Slide 1




             Copyright and Technology
                       2010

                                           ...
Slide 2




                                             Opening Remarks

                                                ...
Slide 3




                                           www.giantstepsmts.com




    © 2010
             GiantSteps
      ...
Slide 4




             Copyright and Technology


                                www.copyrightandtechnology.com




   ...
Slide 5




                                    www.gothammediaventures.com




    © 2010
             GiantSteps
       ...
Slide 6




             What Are We Discussing Today?




    © 2010
              GiantSteps
              Media Technol...
Slide 7


              Interface between Copyright and
                         Technology
                         T h l...
Slide 8


             Technologies to Affect Copyright

                                              Content access con...
Slide 9


             Legal Concepts that Affect These
                      Technologies
                      T h l i
 ...
Slide 10




                                           Technologies




    © 2010
             GiantSteps
             M...
Slide 11




                  Digital Rights Management




    © 2010
             GiantSteps
             Media Technol...
Slide 12




             DRM is a troubled technology…
                               technology…

                      ...
Slide 13


              Factors Inhibiting DRM Success*

            Market:                                            ...
Slide 14


              Economic Incentives Misaligned

            Content owners demand DRM but rarely pay for it
    ...
Slide 15


     Consumers Don’t See Value in Choices
               Don’
                 of Off
                   f Offe...
Slide 16


           Users Influenced towards Infringing
                        Behavior
                        B h i
 ...
Slide 17


           Technological Innovation Hampered

              Lack of revenue for DRM vendors
              Ven...
Slide 18


                   Laws Not Amenable to
                Technological Implementation
                T h l i lI...
Slide 19




                                           So…
                                           So… Is DRM Dead?


...
Slide 20


                                           Is DRM Dead?

                                            Short ans...
Slide 21


                                              Is DRM Dead?

              Slightly longer answer:
            ...
Slide 22


                                               Will DRM Die?

      Not where it enables new business models r...
Slide 23


                                                  State of DRM Today

     Multi-platform DRM technologies
   ...
Slide 24




                                    Content Identification




    © 2010
             GiantSteps
           ...
Slide 25


             Techniques for Identifying Content

                                              Watermarking
  ...
Slide 26


                                              Watermarking

            Inserting/embedding data into “noise” ...
Slide 27


                                    Evaluating Watermarks

            Undetectability
              – How lit...
Slide 28


                                              Fingerprinting

            Examining content to determine its i...
Slide 29


                          History of Fingerprinting

      1999:        First important patents issued
      ...
Slide 30


    Evaluating Fingerprinting Technologies

     Accuracy                                          Robustness...
Slide 31


                                    Content Identification
                                      Business B fit...
Slide 32




                                           Legal Developments
             …and their Technical Solutions



...
Slide 33


                                           Legal Developments

                                            Net...
Slide 34


                       Network Operator Liability

      Secondary liability
             – Contributory: aidi...
Slide 35


                                           Technical Solutions

                                              ...
Slide 36


                                           “Free Riding”
                                                 Ridin...
Slide 37


                                           Technical Solutions

       Fingerprinting & search
       Tagging...
Slide 38


                                           Blanket Licensing

      Just charge all ISP subscribers a levy for...
Slide 39


                                             Technical Solutions

            Fingerprinting for play counting...
Slide 40




                                           Conference Agenda




    © 2010
             GiantSteps
         ...
Slide 41


                                           Morning

       Keynote:
        Stanley Pierre-Louis, Viacom
     ...
Slide 42


                                              Afternoon

               Technology Track                       ...
Slide 43


                              Thanks to our Sponsors




    © 2010
             GiantSteps
             Media ...
Slide 44




                                           And finally…
                                               finall...
Slide 45


                              Recommended Reading




                   Jaron Lanier
                         ...
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C&T 2010 opening remarks - Bill Rosenblatt

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Opening speech by Bill Rosenblatt, conference chair and president of GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies.

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C&T 2010 opening remarks - Bill Rosenblatt

