOi b<! cQng net (width) la 0.5 '" UCS chQn P: chuyen ues ve vi tei cu. 6. Hoan chinh hlnh chieu c~nh De hoan chinh hlnh chi!!u qlllh b(llliam tuong "! hoRn chinh hlnh chieu dUng. 7. Hoan cbioh toan .b~ ban ve • LAYER chQn F: liIm dOng lap 3D de! bO cac khung cua cac cira sO va hi~n l~i chi cac hlnh c.bill> thoi. . • PIH'ACE: chuy6n sang khOng gian gi4y;phAng M v~ themk,hung bOn v~. khung len va viet -chu de c6 bim ve hoan chinh. -. '. '~ Cu6i cDng ta c6 ban vo GIA 00 nhu hlnh I: BAIT~P17 '.' . -" "'~. ,.,..j'" 4p bio.n vO chi tiet TAM 00 nhu hlnh I dum day. Sauclaylnt6ngd!nl c4Clrvo 1. V~ v~t th~ 3D a) Chutin hi lnin v'khOi thdy: .' .:. • OPEN: l¢nh rna bio.n vo khlli thuy (vi d'l' A4.dWl!),;,Mfu d1ua :6,thl'''I0 mOl.. • VPOINT: cho ,Mm nhln (I.-I.I)M quan sat8nh ""illl!'3D ~g hlnh chieu tn)c d o v u O n g g 6 c M u . i , "::" . Command: vpoint ; , ": ::f' Rotate/<View point>: 1 , - 1 , 1 · , • LAYER chQn M: de! t~o lap mm ten 11l3D va dua ra hi~n·thm. Command: . layer ?/Make/Set/New/ON/OFF/ .../Unlock: M
  • New current layer <>: 3D ?/Make/Set/New/ON/OFF/.../Unlock: .J b) ve2 khifidi: • SOLBOX: vo kh6i chit nh~1 Command: solbox (ho~ MODEL>Primitives>box) . Baseplane/Cenler/<Comer of boX><>: dung chuQI chi I diem ta dinh hQp , . I '. >,' J .- f ~ L >00 .I ,"0 1_~5x4~ ~)20 0 {) 0 0 Hlnhl Cube/Lengthi<Other comet>: L Length: 160 (huc'mg x) Width: 90 (huc'mg y) Heighl: 15 (huc'mg z) • UCS chon 0: chuyen g6c UCS 1m tam day chu nh~1 m~1 dum de Command: ucs Origin/Zaxis/. ..!?!<World>: 0 Origin poinl<O,O,O>: .X (Ioe loa dQ x cu. 1 diem dii c6)
  • of MID of (bAt dii!m giila CIInh do; m~t dum d€) (need YZ): .Y (IQc tQa d¢ y Clla I diem dii c6) of MID of (bAt dii!m giila c'!nh ngan ~t dum d€) (need Z): 0 Command: UCSICON (lli~n biilu tuc;mg UCS ra g6c mm) ON/OFF/AIV.. ./Origino: OR • SOLCYL: vo kh6i IfI ~20 11 giila d€ Command: soleyl (ho¥ MODEL>Primitives>Cylinder) Baseplane/EllipticaV<Center point><O,O,O>: .J (tam day In! Iii gOc 0,0,0) Diameter/<Radius>: 10 Center of other end<Heigbt>: 100 (chi!!u cao 1fI) a • COPY: copy IfI d6 thAnh 2 tn! 2 ben Command: copy Select objects: ChQD kh6i 1f1:l giita vita ve <Base point or displacement>/Multiple: M Base point: CEN of (bAt tam cung tron day dum IfII~m diilm co sl1) Second point of displacement: @50,0 Second point of displacement: @·50,0 Second point of displacement: .J • SOLCHAM: vAt 4 g6c cua M Command: so1cham (ho¥ MODEL>Modiy>Chamfer solid) Pick base serface: ChQD 1 c~ ddng eua de Next<OK>: .J Picl< edge of this face to be chamfered (press ENTER when done): chQn 2 e'!nh can vat. Enter distance along base surfaceo: IS (d¢ d& vat 1) Enter distance along base surface<>: 15 (d¢ ciai vat 2) Urn tuang n,r de vat cAe e'!nh coo ~. c) Vekhdin611tri1l4#: a • CIRCLE: vo trOn dAy nOO +64 ~Itrende; • SOLEXT(Extrude):'~riang _+64 d61en thloh saM" ConuDand: solext(h,*MODEL>Extrude) Select regions, poiyline and circle for extrusion ... Select objects: chQn troD cjl64 Vita ve Select objects: .J Height of extrusion: 65 (chi~u cao nang l~n) Extrusion taper angle<>: 10 (g6c w6t 10° bang 1/2 g6c dinh n6n) 147
