Rights Technologies for     E-Publishing         November 8, 2012               Bill Rosenblatt   GiantSteps Media Technol...
OutlineHistory of DRMDRM TechnologyDRM EconomicsCloud ReadinggComparison with other media typesForensic content prot...
History of DRM       3
What Is DRM?Original definition: any system used to manage or track rights to content.Popular d fi iti technologies that...
Antecedents of DRM1960s: digital encryption1970s: physical media copy protectionEarly 1980s: donglesLate 1980s: softwa...
Historical Development Late 1990s: documents software              documents, Late 1990s: digital conditional access (CA...
DRM Technology       7
DRM Reference Architecture      Content Server                                    Client                                  ...
Typical Components Content Server                          Client (user device)   – Repository of encrypted             ...
DRMs in E-Publishing           Major                          Minor MobiPocket DRM: Amazon        Fictionwise Passhash:...
DRM Economics      11
Economics of DRMPublishers demand it but (usually) don’t pay for it                                      don tRetailers ...
The Rights Technologies R&D Index               (GiantSteps research, 2010)                           researchRights tech...
RT R&D Indexes Show:      Economic Incentives Misaligned450                                   70400                       ...
R&D Survey Results    Reasons for Lack of R&D                                              RIAA Lawsuit                   ...
Cloud Reading      16
The Future?Traditional   Content           DRM File Downloads    Server                Connection Can Be Intermittent     ...
Content Protection for Cloud Reading            XML                            Page Images Send a screen at a time       ...
DRM for Other Content          19
DRM for Other Content: MusicPermanent internet downloads went DRM free in 2007                                    DRM-fre...
DRM for Other Content: Video Downloads all use DRM   – Whether purchase (permanent) or rental (temporary) Physical media...
DRM for Other Content: GamesDRM ranges from very strong to none  – Gamers particularly adept at hacking  – Conversely “DR...
Other Rights Technologies    for E Publishing        E-Publishing            23
Forensic Rights Technologies   (a/k/a Content Identification or Content Recognition)Watermarking and fingerprintingFor n...
E-Book “Watermarking” Embedding data in “noise” portions of images                        noise Adding unprintable chars...
E-Book “Fingerprinting”Sophisticated pattern matchingCrawls web, finds instances of known contentCan look for context t...
Watermarking vs. Fingerprinting Tradeoffs                   Watermarking                         Fingerprinting Content Ch...
IDPF EPUB LCP Project Update       28
IDPF EPUB LCP Project Lightweight Content Protection standard for EPUB3 Address lack of interoperability in EPUB due to ...
EPUB LCP Project StatusRFP published in JulyDeadline extended to late SeptemberSix complete proposals receivedEvaluati...
Complete Proposals ReceivedFileOpen – well established US vendor             well-establishedImpervio – Canadian startup...
Bill RosenblattGiantSteps Media Technology Strategiesbillr@giantstepsmts.com+1 212 956 1045www.giantstepsmts.com          ...
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Rights Technologies for E-Publishing

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Talk given at SNE (Syndicat national de l'edition) Les assises du livre numerique (The Assizes of the Digital Book), November 2012.

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Rights Technologies for E-Publishing