  1. 1. Slide 1 Copyright and Technology 2010 June 17, 2010 © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 1
  2. 2. Slide 2 Opening Remarks Bill Rosenblatt GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies www.giantstepsmts.com i tt t billr@giantstepsmts.com +1 212 956 1045 © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 2
  3. 3. Slide 3 www.giantstepsmts.com © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 3
  4. 4. Slide 4 Copyright and Technology www.copyrightandtechnology.com © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 4
  5. 5. Slide 5 www.gothammediaventures.com © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 5
  6. 6. Slide 6 What Are We Discussing Today? © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 6
  7. 7. Slide 7 Interface between Copyright and Technology T h l  Digital technology used to make and distribute copies at virtually no cost CCopyright i d t h h d various responses, all i ht industry has had i ll interrelated: – Legal L l – Technological – Economic – Education © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 7
  8. 8. Slide 8 Technologies to Affect Copyright  Content access control – DRM  Content identification – Filtering – License management © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 8
  9. 9. Slide 9 Legal Concepts that Affect These Technologies T h l i  Fair Use  Secondary infringement liability  Network service provider liability  Anticircumvention legislation g  Blanket licensing of content © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 9
  10. 10. Slide 10 Technologies © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 10
  11. 11. Slide 11 Digital Rights Management © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 11
  12. 12. Slide 12 DRM is a troubled technology… technology… Why? © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 12
  13. 13. Slide 13 Factors Inhibiting DRM Success*  Market:  Architecture: – Economic incentives – Technological innovation misaligned hampered – Commercial content must compete with free/illegal  Norms:  Laws: – Users don’t see value in don’ – Laws not amenable to choices of offers technological implementation – Norms distorted by architecture (technology) *based on L. Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, 1999, pp. 88-90 Lessig, Cyberspace, 88- © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 13
  14. 14. Slide 14 Economic Incentives Misaligned  Content owners demand DRM but rarely pay for it  Device makers and network operators use it to suit their th i own purposes  Consumers have only indirect market influence © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 14
  15. 15. Slide 15 Consumers Don’t See Value in Choices Don’ of Off f Offers  Expensive to educate users on unfamiliar offerings – Apple had huge budget to educate about unbundled albums – But Rhapsody Napster etc haven’t educated sufficiently Rhapsody, Napster, etc. haven’ about subscription services  Meanwhile, consumers focused on offline models: Meanwhile – Perception to be fought: • Pay (purchase) must mean ownership; y (p ) p; • Free must mean radio or broadcast TV; TV; • Therefore “free ownership” must be the only real improvement ownership” © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 15
  16. 16. Slide 16 Users Influenced towards Infringing Behavior B h i  Definition of DRM commandeered by the press – Narrower than original definitions – Yet broadened to apply to any technology that restricts user behavior in any way*  Notion that DRM == Big Media == Evil  Romanticism & rationalization of hacker/pirate ethic © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 16 *See C. Doctorow, boingboing.net
  17. 17. Slide 17 Technological Innovation Hampered  Lack of revenue for DRM vendors  Venture capital scared off – B d press Bad – Non-sexy topic Non-  Researchers scared off R h d ff – RIAA actions against Prof. Ed Felten in 1999 – DRM research “politically incorrect” in US incorrect” (not so much in Europe and Asia) © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 17
  18. 18. Slide 18 Laws Not Amenable to Technological Implementation T h l i lI l t ti  Fair Use laws not amenable to automation  Privacy and due process are important but become obstacles  Anticircumvention laws reduce incentive to develop effective technologies – Liability solely on the hacker y y – Effectiveness of TPM/DRM irrelevant to applicability of law (per Universal v Reimerdes, 2000) Reimerdes, 2000) © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 18
  19. 19. Slide 19 So… So… Is DRM Dead? © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 19
  20. 20. Slide 20 Is DRM Dead?  Short answer: no no. © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 20
  21. 21. Slide 21 Is DRM Dead?  Slightly longer answer: Only for permanent Internet music downloads. downloads. © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 21
  22. 22. Slide 22 Will DRM Die?  Not where it enables new business models rather than tries to emulate old ones. EExamples: l – Buy single songs instead of albums: iTunes (originally) – Subscription services for music: Rhapsody, Napster, MOG*, Rdio*, Spotify Premium* Rdio*, – Subsidized ecosystems with “free” content: free” Nokia Comes With Music, Play Now Plus, Beyond Oblivion – Library e-book lending: Overdrive e- © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 22 *Yes they do – just don’t call it “DRM” don’ DRM”
  23. 23. Slide 23 State of DRM Today  Multi-platform DRM technologies Multi-  E-book DRMs – Marlin (Intertrust) – Amazon – OMA DRM 2.1 (Open Mobile (Kindle & Kindle apps) Alliance) – Adobe Content Server – PlayReady (Microsoft) (most others)  Video DRMs  Other proprietary DRMs – Adobe Flash Access – Apple FairPlay – Widevine – Subscription music services – DivX (Sonic)  Gaming – AACS/BD+ (Blu-ray) AACS/BD (Blu-Blu – SecuROM (S ) S ROM (Sony) – StarForce – ByteShield – TryMedia (RealNetworks) RealNetworks) © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 23