  • d) T~o thanh so!ide 4a h(1p : • SOLSUB: trU cae kh6i thlmh solide da hqp Command: ,olsub (h,* MODEL>Subtract) Source object... Select objects: (chi len cae kh6i bi trU la dO va kh6i n6n tren M) Objects_to subtract from them ... Select objects: (chi vao cae kh6i trU 1a tat ca 3 kh6i tI1;I) 2. T~o 3 khung cira ,6 hloh chieu (viewports) • TILEMODE chQn 0: d~t 0 (of) chuyen sang kh6ng gian giay phlmg (PSPACE) • LIMITS: d~t giUi han blm vo (A4=297,2JO) va I¢nh ZOOM/All duo giUi han vo ra manhinh. • LINETYPE ch9n 1: d~ tlti (Load) cae duang- hidden, center vao ban ve de: sau co the lam hi¢n chung ra ban ve. " -' Hlnbl - -." , • MViEW: de ~o 3 khlllg eira s6 hlnh chieu dUng, hlnh chieu ~IJ. va.bnh chieu true do. . Command: mview (ho~ VIEW:>Mview)" ON/OFF/Hideplot/FitI2/3/4/. ../<First point>: 3 Horizontal/Vertical/.. ./<Right>: .J Fitl<First point>: F (chQn 3 khung vila khit man hlnh) • MSPACE: ehuytn sang kh6ng gian m6 hlnh 148
  • • VPOINT: de chQn diem nhin IItn tlmg khung cira s6 hlnh chieu b~g, hlnh chieu dang. Tru6c het kfch con irQ vao cira s6 hlnh chieu bAng: Command: vpoint (ho~c VIEW>setview>view point) Rotate/<View point>: 0,0,1 , Chu j: neil hl'nh chieu bang can :way, btfn dung 14nh ROTATE. Bay gib' b~ kfch chu¢t vao ciia sO hinh chieo dUng va lam tl1cm.g tI! de cho diem nhin hinh chieu dang. • ZOOM: cho ty I~ b~g nhau (1.4) M chinh dQ Ian tren tlmg hlnh chieu Command: zoom AIVCenter/ .../Windows/<Scale(x/xp»: 1.4 • MVSETUP chQn A: chlnh vi tr! gi6ng dang (V) giila cac hinh chieu Command: mvsetup Align/Create/Scale viewports/ .../Undo: A(ciin chinh vi tn') Angle/HorizontaVVertical alignment/.../Undo? V (chinb dang) Base point: klch chuQt vao hinh chieu dang va go END of (b~t dinh trai Clla de 11 IItn hinh chien dang lAm diem co sa) Other point: Deh chu¢t vao hinh chie'u bAng vA g5 END of (bilt dinh ahinh chieu biing wang ang) Angle/Horizontal/Vertical alignment/ .../Undo? -1 Align/Create/Scale viewports/ ... /Undo: .J Ket qua ta dl1QC cae hinh chien nhl1 tren hinh 2 atren 3, Clit hi> mi)t g6c v~t th~ Kich con tro vao ciia sO hinh chieo uvc do. I. • VPLA YER chQn N ,T: t~o lOp mOl ten COPY3D de sau t~ mQt bAn sao, kbi cAt mQt g6c v~t the se khOng 8.nh huang tm c4c hinh chieu kMc. Sau d6 chQn T(Thaw)lAm tan lOp COPY3D nay. Command: vplayer ?/Freeze{Thaw/Re,et/Newfrr/Vpvisdflt:N New viewport fro",n layer name(s): COPY3D ?/Free",{Thaw/Reset/Newfrr/Vpvisdflt: T. Layer(s) to thaw: COPY3D AIVSelect/<Corrent>: .J ?/Frce",{fhaw/Reset/Newfiz[Vpvisdllt: .J • LAYER chQn S: dua lOp COPY3D ra hi~n thm. • COpy chQn All: de t~o m¢t trJ.n sao moo. ~ c~n chQn diem gec copy, va diem dich copy trimg nhao: Command: copy 149
  • Select objects; All <Base point or displacement>/Multiple: 0,0,0 (di&n co sa) Second point of displacement: 0,0,0 (di&n copy tOil • CHANGE: chuyen bim sao d6 (Lats) sang Illp (Layer) ten I. COPY3D. Command: change Select Objects: L (Last) Select objects: .J Propoties/<Change point>: P Change what propoty(Color/ElevlLayer/LType/... )?: LA New layer <>: COPY3D Change what propoty(Color/Elev/Layer/LType/...)?: .J Chu thieh: sau kId chuyd'n ban sao di cac hinh chie'u khac bien mat kh6i man hinh, b9n dung l~nh REDRAWALL dl hi~n l{li ban ve day duo • VPLAYER chon F: lam dong(Freeze) lllp 3D cil, chi c6 the tac d<)ng len Illp COPY3D hien thm. Command: vplayer ?/Freeze{Thaw!Reset/NewfrzNpvisdflt: F New viewport frozen layer name(s): 3D All/Select/<Current>: .J ?/Freeze{Thaw!Rese!