  1. 1. Rights Technologies for E-Publishing November 8, 2012 Bill Rosenblatt GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies www.giantstepsmts.combillr@giantstepsmts.com +1 212 956 1045 1
  2. 2. OutlineHistory of DRMDRM TechnologyDRM EconomicsCloud ReadinggComparison with other media typesForensic content protection technologiesIDPF EPUB LCP project update 2
  3. 3. History of DRM 3
  4. 4. What Is DRM?Original definition: any system used to manage or track rights to content.Popular d fi iti technologies thatP l definition: t h l i th t use encryption ti to protect digital content from unlicensed use on users’ d i ’ devices. 4
  5. 5. Antecedents of DRM1960s: digital encryption1970s: physical media copy protectionEarly 1980s: donglesLate 1980s: software license management g1990s: CD-ROM copy protectionLate 1993: conference Technological Strategies for Protecting Intellectual Property in the Networked Multimedia Environment Washington DC Environment, 5
  6. 6. Historical Development Late 1990s: documents software documents, Late 1990s: digital conditional access (CA) for cable TV Early 2000s: music Early 2000s: “Enterprise Rights Management” (corporate documents) Mid-2000s: mobile music Mid late 2000s: video downloads Mid-late Late 2000s: merging of DRM with CA for video 6
  7. 7. DRM Technology 7
  8. 8. DRM Reference Architecture Content Server Client Content Package Encryption Content Repository Content DRM Packager 1 Metadata Product Info 2 Financial DRM Rendering Transaction Controller 9 Application 10 6 3 DRM 5 License 8 Encryption Rights Generator Keys Identity 7 4 Rights Encryption Identities License Keys License Server 8
  9. 9. Typical Components Content Server  Client (user device) – Repository of encrypted – DRM Controller content (software/firmware) License Server – Receives encrypted content – Takes requests for usage – Requests licenses licenses – Grants rights to users g – Authenticates identities (user, device, or both) – Issues licenses (small files) containing decryption keys 9
  10. 10. DRMs in E-Publishing Major Minor MobiPocket DRM: Amazon  Fictionwise Passhash: Adobe Content Server: Nook Nook, Kobo, Google Books,  Microsoft PlayReady: Blio Sony Reader, Numilog,  Kobo Vox DRM: Kobo Vox many others  Marlin: Sony Reader Japan FairPlay: Apple iOS y pp FileOpen: various publishers’ sites 10
  11. 11. DRM Economics 11
  12. 12. Economics of DRMPublishers demand it but (usually) don’t pay for it don tRetailers and device makers control designsVery few successful standalone DRM vendorsRetailers and device maker use DRM for “lock-in”Interoperability and fair use suffer Interoperable“Interoperable” DRM (Adobe Content Server) not easy for users 12
  13. 13. The Rights Technologies R&D Index (GiantSteps research, 2010) researchRights technologies research output per country – measured by number of articles in respected journalsGERD (Gross Expenditure on Research & Development) (G E dit R h D l t) – OECD statisticRights Technologies R&D Index is ratio of RT research output to GERDMeasure is independent of size or wealth of country 13
  14. 14. RT R&D Indexes Show: Economic Incentives Misaligned450 70400 60350 50300 40250 GERD ($B)200 30 RT Output150 RT R&D Index 20100 1050 0 0 Device “Device” Content “Content” Countries Countries 14
  15. 15. R&D Survey Results Reasons for Lack of R&D RIAA Lawsuit Threat Other 6% 12% Topic T i Distasteful 12% Moved On to Other Topics 6% R&D Not Published in Sci Journals No Grant Money 24% 12% There’s no Limited Money i it M in Commercialization 40% Opportunities 28% 15
  16. 16. Cloud Reading 16
  17. 17. The Future?Traditional Content DRM File Downloads Server Connection Can Be Intermittent Offline ReadingCloud Reading Content XML, Page Images Server Connection M t B C ti C ti Must Be Continuous 17
  18. 18. Content Protection for Cloud Reading XML Page Images Send a screen at a time  “Screen shot DRM” ( (Safari Books Online,  Send one page image at a time Google Books) (Amazon “Look Inside”) Send a chapter at a time  Pirates must OCR pages (Amazon Kindle Cloud Reader) images and assemble them i d bl th Pirates must assemble content from components p 18
  19. 19. DRM for Other Content 19
  20. 20. DRM for Other Content: MusicPermanent internet downloads went DRM free in 2007 DRM-freePermanent mobile downloads followed soon thereafterDRM for physical media (CDs) a failureOn-demand streaming services (Spotify, Deezer) g ( p y, ) – Stream encryption: data encrypted in transit to client – “Offline listening mode”: DRM for locally cached files 20
  21. 21. DRM for Other Content: Video Downloads all use DRM – Whether purchase (permanent) or rental (temporary) Physical media uses DRM – CSS for DVDs – AACS and BD+ for Blu-ray Otherwise encrypted streaming – Derived from Conditional Access (CA) for cable & satellite Strongest content protection technologies found here – Alignment of economic incentives 21
  22. 22. DRM for Other Content: GamesDRM ranges from very strong to none – Gamers particularly adept at hacking – Conversely “DRM Free” can be a selling point Conversely, DRM FreeMotivations different from video – Just need to minimize illegal sharing for first few weeks – That’s where most of the revenue comes 22
  23. 23. Other Rights Technologies for E Publishing E-Publishing 23
  24. 24. Forensic Rights Technologies (a/k/a Content Identification or Content Recognition)Watermarking and fingerprintingFor network piracy monitoring schemes (HADOPI)Do not prevent unlicensed useCrawl Internet looking for copies of known content g pProvide evidence of unlicensed uploads and downloadsBlock or monetize user uploads (YouTube) 24
  25. 25. E-Book “Watermarking” Embedding data in “noise” portions of images noise Adding unprintable chars to text content Inserting identifiers in e book e-book – Once, once per chapter, on every page – Could be transaction ID, user ID, user’s real name, email address, credit card number Idea: if your personal info is in the file, would you still share with your million b t f i d ? ith illi best friends? Easy to circumvent Examples: Pottermore EPUB files, O’Reilly PDF downloads 25
  26. 26. E-Book “Fingerprinting”Sophisticated pattern matchingCrawls web, finds instances of known contentCan look for context to see if use is licensed (e.g. news wire stories on newspapers’ websites)Examples: MarkMonitor/dTecNet, Attributor, y Irdeto/BayTSP 26
  27. 27. Watermarking vs. Fingerprinting Tradeoffs Watermarking Fingerprinting Content Changes Watermark must be embedded None required, can be used with content “in the wild” Process Insert watermark in every file on Compute fingerprint once for each server and/or consumer device; content item and deposit in detect later vendor’s master database; re- compute later for lookup Hacking risk Not very robust, easy to hack Nothing to hack (unlike id / di ( lik video/audio watermarking) t ki ) Data Storage Can store any data, up to capacity Cannot store any information; limitations; files with same content identical content files compute can have different watermarks identical fingerprints Costs Spread throughout the digital Primarily fall on service providers content value chain 27
  28. 28. IDPF EPUB LCP Project Update 28
  29. 29. IDPF EPUB LCP Project Lightweight Content Protection standard for EPUB3 Address lack of interoperability in EPUB due to lack of DRM standards Attempt to create standard interoperable DRM that is attractive to retailers & device makers Trade off strong security for ease and low cost of implementation p Take advantage of anticircumvention laws Process: issue RFP for technology contributions 29
  30. 30. EPUB LCP Project StatusRFP published in JulyDeadline extended to late SeptemberSix complete proposals receivedEvaluations to be presented to IDPF Board in early p y December 30
  31. 31. Complete Proposals ReceivedFileOpen – well established US vendor well-establishedImpervio – Canadian startupKobo – new proposed open standardMarlin Developer Community ( p y (MDC) – ) Marlin-derived specRHKS – Korean startup (from Random House Korea)Sony DADC – Marlin-based technology 31
  32. 32. Bill RosenblattGiantSteps Media Technology Strategiesbillr@giantstepsmts.com+1 212 956 1045www.giantstepsmts.com 32

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