Report on methods of primary data.bimal.doc.xPresentation Transcript
REPORT ON METHODS OF PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION MBA-001 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYUNDER THE SUPERVISION OF -PROF.SALINI NIGAM AND SUBMITTED BY-PROF.AKSHAY KUMAR SATSANGI BIMAL YADAVDEPARMENT OF MANAGEMENT ROLL-NO -117611FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE MBA-3 SEMESTER
INTRODUCTION-The Primary Data are those which are collectedafresh and for the first time and thus happen to beoriginal in character. Primary data are first-handinformation collected through various methodssuch as observation, interviewing, mailing etc.We collect primary data during the course of doingexperiments in an experimental research. Theprimary data are to be originally collected.
METHODS OF PRIMARY DATA COLLETIONThere are many methods of collecting primary dataand the main methods are: Questionnaires Interviews Focus Group Interviews Observation Case studies Diaries Critical incidents Portfolios
Questionnaires-Questionnaires are a popular means of collectingdata, but are difficult to design and often requiremany rewrites before an acceptable questionnaire isproduced.Advantage- Can cover a large number of people or organizations. Wide Geographic coverage Relatively cheap etc.Disadvantage- ● Design problems ● Time delay etc
Interviews- Interviewing is a technique that is primarily used to gain an understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations for people’s attitudes, preferences or behaviour. It involves not only conversation, but also learning from the respondents’ gestures, facial expressions and pauses, and his environment. Interviewing requires face-to-face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills.
Types of interview- Structured- Based on a carefully worded interview schedule. Frequently require short answers. Semi-structured- The interview is focused by asking certain questions but with scope for the respondent to express him or herself at length. Unstructured- This also called an in-depth interview. The interviewer begins by asking a general question. The interviewer uses an unstructured format
Focus group interviews-A focus group is an interview conducted by a trainedmoderator in a non-structured and natural mannerwith a small group of respondents. The moderatorleads the discussion. The main purpose of focusgroups is to gain insights by listening to a group ofpeople from the appropriate target market talk aboutspecific issues of interest.
Observation-Observation involves recording the behaviouralpatterns of people, objects and events in a systematicmanner. Observation means viewing or seeing. Wego on observing some thing or other while we areawake. Most of such observations are just casual andhave no specific purpose. But observation as amethod of data collection is different from suchcasual viewing.
Case-studies- The term case-study usually refers to a fairly intensive examination of a single unit such as a person, a small group of people, or a single company. Case-studies involve measuring what is there and how it got there. The case-study method has three steps- 1- Determine the present situation. 2- Gather background information about the past and key variables. 3-Test hypotheses. The background information collected will have been analysed for possible hypotheses.
Critical incidents-The critical incident technique is an attempt toidentify the more ‘noteworthy’ aspects of jobbehaviour and is based on the assumption that jobsare composed of critical and non-critical tasks. Forexample, a critical task might be defined as one thatmakes the difference between success and failure incarrying out important parts of the job. The idea is tocollect reports about what people do that isparticularly effective in contributing to goodperformance.
Diaries- A diary is a way of gathering information about the way individuals spend their time on professional activities. Diaries can record either quantitative or qualitative data, and in management research can provide information about work patterns and activities. Advantages- Allows the researcher freedom to move from one organisation to another. Useful for collecting information from employees.Disadvantages- Progress needs checking from time-to-time. Confidentiality is required as content may be critical.
Portfolios- A measure of a manager’s ability may be expressed in terms of the number and duration of ‘issues’ or problems being tackled at any one time. The compilation of problem portfolios is recording information about how each problem arose, methods used to solve it, difficulties encountered, etc. ACTIVITY:- Sampling- Collecting data is time consuming and expensive, even for relatively small amounts of data. EXAMPLES: The theory of sampling is based on random samples – where all items in the population have the same chance of being selected as sample units.
REFERENCES:-● Various sites- www.dmstudy.info/dmstudy.info www.ptsyst.com/ www.datasheetarchive.com/datasheetarchive.com www.google.com www.yahoo.com.● Various Books- C.R. Kothari Research Methodology Sharma, B.A.V. et al., Research Methods in Social Sciences, New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt.Ltd., 1983. Tandon, B.C. Research Methodology in Social Sciences, Allahabad: Chaitanya Publishing House, 1979. Denzin, Norman, The Research Act, Chicago: Aldine, 1973 Oppenheim,A.N.. Questionnaire Design and Attitude Measurement, New York: Basic Books 1966