The Carrot or the Stick: Opportunities and Challenges in Rights Technologies
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The Carrot or the Stick: Opportunities and Challenges in Rights Technologies

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Keynote presentation given at International Copyright Technology Conference (ICOTEC), Nov. 4, 2013, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Keynote presentation given at International Copyright Technology Conference (ICOTEC), Nov. 4, 2013, Seoul, Republic of Korea

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  • 1. The Carrot or the Stick: Opportunities and Challenges in Rights Technologies Bill Rosenblatt November 4, 2013
  • 2. About GiantSteps Consultancy focused on content & rights technologies Clients include copyright owners, service providers, technology vendors Advisory work for public policy and standards bodies on digital copyright
  • 3. Rights Technology Innovation in Asia-Pacific 450 70 400 60 350 50 Gross Expenditure on R&D (USD Billion) 300 250 40 200 30 150 20 100 Rights Technologies Output (research papers) Rights Technologies R&D Index 10 50 0 0 Device Producers Content Producers Sources: OECD, IMF
  • 4. Carrots and Sticks
  • 5. Carrots and Sticks and Rights Technologies  Creative content models  Licensing automation  Encryption (DRM, CAS)  Piracy monitoring  Upload filtering
  • 6. Technologies
  • 7. Encryption Technologies DRM – Generally refers to encrypted downloaded files CAS – Encryption of streams/signals over managed network Stream encryption – Over unmanaged network (Internet)
  • 8. Where Has Encryption Succeeded?  Time-bounded access  Content bundled with devices  Managing risk during transition from physical to digital  Reducing personal infringement (“oversharing”)
  • 9. Digital Transitions and DRM  DRM manages risk in new digital markets – Risk of infringement by tech-savvy early adopters – Protection of service providers’ investment  When leader emerges, DRM becomes less necessary – Service providers’ investments recouped – Inconvenience of leaving leader’s ecosystem is like form of DRM – And competitors will respond with DRM-free anyway  Case in point: music downloads  E-books may be next
  • 10. Time-Bounded Models  Subscription music  Subscription over the top video on demand  Library e-book lending  E-textbook rentals
  • 11. Bundling Content with Devices  Original bundled network/device model: Managed networks, CAS  Mobile phones with free music downloads  Subsidized e-book “lending”: Amazon Prime Kindle Owners’ Lending Library
  • 12. Where Has Encryption Failed?  Legacy emulations if kept around too long: DRM for music downloads  New time-based models if introduced too early: e-book rentals  Bundling content with unpopular devices: Nokia & Sony Ericsson music services
  • 13. Content Identification Identify content on download or “in the wild” Take action: – Flag infringement – Block upload – Monetize with contextual ad – Suggest legal alternative Techniques – Fingerprinting – Watermarking
  • 14. Content Identification Techniques      Watermarking Embed invisible/inaudible data before or during distribution Can be up to a few dozen bytes Software to detect watermarks in files Can contain user information Content must be watermarked      Fingerprinting No change to content required Run sophisticated algorithm to compute “fingerprint” of file Match against fingerprint database Does not contain information Works with all content
  • 15. Where Has Content Identification Succeeded?  Identifying music & offering buy opportunity (F)  Monetizing uploads with contextual ads (F)  Second screen apps (F or W)  “Social DRM” for ebooks (W)  Extra protection with DRM for high-value video (W)  Piracy monitoring (mostly F)  Filtering file uploads (F)
  • 16. Licensing Automation: Identifiers & Rights Registries Online database of rights information for content Standard identifiers for content Problem badly needs to be solved
  • 17. Licensing Automation Challenges Identifiers: what do they identify? IP (abstract), product, whole vs. part Machine-readable rights descriptions Registry ownership, governance, maintenance Private sector progress vs. antitrust concerns Fragmentation by media type and geography
  • 18. Too Many Standards Identifiers Music  ISRC  ISWC  GRid Publishing  ISBN  ISSN  DOI Video  ISAN  EIDR  UMID General  URN  URI  Handle Rights Description Languages        XRML MPEG REL ODRL RightsML (news) CC REL (Creative Commons) PLUS (images) PRISM RL (periodicals)
  • 19. ID/Registry Initiatives Public Sector/Non-profit  Global Repertoire Database (music)  International Music Registry (WIPO)  UK Copyright Hub  Copyright Data Clearinghouse (Japan, music)  Korean Copyright Exchange Private Sector  ImageIRC – Getty Images  Book Rights Registry – Google
  • 20. Missed Opportunity: Book Rights Registry Content Publishers Publishers Publishers Metadata & Rights Payments Content Metadata, Rights, Payments Book Rights Registry Payments Metadata & Rights Service Providers Content Libraries Libraries Libraries
  • 21. Opportunities
  • 22. Economic Incentives Economics are the primary issue Underlying economics of rights technologies: – Copyright owners benefit – Downstream entities bear much of the cost Strategies: – Lower the costs – Turn sticks into carrots
  • 23. Lower the Costs Explore lightweight mechanisms to encourage widespread adoption Instead of “arms race,” match security strength to user behavior and economic realities Rely on anticircumvention laws in many countries Develop policies that spread costs equitably throughout content value chain
  • 24. Convert Sticks to Carrots Find a behavior that could be infringing Find someone who benefits from it Track and monetize the behavior Best example:
  • 25. 감사합니다 Thank You Bill Rosenblatt GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies Blog: Twitter: @copyrightandtec +1 212 956 1045