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Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt
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Copyright and Technology 2011: Opening Remarks - Bill Rosenblatt

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Bill Rosenblatt's opening remarks from the Copyright and Technology 2011 conference, New York, November 30.

Bill Rosenblatt's opening remarks from the Copyright and Technology 2011 conference, New York, November 30.

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  • 1. Copyright and Technology 2011 November 30, 2011 1
  • 2. Opening Remarks Bill RosenblattGiantSteps Media Technology Strategies www.giantstepsmts.com www giantstepsmts com billr@giantstepsmts.com Twitter: @copyrightandtec +1 212 956 1045 2
  • 3. www.giantstepsmts.com 3
  • 4. www.copyrightandtechnology.com 4
  • 5. www.gothammediaventures.com 5
  • 6. What Are We Discussing Today? 8
  • 7. Interface between Copyright and Technology T h lDigital technology used to make and distribute copies at virtually no costCopyright i d t responses, all i t l t dC i ht industry ll interrelated: – Legal – Technological – Economic – Education 9
  • 8. Technologies to Affect Copyright Content access control – DRM – Conditional Access Content identification – Filtering – License/royalty management Rights registries 10
  • 9. Legal Concepts that Affect These Technologies T h l i Fair Use First Sale Secondary infringement liability Network service provider liability p y Anticircumvention legislation Blanket licensing of content 11
  • 10. Technologies 12
  • 11. Digital Rights Management 13
  • 12. DRM is a “troubled”* technology… Why? *Jaron Lanier, You Are Not a Gadget, 2010 14
  • 13. Factors Inhibiting DRM Success* Market:  Architecture: – Economic incentives – Technological innovation misaligned hampered – Commercial content must compete with free/illegal Norms:  Laws: – Users don’t see value in – Laws not amenable to choices of offers technological implementation – Norms distorted by architecture (technology) *Based on L. Lessig, Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, 1999, pp. 88-90 15
  • 14. Market: Economic Incentives Misaligned E i I ti Mi li dContent owners demand DRM but rarely pay for itDevice makers and network operators use it to suit their th i own purposesConsumers have only indirect market influence 16
  • 15. Norms:Consumers Don’t Yet See Value in N ModelsC D ’t Y t S V l i New M d l Radio ulations Record Store Legacy VCREmu Bookstore Free/Limited VODDig Native Paid Subscription VOD New, gital Free/Limited OD Music Paid Sub OD Music 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Million U.S. Users (estimated) 17
  • 16. Norms: Users Influenced towards Infringing B h i U I fl dt d I f i i BehaviorDefinition of DRM commandeered by the press – Narrower than original definitions – Yet broadened to apply to any technology that restricts user behavior in any way1Notion that DRM  Big Media  Evil/ObsoleteRomanticism & rationalization of hacker/pirate ethic“Lords f the Cloud” t the “free d“L d of th Cl d”2 get th “f and open” PR3 ”1C. Doctorow, M. Masnick, etc.2J Jaron Lanier, Y A Not a Gadget L i You Are N t G d t3Robert Levine, Free Ride 18
  • 17. Architecture:Technological IT h l i l Innovation Hampered ti H d Lack of revenue for DRM vendors Venture capital scared off – B d press Bad – Non-sexy topic Researchers scared off R h d ff – RIAA actions against Prof. Ed Felten in 1999 – DRM research “politically incorrect” in U S politically incorrect U.S. 19
  • 18. The Rights Technologies R&D Imbalance450 70400 60350 50300250 40200 30 2009 Gross Expen‐ ditures on R&D 150 ($Billion) 20 RT R&D Output  RT R&D Output100 (Research Papers) 10 50 RT R&D Index 0 0 Device Producers Content Producers Sources: O C IMF S OECD, 20