/Newl'r7JV pvisdllt: .J • UCS chon X, Y: di! xoay ues quanh X h""c Y cbo (XY) trUng vOi m~t dt de dung I¢nh SOLClIT ca.t M v~t thi!. . . • SOLCUT chQn (XY): ti~n hiiDh c4~ bO I gllC ~"thi! bimg 2 m~t phimg, sau d6 dung i¢nh BHATCH de g'!Ch m~t ca.t ngay. <'l day ta dilng cach thll 2 nhu sau: Chu thich: b{1n co thl dung each veth~m khdi hgp Jbo~) ~a 2 m{1t trung vai 2 ~t cat bO, sau do dung I¢nh SOLS UB dltril b6 di I g6c v~' ,hi (kMng cdn dung SOLCUT): + Command: solb6x (ho~c MODEL:>Primitives>box) Baseplane/Center/<Comer of box><>: 0,0,0 Cube/Length/<Other comer>: L Length: 90 Width: 50 Height: 90 + Command: solsub (ho~c MODEL>Subtract) Source object ... Select objects: chi len v~t thi! 3D Objects to subtract from them ... Select objects: chi l&n kh6i b¢p vUa ve • BHATCH M g~ch m~t dt v~t li¢u tren tilng m~t ca.t (chuyen UCS). '" UCS chqn P: dua ues ve vi tti cu. 150
  • 4. flooo chinh hloh chieu trlc do Kich con trc vao cua s6 hlnh chie'u tI1;Ic do. ' • VPLA YER chon N.T: ~o lap mm (N) ten lit MCAT va lam tan (n lap nay de sau chuyen ca.c m~t cat sang lap nay mm hi~u chinh duqc hinh chieu tI1,lc do. • LAYER chon S: dua lap MCAT ra hi~n thm. • CHANGE: de chuyen cac m~t dt sang lap MCAT. Command: change Select objects: chQn 2 m~t cat Select objects: .J Propoties/<Change point>: P Change what propoty(Color/Elev/Layer/LType/... )?: LA New layer<>: MCAT Change what propoty(Color/Elev/Layer/LType/... )?: .J • LAYER chon S: dua lap COPY3D ra hi~n thm. .. SOLPROF: di~u khien hi~n anh v~t thl! 3D chi co cac dUang tmo vien. Command: solprof (ho~c MODEL>Display>Proflle solids) Select objects: chQn v~t thl! 3D Select objects: .J Display hidden profile lines on separate layer?<Y>: .J (hi~n ca.c duang bao khuAt tren lap rieng ?) Project profile lines on to a plane?<Y>: .J (cac duang bao d~t tren 1 m/phang) Delete tangential edges?<Y>: .J (xoa cac q.nh ti€p xuc tren cac m~t) • LAYER chon?: xem ten lap chUa duemg khu~t !ren tryc do (vi d~: PH-CD9). • VPLAYER chon F: lam dOng 2 lap COPY3D. PH-CD9. Hlnh chieu In!c do chi con dc duang bao tha:y Command: vplayer .1/Freeze/Thaw/Reset/Newfi7/VP"lsdfll:' F . .... .' New viewport fr9zen biytr . naine(s):' . COl'Y3D.i'fl:CD9 . , All/Select/<Current>: .J ?/Freeze/Thaw/Reset/NewfI7/Vpvisdflt: .J . • UCS chon V: <buyin h~ Des tm vi tri c6 (XY) song song vmlllan hlnh de hi~u chinh hinh chieu tryc do. • Dung ctlc l~nh hifu chinh : + EXPLODE: phan r. kh6i v~t thi 3D di! hi¢u chinh. + PEDIT: ddi be rQng net (wiQth) 0.5 * ues ch9n P: chuy~n UCS v~ vi tri co.. 151
  • S. Hoan chinh hlnh chilo dUng (HCl) Kich con tro vao cUa sO hlnh chieu dUng. 1. • VPLAYER ch9n N,T: dt ~o lap mm (N) HCl va lam tan (f) lap nay. • LAYER chQn S: dua lap mm HCl ra hi~n thm. • SOLPROF: di€u khi€n hi~ anh hinh chiou dUng chi c6 cae duimg bao vi~n. • LAYER ch9n?: xem ten lap duimg khu~t iJ hlnh chieu dUng (vi du: PH-CDS). • VPLA YER ch9n F: lam dOng 2 lap 3D, PH-CDS. H'mh chieu dUng chi cOn cac duimg bao tMy. • UCS ch9n V: chuyen h¢ UCS Wi vi tri c6 (XY) song song v<li man hlnh de hi?u chinh hlnh chieu dUng. • Dung cae l~nh hi~u chinh : + EXPLODE: ph1ln dii kh6i v~t the 3D d<lhi~u chinh hlnh chieu dUng. + ve them duang tf1:lc, g~ch m~t c6t, ghi kich thu6c ... + PEDIT: dOi btl rQng net (width) 0.5 .. ues chQn P: chuy~n ueS ve vi tci cu. 6. Hoon chlnh hlnh chieu bAng (HC2) Kich con tro vao ella sO hinh chi6'u bAng. • VPLA YER ch9n N,T: ~o lap mm c6 ten HC2 va lam tan lap nay. • LAYER ch9n S: dua lap HC2 ra hi~ thm. • SOLPROF: dieu khien hi~n arm hinh chi€u Mng chI co cae duemg baD vien. • LAYER chQn?: xem