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• How many people have SLR type cameras or cameras with manual control?\nHow many people shoot with their camera in the Auto mode?\nTry these things on your camera as we go along.\n
• You need x amount of light to take properly exposed picture, you can decide how to get it\nToo bright = overexposed\nToo dark = underexposed\nViewfinder, light meter.\n
• Changing any of these three things will adjust your exposure.\nThese fundamentals have been around as long as photography.\nThe meter in your camera will show if the picture is underexposed/overexposed.\n
• What does a larger opening do? Lets in more light\nWhat does a smaller opening do? Lets in less light\nIt&amp;#x2019;s like a pipe letting in water, the bigger the pipe, the more water that gets through.\n
• The confusing numbering... which do you think lets in more light?\nSmaller f stop number = bigger opening (more light)\nLarger f stop number = smaller opening (less light)\nThe amount of light doubles with every f stop.\n\n
• Pass around lens.\n
• More will be sharp behind than in front of what you focus on, 1/3 vs. 2/3.\nCreativity you can&amp;#x2019;t get in Auto mode...\nWhat is something that you would want a lot of DOF for? (landscapes)\nWhy would you want shallow DOF? (portraits, or to isolate any subject)\n
• Summary of aperture\nLenses with a very large maximum aperture are called &amp;#x201C;fast&amp;#x201D; lenses (allow for faster shutter speeds due to letting in more light.)\nDistance to subject - The farther away, the more DOF.\nSmall sensor cameras have more DOF than large sensor cameras.\nLenses are not the same sharpness at all apertures, they have a &amp;#x201C;sweet spot&amp;#x201D;.\n
• Usually measured in fraction of a second.\nShutter speed of 125 = 1/125 of a second.\nIt&amp;#x2019;s like a faucet, the longer the time you leave it open, the more water that gets through.\n\n
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• Hand holding techniques\n
• Higher ISO numbers are more light sensitive, absorb more light. (Don&amp;#x2019;t usually change within condition)\nThe higher the ISO, the more image noise (grain) you will get (worse in shadow areas.)\nUse the lowest ISO you can, but still get the aperture and shutter speed you need.\nUse low ISO outdoors during the day, higher ISO indoors/low light.\n\n
• Now we put the pieces to the puzzle together.\nIf you cut the shutter speed in half, then twice as large of an aperture would let in the same amount of light.\nYou can fine-tune your images for more/less depth of field, faster speed to stop action, etc.\n
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3. 3. ExposureExposure is how light or dark the image is as capturedby the camera.
4. 4. ExposureControlled by three things, working in conjunction Aperture, shutter speed, ISO
5. 5. ApertureAperture is the opening in the lens that lets light into thecamera
6. 6. ApertureAperture is measured in f stops f/1.4, f/2.0, f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, f/22
7. 7. Aperture
8. 8. ApertureDepth of field (DOF) = range of how far in front andbehind the subject you focused on will be acceptablysharp
9. 9. ApertureDepth of field is controlled by your aperture settingLarger opening (small f stop number) = little DOFSmaller opening (large f stop number) = more DOF
10. 10. Shutter SpeedShutter speed is how long you are letting light enter thecamera
11. 11. Shutter SpeedSome common shutter speeds 1/30, 1/60, 1/125, 1/250, 1/500, 1/1000 (extends on both ends) Small numbers leave the shutter open for a longer time (slow) Large numbers leave the shutter open for a shorter time (fast)
12. 12. Shutter SpeedNeed to use a shutter speed fast enough to stop theaction of your subject, and youThe longer the lens focal length, the faster speed youneed to hold the camera still and stop the action
13. 13. Shutter SpeedRule of thumb: use a shutter speed at least the inverseof your lens focal lengthEg. with a 50 mm lens, use a shutter speed of 1/60 orfaster to hand hold the cameraWide angle lenses can be hand held with much slowerspeeds
14. 14. Shutter SpeedBulb = Shutter stays open while button heldBulb and slow speeds require a tripod or similarsupport
15. 15. ISOThe ISO is the sensitivity of your sensor or film.100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200
16. 16. Equivalent ExposureYou can adjust any two (ISO, Shutter Speed, Aperture)and still keep the same exposure.Eg. ISO 100, f/8, 1/500 = ISO 100, f11, 1/250
17. 17. Before next week... Take your camera out and shoot some pictures in manual mode, using the ISO, shutter speed, and aperture settings. Bring in a couple of your favorites and we will view them and discuss.