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Copyright and Technology London 2012: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt, GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies

Copyright and Technology London 2012: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt, GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies






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    Copyright and Technology London 2012: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt, GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies Copyright and Technology London 2012: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt, GiantSteps Media Technology Strategies Presentation Transcript

    • Copyright and Technology London 2012 19 June 2012 1
    • Opening Remarks Bill RosenblattGiantSteps Media Technology Strategies www.giantstepsmts.com www giantstepsmts com billr@giantstepsmts.com Twitter: @copyrightandtec +1 212 956 1045 2
    • www.giantstepsmts.com 3
    • www.copyrightandtechnology.com 4
    • www.musically.com 5
    • Twitter:#ctlondon2012 6
    • American Conference Jargon American BritishAttendee DelegateSeat PlaceBooth StandCocktail party Drinks receptionButts in seats Bums in seatsRipoff VAT 7
    • What Are We Discussing Today? 8
    • Interface between Copyright and Technology T h lDigital technology used to make and distribute copies at virtually no costCopyright i d t responses, all i t l t dC i ht industry ll interrelated: – Legal – Technological – Economic – Education 9
    • Technologies to Affect Copyright Content access control – DRM – Conditional Access Content identification – Filtering – License/royalty management Rights registries 10
    • Legal Concepts that Affect These Technologies T h l i Fair Dealing Exhaustion Secondary infringement liability Network service provider liability p y Anticircumvention legislation Blanket licensing of content 11
    • Technologies 12
    • Digital Rights Management 13
    • DRM is a “troubled”* technology… Why? *Jaron Lanier, You Are Not a Gadget, 2010 14
    • Factors Inhibiting DRM Success* Market:  Architecture: – Economic incentives – Technological innovation misaligned hampered – Commercial content must compete with free/illegal Norms:  Laws: – Users don’t see value in – Laws not amenable to choices of offers technological implementation – Norms distorted by architecture (technology) *Based on L. Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, 1999, pp. 88-90 15
    • Market: Economic Incentives Misaligned E i I ti Mi li dContent owners demand DRM but rarely pay for itDevice makers and network operators use it to suit their th i own purposesConsumers have only indirect market influence 16
    • Norms:Consumers Don’t Yet See Value in N ModelsC D ’t Y t S V l i New M d l Radio ulations Record Store LegacyEmu VCR BookstoreDig Native Free/Limited VOD New, gital Paid Subscription VOD On Demand Music 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Million U.S. Users (estimated) 17
    • Norms: Users Influenced towards Infringing B h i U I fl dt d I f i i BehaviorDefinition of DRM commandeered by the press – Narrower than original definitions – Yet broadened to apply to any technology that restricts user behavior in any way1Notion that DRM  Big Media  Evil/ObsoleteRomanticism & rationalization of hacker/pirate ethic“Lords f the Cloud” t the “free d“L d of th Cl d”2 get th “f and open” PR3 ”1C. Doctorow, M. Masnick, etc.2J Jaron Lanier, Y A Not a Gadget L i You Are N t G d t3Robert Levine, Free Ride 18
    • Architecture:Technological IT h l i l Innovation Hampered ti H d Lack of revenue for DRM vendors Venture capital scared off – B d press Bad – Non-sexy topic Researchers scared off R h d ff – RIAA actions against Prof. Ed Felten in 1999 – DRM research “politically incorrect” in U S politically incorrect U.S. 19
    • The Rights Technologies R&D Imbalance450 70400 60350 50300250 40 2009 Gross Expen‐ ditures on R&D 200 30 ($Billion)150 Rights Technologies  20 p R&D Output 100 (Research Papers) 10 Rights Technology  50 R&D Index 0 0 Device Producers Content Producers Sources: O C IMF S OECD, 20