  • 19. Laws Not Amenable to Technological Implementation T h l i lI l t ti Fair Use laws not amenable to automation Privacy and due process are important but become obstacles Anticircumvention laws reduce incentive to develop effective technologies – Liability solely on the hacker y y – Effectiveness of TPM/DRM irrelevant to applicability of law (per Universal v Reimerdes, 2000) 21
  • 20. Yet DRM Is Alive Today… Downloads Real Time DeliveryE-books Yes “Screenshot DRM” (page images)Music Mobile device Usually “offline listening (stream encryption) mode” d ”Video Yes In most release windows (stream encryption) (t ti ) 22
  • 21. Will DRM Die?Not WhN t When It Enables N Models E bl New M d l  Digital music downloads: iTunes (originally)  Premium pay-per-view TV  E l release window fil Early l i d films  Music subscription services:* Rhapsody, MOG Rdi S tif P i Rh d MOG, Rdio, Spotify Premium  Subsidized-content ecosystems: boinc (music) Amazon Prime (e book a month) (music), (e-book-a-month)  Library e-book lending: OverDrive, BlueFire *Yes they do – they just don’t call it “DRM” 23
  • 22. Content Identification 24
  • 23. Techniques for Identifying Content Watermarking Fingerprinting 25
  • 24. WatermarkingInserting/embedding data into “noise” portions of noise image, audio, or video signalData capacity: typically a few dozen bytesTechnology appeared in mid-to-late 1990s – First for digital images – Audio and video later 26
  • 25. FingerprintingExamining content to determine its identity – Compute a set of numbers (“fingerprints”) – Look up in database, see if there’s a matchBased on mathematical concept of hashing – But allows for different files that look/sound the same – Can compensate for certain transformations: excerpting, cropping, audio distortion, etc.History: y – 2002: Introduced for music during Napster litigation – 2006: Video fingerprinting introduced – 2007 “T t fi 2007: “Text fingerprinting” (Att ib t ) adopted b AP i ti ” (Attributor) d t d by 27
  • 26. Content Identification Business B fit B i BenefitsDetecting and deterring unauthorized useTracking content usageDiscovery & recommendationsIncreasing Internet ad revenue gManaging assets and integrating systemsMonetizing transformational content uses 28
  • 27. Legal Developments…and their Technical Solutions 29
  • 28. Legal DevelopmentsNetwork operator liability“Free riding”Digital First Sale 30
  • 29. Network Operator LiabilitySecondary liability – Contributory: aiding and abetting infringement – Vicarious: “looking the other way” and benefiting from it looking way – Inducement: inducing others to infringe as business modelISP Liability – Notice and takedown (DMCA 512) – Graduated/Progressive Response a/k/a “three strikes” g p (France, South Korea, Taiwan, New Zealand, UK) – Center for Copyright Information, USA 31
  • 30. Technical Solutions Fingerprinting Watermarking Traffic analysis 32
  • 31. “Free Riding”Monetizing links to copyrighted contentPosting links to illegal content (e.g. in cyberlockers)Monetizing content appearing in search results“Cloud sync” services(?) y () 33
  • 32. Technical SolutionsFingerprinting & searchTagging content with “beacon” metatags – AP hNewsTagging content with rules for indexing and search results – ACAP 34
  • 33. Digital First SaleFirst Sale: Section 109 of U.S. copyright law USKnown as “Exhaustion” in other countriesIf you obtain a copyrighted work legally, you can do what you want with itApplicability to digital downloads is unclearCopyright Office punted on it in 2001 reportDownloads covered under licenses, not copyright 35
  • 34. Technical Solutions Forward“Forward and delete” DRM like functionality delete DRM-likeDescribed in 2001 Copyright Office paperImplemented by startup ReDigiDescribed in IEEE P1817 standard for “Consumer Ownable Digital Personal Property” 36
  • 35. Thanks to our Sponsors 40
  • 36. Thanks to our Media Sponsors 41
  • 37. And finally… 42
  • 38. Recommended Reading Robert Levine, Free Ride 43

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