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Walker, Chapter 9

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    • 1. Police in America Chapter Nine The Police and Crime
    • 2. The Police and Crime
      • Crime Control Strategies
        • Proactive versus Reactive
          • Proactive: Anticrime strategies initiated by the police themselves, not citizens requesting service
          • Reactive: Anticrime strategies used by police when responding to a civilian’s request for service
        • General versus Specific
          • Directed at the community at large vs. directed at particular crimes, places, offenders, or victims
        • Particular crimes
        • Specific places
        • Specific offenders
        • Specific victims
    • 3. Crime Control Assumptions
      • Citizens are co-producers of police services
      • Police and other social institutions are interdependent
        • Communities, families, schools, labor markets, workplaces, other criminal justice programs
      • Measuring effectiveness requires meaningful definitions and reliable data
    • 4. Preventing Crime
      • Routine patrol is primary crime prevention activity
      • Specialized crime prevention units
        • Meet with citizens to discuss crime prevention options
        • Work alongside neighborhood groups
        • Educating youth about crime, drugs, and gangs
    • 5. Apprehending Criminals
      • Second major crime-fighting responsibility of police officers
      • Citizen Reporting of Crime
        • Citizens act as “gatekeepers” of the criminal justice system
        • Patrol officers rarely discover crimes in progress
        • Some victims do not report crimes because they do not think the crime is important
    • 6. Reporting and Unfounding Crimes
      • “ Unfounding” a Crime: Failure of a police officer to complete an official crime report when a citizen reports a crime.
      • Reasons for Unfounding a Crime
        • Citizens do not understand the criminal law
        • Insufficient evidence
        • Abuse of officer’s discretion
    • 7. Criminal Investigation
      • Myths About Detective Work
        • Work is exciting and dangerous
        • Detectives are heroic, courageous and skillful
        • These myths create unreasonable public expectations about the ability of police to control crime
      • The Organization of Detective Work
        • Located in separate unit of department
        • Considered a high-status assignment to be a detective
        • Offers great opportunity to control one’s work and exercise initiative
    • 8. The Investigation Process
      • The Preliminary Investigation
        • 1. Identify and arrest suspects
        • 2. Provide aid to victims
        • 3. Secure crime scene and prevent loss of evidence
        • 4. Collect relevant physical evidence
        • 5. Prepare preliminary report
      • Arrest Discretion
        • Based on the following factors:
          • 1. Strength of evidence
          • 2. Seriousness of crime
          • 3. Victim request of arrest
          • 4. Victim and suspect are strangers
          • 5. Suspect is hostile
      • Follow-Up Investigations
        • Interview witnesses
        • Canvass crime scene
        • Discuss the case with patrol officers
        • Interview suspects
        • Check records and NCIC files
      • Reality of Detective Work
        • Not glamorous or exciting
        • Superficial, routine, non-productive
      • Case Screening
        • Based on seriousness of crime and existence of evidence
        • “ Case solvability factors”
        • Caseload varies: nominal, workable, and actual
    • 9. Measuring the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigations
      • The Clearance Rate
        • Traditional measure of success in a criminal investigation
        • Only 21% of all reported Index crimes are cleared Nationally
        • Unreliable since it is based on only reported crimes and data can be manipulated
      • Defining an Arrest
        • Legally arrested: deprived of rights by legal authority
        • Behaviorally arrested: asked by police officer to stop, told they are under arrest, or physically restrained by officer
        • Subjectively arrested: when an individual believes he/she is not free to go
        • Officially arrested: when officer makes an official report of arrest
    • 10. Success and Failure in Solving Crimes
      • Three main case solvability factors :
        • 1. Case Structural Factors
          • Related to the crime committed
        • 2. Organizational Factors
          • Lack of resources does not keep clearance rates low
        • 3. Environmental Factors
          • Characteristics of the community the police work in
          • Officers have no control over these factors
    • 11. Success and Failure in Solving Crimes Continued
      • Officer Productivity
        • Some officers make more arrests than others
        • Quality of arrests differs as well: many arrests do not lead to a conviction
      • The Problem of Case Attrition
        • Only ½ of felony arrests result in conviction
        • Detectives and officers typically express little interest in why this happens and how to fix it
    • 12. The Use of Eyewitness Identification, Criminalistics, and DNA in Investigations
      • Eyewitness Identification
        • Typically unreliable due to problems with human perception and memory
      • Criminalistics
        • Technical specialists in crime lab analyze evidence, etc.