    • Laws Not Amenable to Technological Implementation T h l i lI l t ti Fair Dealing/Fair Use laws not amenable to automation Privacy and due process are important but become obstacles Anticircumvention laws reduce incentive to develop effective technologies; liability solely on the hacker 21
    • Yet DRM Is Alive Today… Downloads Real Time DeliveryE-books Yes “Screenshot DRM” (page images)Music Mobile device Usually “offline listening (stream encryption) mode” d ”Video Yes In most release windows (stream encryption) (t ti ) 22
    • Will DRM Die?Not WhN t When It Enables N Models E bl New M d lService investment protection – Music: iTunes (originally) – E-books: Amazon E books: – Digital pay TVBusiness models – Subscription music services: Spotify, Deezer, etc – Library e-book lending: OverDrive y gSubsidized content – Amazon Prime: one e-book at a time “lending” g – MuveMusic: unlimited music downloads with phone 23
    • Content Identification 24
    • Techniques for Identifying Content Watermarking Fingerprinting 25
    • WatermarkingInserting/embedding data into “noise” portions of noise image, audio, or video signalInserting invisible data into e-book filesInserting visible personal info into e-book filesData capacity: typically a few dozen bytesTechnology appeared in mid-to-late 1990s – First for digital images – Audio and video later – PDFs & EPUBs most recent 26
    • FingerprintingExamining content to determine its identity – Compute a set of numbers (“fingerprints”) – Look up in database, see if there’s a matchBased on mathematical concept of hashing – But allows for different files that look/sound the same – Can compensate for certain transformations: excerpting, cropping, audio distortion, etc.History: y – 2002: Introduced for music during Napster litigation – 2006: Video fingerprinting introduced – 2007 “T t fi 2007: “Text fingerprinting” (Att ib t ) adopted b AP i ti ” (Attributor) d t d by 27
    • Content Identification Business B fit B i BenefitsDetecting and deterring unauthorized useTracking content usageDiscovery & recommendationsIncreasing Internet ad revenue gManaging assets and integrating systemsMonetizing transformational content uses 28
    • Legal Developments…and their Technical Solutions 29
    • Legal DevelopmentsNetwork operator liability“Free riding”Digital Exhaustion 30
    • Network Operator LiabilitySecondary liability (US def’ns) def ns) – Contributory: aiding and abetting infringement – Vicarious: “looking the other way” and benefiting from it looking way – Inducement: inducing others to infringe as business modelISP responsibility – Notice and takedown (US) – Notice and notice (Canada) ( ) – Graduated Response (France, South Korea, Taiwan, New Zealand, UK) 31
    • Technical Solutions Fingerprinting Watermarking Traffic analysis 32
    • “Free Riding”Monetizing links to copyrighted contentPosting links to illegal content (e.g. in cyberlockers)Monetizing content appearing in search results“Cloud sync” services(?) y () 33
    • Technical SolutionsFingerprinting & searchTagging content with “beacon” metatags – AP hNewsTagging content with rules for indexing and search results – ACAP 34
    • ExhaustionIf you obtain a copyrighted work legally legally, you can do what you want with itApplicability to digital d l d isA li bilit t di it l downloads i unclear lU.S. Copyright Office punted on it in 2001 reportDownloads covered under licenses, not copyright 35
    • Technical Solutions Forward“Forward and delete” DRM like functionality delete DRM-likeDescribed in 2001 U.S. Copyright Office paperImplemented by U.S. startup ReDigiDescribed in IEEE P1817 standard for “Consumer Ownable Digital Personal Property” 36
    • Conference Agenda 37
    • MorningKeynote: Eric Walter, General Secretary, HADOPIPlenary Session: Policing PiPl S i P li i PiracyPlenary Session: The Yin and Yang of Piracy Data Collection (sponsored by MarkMonitor) 38
    • Afternoon Technology Track Law & Policy Track Content Security  Rights Registries: Bringing Challenges in Multi Multi- Precision and Efficiency to Platform Distribution Rights Licensing Content Identification:  International Perspectives Progressive Response, on Digital Copyright Media Measurement and More 39
    • Thanks to our Sponsors 40
    • Thanks to our Media Sponsors 41
    • And finally… 42
    • Recommended Reading Robert Levine, Free Ride 43