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  1. 1. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionRamtin Raji KermaniFall 2005Computer Sciences & Engineering DepartmentShiraz University
  2. 2. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionRoad Map:• What is a Control System?• What is SCADA ?• Where and why SCADA is used?• SCADA architecture• Components of SCADA• Security issues• Modern features
  3. 3. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionFirst of all, Lets see what is a Control System ?A control system, is a system that holds responsible in top of another system(being controlled system) for setting and stabling the system in a predefinedstate.Nowadays control systems are mostly microprocessor based. (Microcontrollers,PLCs, PC-Based Control systems).Process being controlledSensor ActuatorController System
  4. 4. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionExample of a monitoring and control system is a system whichmonitors temperature and switches heaters on and off.
  5. 5. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionWhat is SCADA?SCADA is “Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition”.Real-time industrial process control systems used to centrallymonitor and control remote or local industrial equipment such asmotors, valves, pumps, relays, sensors, etc.SCADA is Combination of telemetry and Data Acquisition.SCADA is not just a hardware, neither a software. It’s a concept,it’s a system as a combination of special hardware, software andprotocols.SCADA is used to control chemical plant processes, oil and gaspipelines, electrical generation and transmission equipment,manufacturing facilities, water purification anddistribution infrastructure, etc.
  6. 6. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionWhy SCADA is needed ?The Ability to Remotely collect different plants on different places.The Ability to control process from a distance.The Ability to create logs and reports about system’s current and past state.The Ability to send necessary information to Engineers and operators inreal-time using Instant Messaging and SMS.
  7. 7. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionWhere SCADA is used ?- Electrical generation/distribution,- Natural gas distribution- Fuel Oil storage & flow- Water storage & flow- Lighting- Heating, cooling, ventilation- Fire alarms & suppression- Elevators & escalators- Gates & doors, alarms- Video security cameras- Traffic signals- Process Line Control
  8. 8. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionSCADA is not a new stuff !It has been used since the early days of control systems toremotely Control and Monitor current and past state of beingcontrolled system (our plant, factory, etc.)
  9. 9. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionEarly Power System Control (in 1919)Control room(mimic wall)1970’sformerly, all instruments were directly wired to the control room
  10. 10. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionLate 1990’s Control Centers
  11. 11. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionA little Confused ?!?!Lets SEE what it is !
  12. 12. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionCentral Monitoring UnitCommunicationsNetworkSensorSensorProgrammable Logic ControllerSensorFiber, Radio, Modem,Microwave, Telephone,Wireless, Powerline CarrierRemoteTerminalUnit (RTU)RTURTU
  13. 13. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionSCADA Hardware- Field level instrumentation and control devicesSensing field variables, controlling the process and ….- Remote Terminal Units (RTUs)Send control and monitoring data to MTU. (could be a PLC)- Master Terminal Unit or MTU (Also called The Master Station)gathering information from RTUs, Monitoring and processing,sending necessary control actions to RTUs.- Communication System
  14. 14. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionGoing a little more in details …
  15. 15. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionCommunicationNetworkInstrumentationRemote StationCentral Monitoring StationLAN, WAN, INTERNETCommunicationNetworkInstrumentationRemote StationCentral Monitoring StationCentral Monitoring StationCommunicationNetworkInstrumentationRemote StationCorporate Architecture
  16. 16. SCADASupervisory Control And Data Acquisition•Focus–Safety–100% Availability–Electro-mechanical–No updating, Agedequipment•The Language–RTUs, PLCs, IEDs– DNP, Modbus– Low Bandwidth– Analog & Digital•The Vendors–AllenBradley(AB)/Rockwell,Honeywell, Siemens,Johnson Controls•Focus–Security–99.5% Availability–Electronic–Continuous Updating,New•The Language–Routers, Switches,Servers– IP, Ethernet– High Bandwidth– All Digital•The Vendors–IBM, Microsoft,CISCO, DellPhysical Plant Computer NetworkingWhat are the concerns ?