ten lap duimg kh~t iJ hinh chieu bAng (vi du: PH-CD?). • VPLAYER Ch9fi F: lam dOng 2 lap 3D, PH-CD? Hlnh chieu bbtg chi con cae duimg bao tMy. • UCS eh9n V: ehuy€nb¢ UCS't6iVjii! e6 (X¥lsons sons vm man hlnh de hi~u ehinh hlnh ehi6u bAng. . " . . . . . • Dung cae ~nh hi~u chinh : + EXPLODE: ph1ln rii kh6i v~t tht3D de hi~u emnh hlnh ehieu bAng .. + ve tJ¥c, ghi Deh thuOc... + PEDIT: dOi btl rQng net (width) 0.5 • ues chQn P: chuyen ues ve vi tti cu. 7. Hoan chinh toan be? ban vi • LAYER eh9n F: lam dOng lap 3D de bi> cae khung Clla clic eira sO va hi¢n l~i chi ciie hlnh ehi€u thOi. • PSPACE: chuyen sang khOng gian gi(y phing M ve them khung ban ve, khung ten va viet chit de c6 ban ve hoan chmh. Cu6i ciing ta e6 ban ve cua TAM DO nhu hlnh 1. 152
  • BAI T~P 18 < ~p bim ve chi tiet GO! TRI)C nhu hlnh 1. Sau day hUOng dan 1 each vee R25 (70 - - - I~ll 1350 f 0 0 ~}~50' 12 l,' ~ 100 J Hinh 1 1. Ve v~t th~ 3D a) Chruln bi bdn "khOi Ihrly: • OPEN: l~ mil him vekblJi. tbuy(vi 6,: A4.ciwS):N6l ehuac6lhlc6 ·~mm. • VPOINT: ~ho <libnnhln (1,-I,l)<!tqQ8D""im ~ ~ 3D ~g hhhehi6u trye do vuOng g6c <!tu. . . . ... " : . '. " :."' . . Command: vpoint Rotate/<View point>: 1,-1,1 • LAYER ehQll M: di!tao lclp rom ten Th. 3D v~ dlla ra hi~ thOi. Command: layer ?/Make/Set/New/ON/OFF/.../Uniock: M New current layer <>: 3D ?/Make/Set/New/ON/OFF/... /Unlock: .J
  • b) Ve khOi dh. kIWi : Ir~ + Command: pline (ve chu vi ngoai dU'm de, xem hloh chieu bang hloh 1) a From point: cho 1 diem tren man hinh tlng v6i diem g6c phili - dUm eua hinh chiou bdng, hinh I. Arc/Oose/.../Width/<Endpoint of line>: @-100,0 Arc/Close/... /Width/<Endpoint of line>: A (chuyen sang ve cung) Angle/Center/Close/ ... /Width/<Endpoint of are>: @O,loo Angle/Center/Close/ ... /Width/<Endpoint of arc>: L (chuy<!n sang ve line) Arc/Close/ .../Width/<Endpoint of line>: @100,0 Arc/Close/.../Width/<Endpoint of line>: C + Command: circle (ve 2 trelO ~50, tjl70) 3P/2PfITR/<Center point>: CEN of (bat tam cung tron ella dl1Cmg pline da ve) Diameter/<Radius>o: 25 Command: .J 3P/2PfITR/<Center point>: CEN of (bAt tam tron ~50 dii vel DiameterI<Radius>o: 35 * SOLEXT: de nang dUCmg pline va 2 tron dii ve len thanh cae solide Command: solext (ho~c MODEL>ExtIude) Select regions, popyline and circle for extrusion ... Select objects: ch9n dl1Cmg pline Select objects: .J Height of extrusion: 30 (chieu cao nang ) Extrusion taper angle<>: 0 (g6c vu6t bAng 0) . Command: .J Select regions, papyline """'.!'~for .~IlisiQll..: ...... sae.:t.oljjl#l:,~~~~,.'7l!i::·C;;;c;< .. . _ ' .' ...-..: ... -,'.;- ;:c. ... "'''t::;~:~->/"'.>~'>~'~''-;.J:-r,-'' J~. ' ~l~.~JCPl$~.~;~,· !.>';. ;;<:~' --'., :,f;:,~-_ ',"_'-';':,_, . Height of extlu'ion: '110 ., "; Extrusion-taper angle<D::>: .J c) Velhdnh hlnh h¢ptrin ili': • SOLBOX: ve kh6i chi! nh~t Command: solbox (ho<ic MODEbPrimitives>box) Baseplane/Center/<Comer of box>o: END of (bat ldinh trtn-btn phiti cua de, Cube/Length/<Other comer>: L (cho chieu dai cae qmh) 154