  24. 24. Slide 24 Content Identification © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 24
  25. 25. Slide 25 Techniques for Identifying Content  Watermarking  Fingerprinting © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 25
  26. 26. Slide 26 Watermarking  Inserting/embedding data into “noise” portions of noise” image, audio, or video signal  Data capacity: typically a few dozen bytes  Technology appeared in mid-to-late 1990s mid-to- – First for digital images – Audio and video later  Trade association est. 2006: Digital Watermarking 2006: g g Alliance © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 26
  27. 27. Slide 27 Evaluating Watermarks  Undetectability – How little it detracts from user’s experience user’  Robustness – How well it survives copying to lower-resolution or analog f lower- format  Capacity – How much data it can hold (typically a few dozen bytes)  Security – How resistant to attempts to alter or erase  Efficiency – How fast insertion and extraction © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 27
  28. 28. Slide 28 Fingerprinting  Examining content to determine its identity – Compute a set of numbers (“fingerprints”) (“fingerprints” – Look up in database, see if there’s a match there’  Based on mathematical concept of hashing – But allows for different files that look/sound the same – C compensate f certain t Can t for t i transformations: f ti excerpting, cropping, audio distortion, etc. © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 28
  29. 29. Slide 29 History of Fingerprinting  1999: First important patents issued  2002: Introduced for music during Napster litigation  2005: Major record co’s approve for P2P services co’  2006: Video fingerprinting introduced  2007 2007: “T fingerprinting” (A b ) adopted b AP Text fingerprinting” (Attributor) d f d by © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 29
  30. 30. Slide 30 Evaluating Fingerprinting Technologies  Accuracy  Robustness – False positives – Imperviousness to content – False negatives transformations:  Efficiency format changes, – Calculation speed display rate changes, – Ability to register live content deliberate distortions in real time  Content database – Lookup speed – Catalog size & – Fingerprint size comprehensiveness © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 30
  31. 31. Slide 31 Content Identification Business B fit B i Benefits  Detecting and deterring unauthorized use  Increasing Internet ad revenue  Tracking content usage  Managing assets and integrating systems g g g g y  Monetizing transformational content uses © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 31
  32. 32. Slide 32 Legal Developments …and their Technical Solutions © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 32
  33. 33. Slide 33 Legal Developments  Network operator liability  “Free riding” riding”  Blanket licensing © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 33
  34. 34. Slide 34 Network Operator Liability  Secondary liability – Contributory: aiding and abetting infringement – Vicarious: “looking the other way” and benefiting from it way” – Inducement: inducing others to infringe as business model  DMCA Safe Harbor – Notice and takedown (512)  Now: content owners pushing for ISP liability – Graduated/Progressive Response a/k/a “three strikes” strikes” – Enacted in France, South Korea, Taiwan , , © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 34
  35. 35. Slide 35 Technical Solutions  Fingerprinting  Watermarking  Traffic analysis © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 35
  36. 36. Slide 36 “Free Riding” Riding”  Monetizing links to copyrighted content  Monetizing content appearing in search results  Copying of content (e.g. in blogs) without permission © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 36
  37. 37. Slide 37 Technical Solutions  Fingerprinting & search  Tagging content with “beacon” metatags – AP hNews beacon”  Tagging content with rules for indexing and search results – ACAP © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 37
  38. 38. Slide 38 Blanket Licensing  Just charge all ISP subscribers a levy for content use  Distribute proceeds to licensors… somehow licensors…  Attempted in US on some college campuses for music (Choruss) Choruss)  Considered in the Isle of Man (population 80,000) © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 38
  39. 39. Slide 39 Technical Solutions  Fingerprinting for play counting and royalty distribution  Oth i none; t h l -free blunt i t Otherwise technology- technology f bl t instrumentt © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 39
  40. 40. Slide 40 Conference Agenda © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 40
  41. 41. Slide 41 Morning  Keynote: Stanley Pierre-Louis, Viacom Pierre-  Plenary S i Pl Session: Best Practices for Monetizing Premium Video Content (sponsored b Ad b ) ( d by Adobe) © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 41
  42. 42. Slide 42 Afternoon Technology Track Law Track  New Ecosystems for Video  Progressive Response  Content Identification  News Publishing and Fair Technologies Use  What Is the Future of  Policing Copyright: DRM? Whose Job Is It? © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 42
  43. 43. Slide 43 Thanks to our Sponsors © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 43
  44. 44. Slide 44 And finally… finally… © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 44
  45. 45. Slide 45 Recommended Reading Jaron Lanier Lanier, Adrian Johns Johns, You Are Not a Gadget Piracy © 2010 GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies 45
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