  17. 17. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionProtocols used in SCADA Systems:DNP (Distributed Network Protocol)ModbusDeviceNetMostly Open Protocol are used in SCADA systems.The most popular protocols are as follows:
  18. 18. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionSCADA Functionality:- Data acquisition and displaystore binary & analog data into process data base- Alarm & Eventsrecord important changes and operator actions- History data basekeep a record of the process values- Measured processingcalculate derived values (limit supervision, trending)- Logging & reporting- Human Machine Interface (HMI):graphical object state presentation, lists, reports- Operator Command handlingbinary commands, set pointsrecipes, batches, scripts (command procedures)
  19. 19. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionCurrent stateAlarms and eventsTrends and historyRemote Monitoring including:
  20. 20. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionWhat is an alarm, an event ?A&E consider changes occurring in the plant (process) or in the control system(operator actions, configuration changes,…) that merit to be recorded.Recorded changes can be of three kinds:- informative: no action required(e.g. "production terminated at 11:09")- warning: plant could stop or be damaged if no corrective action is taken "soon"(e.g. “fuel low")- blocking: the controller took action to protect the plant and further operation isprevented until the reason is cleared (e.g. “Temperature too high")An event is a change related to:operator actions ("grid synchronisation performed at 14:35"),configuration changes ("new software loaded in controller 21"), andsystem errors ("no life sign from controller B3")
  21. 21. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionImplementing alarms by variablesAn alarm is often encoded as a simple 16-bit word sent by an object (thru PLC) in theplant.Each bit has a different meaning, the error condition is reset when the word is 0.[120] low oil pressure121] low water level[122] trajectory error[123] synchronisation error[123] tool error[131] robot %R1% not ready…word
  22. 22. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionNew Trends in SCADA- Web-Based SCADA systems- Connecting SCADA system to Internet- Gives more functionality to our system- Security issues should be covered- Using Instant Messaging to report systems status (implemented)- Giving more functionality- Using a reliable instant messaging service- Using Short Message Service to report critical situations (implemented)- A kind of instant messaging, using Mobile Telecommunication network- Using SMS Server, connecting a cell to PC, setting up a web server andusing WAP
  23. 23. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionInstant Messaging for SCADAFacilitate the remote monitor and control by utilizing the secure IMInstant Messaging (IM) is a type of communications service over the Internet thatenables individuals to exchange text messages and track availability of a list ofusers in real-time.By taking advantage of the near real time feature of IM and richness of the IMpresence, we bring forward a secure IM based remote monitor and controlsystem.LDAP-based device and system managementLightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) [6] specifically targeted atmanagement applications and browser applications that provide read/writeinteractive access to directories.
  24. 24. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionInternetPDACell Phone`ComputerIM serverLDAP Server`IM Control/MornitorProxyDevice 3`node1Device 1Device 2Device 4`node2`Leader node1firewallGroup keyIM Architecture for SCADA
  25. 25. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionA simple IM based remote monitor/control interface
  26. 26. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionSCADA on mobile phoneThe system allows you to use your mobile phone to monitor and control yourprocess from any location. More versatile than a pager system.You can get detailed alarm messages about any event that occurs in yourbusiness.The application has beenwritten in J2METhe refresh time is about 2 sJava application in mobilephone transfers data to/fromWWW server.
  27. 27. SCADASupervisory Control And Data Acquisition
  28. 28. SCADASupervisory Control And Data Acquisition
  29. 29. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionLast words on SCADAWith new trends and technologies of Computer and ElectricalEngineering, there are lots of functionalities available, that we can add to ourSCADA system.You saw that SCADA covers different fields of Computer Engineering likeComputer networking, Control, Programming, Embedded Systems, OperatingSystems, Real-time Systems and ….SCADA is a very fast growing technology which is widely used in plants andfactories and makes good job opportunities for you in the industry, incomputer engineering field..
  30. 30. SCADASupervisory Control And Data SCADA protocols, Elsevier, newness publicationDESY SCADA Experience, EPICS Workshop - Oak Ridgewww.modbus.comwww.DNP.orgEngineering The Architecture Of Distributed Control Systems, Eric RunnerstromMPR AssociatesJoint Program Office for Special Technology Countermeasures, National DefenseIndustrial Association15-17 July 2003
  31. 31. SCADASupervisory Control And Data AcquisitionQuestions ?Comments?Thanks for coming …Ramtin Raji Kermani, Fall