  • Length: -30 (huang x) Width: 100 (huang y) Height: 90 (huang z) * UCS chQn 0; chuytn UCS tm 1 dinh tren-tnii kh6i hQp lIen de'de ve dinh tron ... PLINE: vi!: dl1bng profit (d~g) dong kin eua riinh ](hoet tcen kh6i ht)p Command: pline From point: MID of (bat diem giiia 1 c~ dlii ben tnH m~t tren kh6i hQp) Current line-width is 0 Arc/Close/.../width/<Endpoint of line>: @0.25 Arc/CIose/.../width/<Endpoint of line>: @7,0 Arc/Close/.../width/<Endpoint of line>: @5,7 Arc/Close/.../width/<Endpoint of line>: @6,0 Arc/Oose/ .. ./Width/<Endpoint of line>: @5,-7 Arc/Close/.. ./Width/<Endpoint of line>: @7,O Arc/Close/... /Widt!t/<Endpoint of line>: @O,-25 Arc/Close/. ../Width/<Endpoint of line>: C ... SOLREV: xoay duemg pline vira ve thanh solid tron xoay Command: solrev (hoac MODEL>Revolve) Select objects: chQn dubng profit vila vi! Select objects: .J Axis of revolusion-Entity/XIY/<Start point of axis>: END of (biit 1 diem mut c~nh dlii dl1Cmg prom, diem 1 cua t11lc xoay) End point of axis: END of (bat diem mllt thi! 2 qnh dai cua profil, diem 2 cua tfl,lc xoay) Angle of revolusion <Full circle>: ..J d) VI' 2 gan tT" l¥c giua de' pel khoi ht}p : • SOLWEDGE: veganhinhnem Command: sol wedge (ho~c MODEL>Primitives> Wedge) Base plane/<Comer of wedge><>: END of (bat dinh goe tnii-dum giila d€ va thanh tr~n) Length: -30 (dQc x) Width: 12 (dQC y) Height: 30 (dQc z) * COPY: t<:,o ban sao thiinh gm thu 2 ben phM. e) vetO xuyen ngang $24 : * UCS ehQn 0: ehuyen ues tm ti€p diem eua do~n thang va eung tron tr~n ptine 155
  • • SOLCYLE: vo Ifl ngang ~24 co m~t phing day (ZX) Command: soleyl (hoij.c MODEL>Primitives>Cylinder) Baseplane/EllipticaV<Center point><O,O,O>: B (chQo m~t ph~g co sa ZX) Baseplane by Entity/Last/ .../XY(YZ/ZXI<3 points>: ZX Point on ,ZX plane<O,O,O>: .J Baseplane/Elliptieal/<Center point><O,O,O>: 0,0,55 (eho tam day trv) Diameter/<Radius><>: 12 Center of other end<Height>: 100 f) T~o solid da h<fp : • SOLSUB: trueae kh6i Command: solsub (ho~c MODEL>Subtract) Source object ... Select objects: chc;m cae kh6i bj tnI lade vakh6i h¢p tren de va kh6i tIV ngoa.i ~70. Objects to subtract from them ... Select objects: chQn cae kh6i trir la kh6i tron xoay tn~n thanh, trl trong ~50 va tI1,l ngang $24. • SOLUNION: lien ke't tAt eli cac kh6i thanh I solid da hqp (v~t 1M 3D) • UCS chon W: chuyen ues ve h~ chullo. 2. T~o 4 khung cira 56 blob chieu • TILEMODE: d~t 10 O(ofl) chuyen sang khOng gian gia:y (PSPACE). • LIMITS: d~t giUi ~ vo A4(297,21O) va I~nh ZOOM/all "* LINETYPE chQn L: ti duang hidden, center vao bin ve '" MVIEW: t~ 4 khung elm s6 hlnh chieu Command: mview (ho~c VIEW>Mview>4) ON/OFF/Hideplot/Fit/2/3/4/.. ./<First point>: 4 Fit/<First point>: F (cho 4 khung vim khit man hlnh) • MSPACE: chuyiln v~ khOng gian mO hlob * VPOINT: de cht?n diem nhin tren tUng khung cua s6 hlnh thie'u bang, hinh chi€u dUng, hinh chieu qulh. Tru&: het kich con tro vao Clm s6 hinh chieu hang: Command: vpoint (ho~c VIEW>setview>view point) Rotate/<View point>: 0,0,1 Chu j: neu hinh chie'u bang can xoay, b~n dung l~nh ROTATE. BAy gia b~n Dch chu¢t vao cua s6 hinh chieu dUng (h~c hinh chieu c;pIh) va lam de tuang W cho diem nhm hinh chieu dUng (ho~c hmh chicu c~h). • ZOOM: eho Iy I~ bang nhau(l) de chinh d(>l6n Iren tUng hlob chie'u Command: zoom AlliCenter/... jWindows/<Scale(XJXP». I 156