      • DNA
        • All DNA samples forwarded to the FBI and put into the National DNA Indexing System
          • Stores forensic data and convicted offender index data
    • 13. Improving Criminal Investigations
      • Changes in community policing
        • Structural changes
          • Headquarters changed to beats and precincts
          • Assigning investigators to particular areas
        • Procedural changes
          • Greater intergovernmental communication
          • Assistance from other criminal justice orgs.
        • Functional changes
          • Role and responsibility changes for investigators
    • 14. Special Investigative Techniques
      • Undercover Police Work
        • Deliberate deception that may promote a habit of lying
        • Befriending criminals
          • May erode the standards of policing
        • Less supervision
      • Informants
        • Used especially in victimless crimes
        • Criminals who possess special knowledge
        • Potential problems because police must give something in return for access to that information
    • 15. Policing Drugs
      • Drug Enforcement Strategies
        • Supply reduction strategy
          • Buy and bust
          • “ Trading up”
          • Long-term undercover work
          • Drug crackdown: intensive enforcement effort
        • Demand reduction strategy
          • Drug education programs
      • Minorities and the War on Drugs
        • African Americans arrested more frequently than whites, although usage is about the same
      • Demand Reduction: The D.A.R.E Program
        • Operating in 70 percent of all public school systems
    • 16. Policing Gangs and Gang-Related Crime
      • Gang Suppression
        • The police gang unit: specialized unit
        • Has at least one sworn officer whose job it is to engage in gang control effort
      • Gang Prevention: G.R.E.A.T. Program
        • Gang Resistance Education and Training
        • Operates in all 50 states
        • Study showed that it was not very effective at preventing students from joining gangs
    • 17. Policing Career Criminals
      • Career Criminals: People believed to be committing a high rate of offenses
      • Repeat Offender Programs
        • Targeting suspected high-rate offenders for surveillance and arrest
        • Targeting those with outstanding warrants
        • Case-enhancement programs to provide information about offendor histories
    • 18. Policing Guns and Gun Crimes
      • Victims are most likely to be Black, American Indian and Hispanic
      • Men are twice as likely to be victims compared to women
      • Gun Suppression
        • Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN)
        • Kansas City Gun Experiment
          • Targeted a high-crime precinct with problem-oriented policing and directed patrol
          • As a result, gun crimes fell 49%
    • 19. Policing Hate Crime
      • Hate Crime – bias motivated crimes
      • The Scope and Nature of Hate Crime
        • 50.8% racial bias
        • 18.4% religious bias
        • 16.6% sexual orientation bias
        • 13.2% ethnic/national origin bias
        • Five main characteristics of Hate Crimes
          • Higher level of assaults against persons than crimes generally
          • More violent
          • Attacks preceded by series of confrontations that escalate in severity
          • More likely to be committed be group perpetrators
          • Likely to be committed by someone the victim knows
      • Police Response to Hate Crime
        • Creation of specialized bias crime units
    • 20. Policing Terrorism
      • The Scope and Nature of Terrorism
        • Terrorism: “The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives.”
      • Domestic Terrorism
        • Planned and carried out by Americans on American soil
      • Foreign Terrorism
        • Terrorist activities coordinated and perpetrated by foreign persons or countries against the U.S.
    • 21. Responding to Terrorism
      • In the wake of September 11
        • Department of Homeland Security created
        • Increasing number of U.S. Coast Guard and Customs Service personnel
        • FBI Office of Intelligence
        • FBI Counterterrorism Watch
        • Local police first to respond in a terrorist event
          • But issues between federal law enforcement agencies and local police arise due to refusal to share critical information