Walker, chapter 8


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  • Walker, chapter 8

    1. 1. Police in America Chapter Eight Peacekeeping and Order Maintenance
    2. 2. The Police Role <ul><li>Order Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Police intervention in incidents that do not involve actual criminal activity but often entail “interpersonal conflict” or “public nuisance” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stephen Mastrofski’s Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four different ways that non-crime calls for service can help improve police effectiveness in dealing with crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal Prophylactic Model 3. Social Work Model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police Knowledge Model 4. Community-Cooperation Model </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Calling the Police <ul><li>Public Expectations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a social boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relieve unpleasant situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterpunching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain an emergency service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Police response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal handling with no official action </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Traffic Enforcement <ul><li>Most common type of order maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Police departments and citizens influence traffic enforcement policy </li></ul><ul><li>Source of friction between Police and Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic enforcement crackdowns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drunk driving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question over whether crackdowns reduce drunk driving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk of arrest for drunk driving is low </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrest is very time consuming </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Policing Domestic Disputes <ul><li>Defining Terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domestic Disturbance : A dispute requiring police response that involves two or more people engaged in an intimate relationship (married or divorced couples, live-in lovers, people on a first date, adults and children, or adults and elderly parents) </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. The Prevalence of Domestic Violence <ul><li>Domestic Violence: A disturbance between two or more people engaged in an intimate relationship that has escalated to a degree involving actual or threatened violence </li></ul><ul><li>Intimate partner violence decreased substantially from 1993 to 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>Calling the Police </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many domestic violence victims do NOT call the police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-white, low-income people call more frequently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-class women turn toward private sectors for help </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Police Response to Domestic Violence <ul><li>Police response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Separating the parties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referral to social service agencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No action at all </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing arrest decision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandatory arrest policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preference of victim for arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between victim and suspect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrespect to police </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Domestic Violence Continued <ul><li>Factors Influencing Arrest Decision: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private, family matter to be dealt with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many DV arrests are dismissed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims do not pursue an arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrests require work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low value places on DV arrests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Revolution in Policy: Mandatory Arrest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Bruno v. Codd (1978) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scott v. Hart (1979) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- These cases mandating arrest in cases of felonious assault </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact of Arrest on Domestic Violence </li></ul><ul><li>- Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment (1981-1982) </li></ul><ul><li>- Arrest produced lower rates of repeat violence </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of Mandatory Arrest Laws and Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May discourage calls from people who only want immediate resolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both individuals in despute may be arrested </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Laws and Policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision of laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding arrest power </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Policing Vice <ul><li>“Victimless crimes” with no complaining party </li></ul><ul><li>Police must investigate on their own </li></ul><ul><li>Involves behavior that many regard as legitimate and private </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting public attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement is selective, arbitrary, and inconsistent </li></ul>
    10. 10. Prostitution <ul><li>Estimated 250,000 full time prostitutes in the nation </li></ul><ul><li>Streetwalkers: Represent the lower end of the social and economic scale of prostitution; solicits on the streets, thus is highly visible to police and the general public </li></ul><ul><li>Bar Girls : Prostitutes who work out of bars or other entertainment establishments </li></ul><ul><li>Skeezers : Women who trade sex for crack cocaine </li></ul><ul><li>Brothel Prostitutes : Work for legal brothels, illegal massage parlors and escort services </li></ul><ul><li>Call Girls : Represent the upper end of the economic scale of prostitution. They get their name because in most cases they receive telephone calls from clients and arrange to meet them at convenient locations. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Policing the Homeless <ul><li>Reactive police response addressing complainant concerns rather than addressing homelessness in general </li></ul><ul><li>Other departments transfer homeless people to shelters, treatment programs, and financial assistance services </li></ul>
    12. 12. Policing the Mentally Ill <ul><li>Estimated 7-10% of police contacts are with a mentally ill person </li></ul><ul><li>Police response to the mentally ill: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Hospitalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Informal Disposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Psychiatric first aid” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Mercy booking” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Old Problems/New Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Police-Based Specialized Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police-Based Specialized Mental Health Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental-Health-Based Specialized Mental Health Response </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Policing People with AIDS <ul><li>Police risk infection when dealing with AIDS patients </li></ul><ul><li>Result is officers become reluctant to give medical assistance so departments take other measures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wearing latex gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unofficially keep records of infected individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide HIV/AIDS-related education and training for officers </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Policing Juveniles <ul><li>High level of contact with officers </li></ul><ul><li>Young people express more negative attitudes toward police </li></ul><ul><li>Represent significant aspect of crime problem in U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversy over the police role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized Juvenile Units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-the-Street Encounters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on officer discretion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Issue of Race Discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More African American juveniles arrested than white </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime Prevention Programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D.A.R.E and G.R.E.A.T </li></ul></ul></ul>