  • • MVSETUP chqn A: chlnh vi Iri gi6ng dUng(V), gi6ng ngang(H) giila c8c hinh chieu: Command: mvsetup Align/Create/Scale viewport,/ .../Undo: A (can chinh vi irQ Angle/HorizontallVertical alignmenti .../Undo? V (chinh dUng) Base point: klch chu¢t vao hlnh chil!u dUng va g6 END of (b~t dinh phiU Irtn cua hinh chiou dUng lam diem co ,a) Other point: klch chu¢tvao hlnh chieu b~g Va g6 END of (b~t dinh iJ hinh chieu ~g tuong Ung) Angle/HorizontallVertical alignmenti .../Undo? H (chinh ngang) Hlnb2 Base point: klch chu¢t vA<> hlJlb chiell dUn!! ~ II~ ;!lNP of (bAI dinh phiUtren Clla hinh chi61 dUng lam cIi~m c<J.o) . Other point: klch chu¢t vA<> hinh chieu c'!nh va g6 END of (bAt dinh 11 hinh chieu c'!nh tuang Ung) Angle/Horizontal/Vertical alignmenti .../Undo? ,J Align/Create/Scale viewport'/.../Undo: ,J Kol qua ta duqc cae hinh chieu nhu Iren hinh 2. 3, Cilt hi> mN nim v~t th~ Kich con tco vao cua 56 hlnh chieu t~c do. 157
  • .. VPLAYER chQn N,T: t~o 16p m6i te.n Iii COPY3D de sau f~o m(H ban sao, khi dt 1/2 vi},t the se khOng Anh huang tai cac hlnh chieu khac. Sau d6 ch9n T (Thaw) lam tan lap COPY3D nAy i; tren khung cua s6 hlnh chi~u dUng va hlnh chieu truc do (Select) M cho vi¢': cat b6 c6 mc d¢ng den hinh chieu tIlJ.c do va hinh chieu dUng. Command: vplayer ?/Freeze{Thaw/Reset/NewfrzJVpvisdflt: N New viewport frozen layer name(s): COPY3D ?/Freeze{Tha wIReset,INewfrzJV pvisdflt: T Layer(s) to thaw: COPY3D All/Selectl<Current>: S Select objects: chi len khung cua s6 hinh chieu tI1:lc do Select objects: chi l~n khung ctra s6 hloh chieu dung Select objects: .J ?/Freeze{ThawIReset/Newfrz/Vpvisdflt: .J • LAYER chon S: dua lap COPY3D ra hi~n thm. .. COpy chQn AU: de t<.to m¢t ban sao mai. ~n chQn diem g6c copy va. diem dich copy trimg nhau : Command: copy Select objects: All <Base point or displac<:mlml >/Muhiple: 0,0,0 Secimd point of ~¢i 0,0,0 .. .. . .... , ,-. ,,!,.;"'!<"'~--" ; .-" " • CHANGE' chuyen bin'~4lI (Last) ....g!6p"4-ayer}.,len a COPY3D. 'f : _____ "" ".,', _' > Command: change Select objects: L (last) Sele~t objects: .J Propoties/<Change point>: P Change what propoty(Color/Elev/Layer/LType/...)?: LA New layer<>: COPY3D Change what propoty(Color/Elev/Layer/LType/ ... )?: .J Chu th{ch : sau khi chuyln ban sao di cac hinh chitu khac bien nui't khoi man hinh, b(ln dung l~nh REDRAWAU di hi¢n [(Ii ban vi day duo • VPLA YER chon F: lam dong (Freeze) lap 3D Cll iJ !ren 2 khung cua s6 hlnh chieu truc do va hlnh chieu dUng, chi co thi tac dQng len lap COPY3D hien thai. Command: vplayer ?/Freeze{Thaw/Reset,INewfrzJV pvisdflt: F Layer(s) to Freeze: 3D All/Selectl<Current>: S Select objects: chi len khung cua s6 hinh chieu lIVe do 158
  • Select objects: chi len khung cim s6 hlnh chitu dUng Select objects: .J ?/FreezefThaw/Reset/Newfu}Vpvisdflt: .J 1(1 UCS: chuyen ues tOi di~m giiia cua q.nh dum de, va xoay m~t (XY) Iii m~t cat. • SOLCUT: cAt bb lfl v~t thE bbi m~t phAng (XY) Command: Solcut Select objects: <ChQll v~t ~ 3D> Select objects: .J Cutting plane by Entity/.../XY{YVZJ{j<3 points>: XY Point on XY plane <0,0,0>: .J Both side/<Point on desired of the plane>: <ch<;>n 1 diem b ben phai kh6i 3D> .. BHATCH: g~ch m~t cat v~t 1i~u tren m$t cat (XY) cua v~t the (nhu lrong 2D) ... UCS/P: de chuyen h~ ues ve vi tri eli 4. Holm chinh hlnh chieu tr~c do (TDO) . . &m chuOt vao cua s6 hlnh chieu true do. . • VPLAYER chQllN.T: de ~o lapmm ten IA MCAT vA lAm tan lap nay. Command: vplayer . ?/FreczefThaw/Reset/Newfl7/Vpvisdflt: N New viewportfrozen layer name(s): MCAT ?/FreczefThaw/R5set/Newfrz/Vpvisdflt: T Layer(s) to thaw: MCAT All/Select/<Current>: ?/FreezefThawIR5set/NewfrzNpvisdflt: .J • LAYER chqn S: dE dtta lap MCAT ra hi~n thOi . • CHANGE: dI! chuyenm~t cat sang lap MCAT. Command: change Select objects: <chQll m~t cat dii Ve> Select objects: .J Properties/<Change point>: P Change what property(Color/Elev/Lsyer/LType/... )?: LA New layer< ...>: MCAT Change what property(Color/Elev/Lsyer/LType/... )?: .J • LAYER chqn S: dua lap COPY3D ra hi~n thm . • SOLPROF: di~u khien hien i.nh kh6i 3D chi co cae duang bao vi~n. Command: Solprof
  • Select objects: <chon kh6i 3D> Select objects: .J Display hidden profile lines on separate layer?<Y>: .J (co hi~n d.c dui'mg baa khuilt tren lClp rieng khOng?) Project profile lines on to a plane?<Y>: .J (cae dUOng bao d~t tren m~t ph&ng7) Delete tangential edges?<Y>: .J (x6a cae qnh tit!p xuc giUa cae m~t?) • LAYER chon?: de xem ltn lClp chUa duang khuilt tren tfllc do (vi d~: PH-3E23). • VPLAYER chon F: Him dOng cac lClp COPY 3D, PH-3E23. hinh chieu tfllc do chi con cae dUCmg bao thtfy. Command: vplayer ?/FreezefThaw/Reset/Newfrz/Vpvisdflt: F New viewport frozen layer narne(s): COPY3D, PH-3E23 All/Selectl<Current>: -l ?/Freeze/Thaw/Reset/NewfulVpvisdflt: -l • UCS chon V: chuy~n h~ ues tffi vi tr! c6 (XY) song song vm man hinh d!! hi~u chinh hlnh chi€u ~c do. • Dung clk~nh ~" cllinll : ' + EXPLODE: pbAn fa kMi ~t 1M 3D M h$I chinh. + PEDn:: 46i MrQng om (width) • UCS chQn P: .chuy~ tJ1:S'Vf'vi trl cu. 5, Hoan cbinh blnb <bleu dt'mg (HCI) - Kfch COn trb vao cira s6 hlnh chit!u dUng. • VPLAYER chonN,T: d!!4-0IClpmm(N)liiHClv1i!amtan(1)cacl&pHCl,MCAT de hi~n l~i m~t cat rei hinh chit!u dUng. • LAYER chon S: dua lClp mm HC) ra hi~n tMi. • SOLPROF: di~u khi~n hi~n inh hinh chi€u dUng chi co cac duang baD vi€n. • LAYER chon 1: xem ltn lClp duang khuilt" hinh chi€u dUng (vi d~: PH-3E21). • VPLA YER chon F: Lm dOng 2 lClp : COPV3D, PH-3E2l. Hinh chi(u dUng chi cOn cae duang bao thay. • ues chon V: chuy~n h~ ues tm vi tri cO (XY) song song vm man hinh de hi~u . chinh hinh chi€u dUng . .. Dung cae l~nh hi~u chinh : + EXPLODE: ph~n fa kh6i v~t the 3D M hi~u chinh hinh chieu dUng. + ve th~m dIcrng t:n;Ic, ghi kich thu6c ... + PEDlT: dOi b<! rQng net (width) 0.5 • UCS ch9D P: chuy~n ues v~ v1 tri cu. 160
  • 6. Hoan chinh hlnh chieu bilng (HC2) Kich con tro vilo cua s6 hinh chieu bang. 1/1 VPLA YER Chqll N,T: t<,l.o lap mm co len Iii HC2 va lam tan lOp nay. • LA YERch9n S: dua lOp HC2 ra hi~n thili. .. SOLPROF: dieu khien hi~n anh hinh chieu bang chi co cae dubng bac vien. • LAYER ch9n?: xem ten lOp duang khu~t iJ hlnh chieu b~ng (vi d u : PH·3E22). • VPLAYER ch9n F: lam d6ng 2 lOp 3D. PH·3E22. Hlnh chieu b~g chi con cac dubng bao th~y. 1/1 UCS chQn V: chuyen h¢ ues tm vi tfi c6 (XY) song song v& man hinh de hi¢u chinh hinh chieu bAng. .. Dung cae l~nh hi~u chinh : + EXPLODE: phan rii kh6i v~t the 3D d~ hi~u chlob hlnh chieu b~ng. + ve tn,lc, ghi kich thuac ... + PEDlT: dbi·be r(lng net (width) 0.5 1/1 ues ch9n P: chuyen ues ve V! tri cu. 7. Hoiln chinh hlnh chieu canh (HC3) Kich con tro vao cira s6 hinh ehieu qnh. 1/1 VPLAYER chQn N,T: ~o lap mm co ten He3 va lam tan lap nay. • LAYER chon S: dua lOp HC3 ra hi~n thili. 1/1 SOLPROF: di~u khien hi¢n lmh h'tnh ehieu bang chi c6 ca.c dubng bac vien. • LAYER ch9n?: xem ten lOp duang khua't iJ hlob chieu c~ob (vi d u : PH·3E20). • VPLA YER ch9n F: lam d6Dg 2 lOp 3D. PH·3E20 .. UCS ch<;>n V: chuyen h¢ ues tm vi tTi c6 (XY) song song vai man hlnh. .. Dung cae l~nh hi¢u chlnh : + EXPLODE: phan dii khoi v~t thi! 3D de hi~u chlob hlob chieu bang. + ve t~e, ghi kich th11d'e, dimg BHATG-I gl;lch m~t cat. .. + PEDIT: ddi be rMg net (width) 0.5 * UCS chQn P: ehuyen UCS ve V! tfi cu. 8. Hoan chinti toan b( ban ve * LAYER chQn F: la.m dOng lap 3D de be cae khung eua cae eua s6 va hi~n ll;li chi d.c hinh chieu th6i. .. PSPACE: ehuyen sang kh6ng gian gi:iy phAng de ve them khung ban ve, khung len va viet chii' de co ban vi! hoan chinh. 161
  • MI,IC LI,IC Trang Uri n6i dliu 3 PMn n"il.· BAN VE PHANG Chuang 1. MO DAU vt AUTOCAD 1.1. Gim lhi~u AutoCAD 5 1.2. Ma d!u vi AutoCAD 6 Chuang 2. cAc LJlNH vi! CO BAN 2.1. Point: ve di~m 16 2.2. Line: vi! dubng mAng, dtrOng gap lch6c thitng 16 2.3. Pline: ve eta tuytn g6m do~ thing vii cung Irbn 16 2.4. CIrcle: Vi!,dOO'ng troD 18 2.5. Arc: vi! cung tron 19 2.6. Trace: vi! ~ lhAng c6 ~ r¢ng net dlIl;/C chqn tn16c 20 2.7. Polygon: vi: da: gi!c ~u 20 2.8. Donut: vi! hlnh vAnh khAn 21 2.9. Ellipse: vi! elip 21 2.10. Solid: vi: miin ph4ng to mAll 22 2.11. Sketch: ve dtrong tl! do 22 2.12. cae l~nh irQ' giup khi ve 23 Chuang 3. cAc LJlNH BIJlN TAP vA TRA coo 3.1. ChQn d6i tm;mg (Select). 27 ll~~ n 3.3. Bitn hlnh 29 3.4. Hi¢u chinh vi. lhay d6i: FD...l.ET (n6i titp). UlAMFER(vat), OFFSET (vi tI!), DIVIDE (ehia d~u), CHANGE, DDFDIT (thay d6i text), PEDIT, k~p GRIP 34 3.5. Huy b6 l~: U, UNDO. REDO 42 3.6. O!.e l¢nh tra clhl: usr, DBUsr. ID, DIST. AREA 43 Chuang 4. mEu KmtN MAN HlNH 4.1. L¢nh ZOOM 45 4.2. ~nh PAN 46 4.3. L¢nh VIEW 47 4.4. L¢nh REDRAW 47 4.5. L¢nh REGEN 47 4.6. L¢nh DRAGMODE 47 4.7. L~nh VIEWRES 47 162
  • Chuang 5. G~CH M~T cAT, GHI KicH TRUOC, 'ItT cOO CHO BAN vJl 5.1. G~ch ml;lt cat 49 5.2. Ghi Deb thu6c (DIM) 53 5.3. Yilt eM cho ban ve 64 Chuang 6. T~O LOP CHO BAN vJl 6.1. KMi ni~m v~ l~ (LAYER), mW! sac, duang net ve 66 6.2. L~nh LAYER 68 6.3. L¢nh DDEMODES 69 Chuang 7. KH61 vA THUc)C rtNH 7.1. Kh6i (BLOCK) 70 7.2. ThuOc tinh eua kh6i (Attribute) 72 Chuang g. DUA BAN V£ RA MAy IN, MAy VE 8.1. Qi d,(l.t m4y in (Printer), may ve (Plotter), v~ chu¢t (Mouse) 75 8.2. ~nh xu(t bim ve fa may in. may vI! 76 Pluln hai: VE BA CHIEU Chuang 9. MOl TRUONG VJl3D 9.1. H¢ 19a d¢ ngum dung va each nh~p diem 3D 80 9.2. Di/!u khien hi¢n hinh cinh 3D 85 9.3. M,(I.t phAng co sa (CP) trong ve 3D 91 Chuang 10. cAc Lli:NH vJl DUONG vA M~T 3D 92 Otucmg 11. CHliONG TRINH AME vI! SOLID VAREGION 11.1. GiOi. thi¢uAME 99 11.2. cae solidgoc 99 11.3. Kto d.e nguy~n thl'! 2D thAnh cae d6i tUQIlg 3D 102 11.4. Solid tnm xoay 103 11.5. Ok pMp loAn Boole vdi cae solids va regions 104 11.6. Hi¢u chinh. tra clhl ~ solid region 104 11.7. T~o cae hlnh chi€u 2D til' mO hlnh 3D 115 Chuang 12. XUAT BAN V£ RAGIAYvA RA TJlP TIN 12.1. Xu(t bin ve fa gia:y 117 12.2. Xu!ft bin vi! IhAnh t¢p tin 117 12.3. T{lo hlnh MIl d()ng [rong AutoCAD 118 HlICJNG DAN BAI T~P 1. HIlOng dAn cae bAi.t~ ve [rong 2D 122 2. HIlOng dAn cl.c bAi ~p ve trang 3D 135 Ml.lc h,IC 162 163
  • Chju trach nhi¢m xuat ban: Chu t!ch HDQT kiem TOng Gi<im d6c NGO mAN AI Ph6 TOng Gi'm d6c kiem TOng bien tap vD DUONG TH1)Y Bien t(ip ldn ddu va fai ban: THANHBlNH Bien t(ip my thu(it: THDYHANH Sua ban in: BlNHMlNH Chi'ban: HUYNH MINH TUAN AUTOCAD CHO T1!£lONG H6A THI~T K~ Ma so : 78501 T5 - DAI In 1.000 bim (07TK), kh6 19 x 27 em t~i NhB in DHQG Ha N¢i, S6 xuat him : 2 1/292 - 05. In xong va n(lp iLru chieu lhing 2 nam 200S.
  • NGH~ rm CONG TY c6 PHAN SACH DAI HOC· DAY HEVOBCO D!a chi : 25 Him Thuyen , Hil NO; I 2936