Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Walker, Chapter 6
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Walker, Chapter 6

769

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
769
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Police in America Chapter Six Police Officers II: On the Job
  • 2. Reality Shock: Beginning Police Work
    • The astonishment a new police officer experiences during the first weeks and months on the job when encountering the unpleasant aspects of dealing with the public, the criminal justice system, and the department
  • 3. Reality Shock
    • Encountering Citizens
    • - Hostility
    • Encountering the Criminal Justice System
      • Police officers as “insiders”
      • See the reality of the system
    • Encountering the Department
      • - “Department Politics”
  • 4. Initial Assignment
    • Impact of the Seniority System
      • Officers with more experience have first priority in requesting assignments
      • Eliminates favoritism and discrimination
      • But, least experienced officers get the most difficult assignments
        • Leads to the younger officers being better qualified and trained than older officers
  • 5. The Idea of a Unique Police Subculture
    • A particular set of values, beliefs, and acceptable forms of behavior characteristic of American police
    • Original Concept
      • Group solidarity
      • Secrecy
      • “ Code of silence”
    • The Capacity to Use Force
      • No other occupation has power to take away liberty through force
    • Danger: Potential versus Actual
      • Police work has become safer in the last 20 years
    • Conflicting demands: Law versus Order
      • Pressure to bend or evade the rules to get evidence or confessions
  • 6. Code of Silence
    • Also known as the “blue curtain,” a code of honor among police officers whereby officers refuse to testify against corrupt colleagues, creating a veil of secrecy around police actions.
    • Secrecy: In this context, it is the attitude displayed by police officers to the rest of the world. Police officers keep secret the misbehaviors of other police officers.
  • 7. New Perspective on the Police Subculture
    • “ Police officers are far less unified today and far less likely to have an us-them view of civilians”
    • Herbert’s Dimensions of Police Subculture
      • The law
      • Bureaucratic control
      • Culture of “adventure/machismo”
      • Safety
      • Competence
      • Morality
  • 8. The Changing Rank and File
    • Women
    • African Americans
    • Hispanics
    • Gay & Lesbian Officers
    • Intersection of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Identity
    • Levels of Education
  • 9. Changing Rank and File: The Impact of Women Police Officers
    • Breaking up the traditional solidarity of the work group
    • Attitude of men toward women officers varied
      • Traditionals
      • Moderns
      • Moderates
    • Percentage of women among sworn officers remains around 13-14%
      • “ Glass ceiling” at entry level and in terms of promotion
    • Style of work the same as men
    • Receive fewer citizen complaints
    • Less likely to use force
    • Sexism and sexual harassment still an issue
  • 10. African-American Police
      • Different attitudes on police use of excessive force
      • More likely to support citizen oversight
      • More likely to support community policing
      • More likely to live in area where they work
      • Do not perform differently from white officers
  • 11. Hispanic/Latino Officers
    • Increasing significantly in recent years
    • Dual identities: both police officers and members of Hispanic community
    • In some departments, they are the majority
    • Minority Hispanic police officers believe they are discriminated against in salary and promotions
  • 12. Gay and Lesbian Officers
    • Gay Officer Action League (GOAL) of NYC
    • By 1992, at least 10 depts. openly recruited gay and lesbian officers
    • Choose law enforcement for the same reasons people have traditionally chosen it
    • Many experience discrimination on the job
      • Homophobic talk by other officers
      • Barriers in assignment
  • 13. The Intersection of Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Sexual Identity
    • Relationships among officers of different races, genders and ethnicities are extremely complex
    • Tension and conflict among different gender/race/ethnic groups
    • Pattern of self-segregation
      • Limited interaction between officers of different races/genders
    • “ There is no credible evidence that officers of different racial or ethnic backgrounds perform differently during interactions with citizens simply because of race or ethnicity ” – National Academy of Sciences
  • 14. Levels of Education
    • Education level of officers has been rising
    • Education generation gap between younger, better-educated officers and veteran officers with less education
    • No strong evidence that higher education leads to better performance on the street
    McGraw-Hill
  • 15. Cohort Effects and Organizational Effects on Performance
    • Cohort Effects
    • - Officers hired in one decade will have different ideas and lifestyles than officers hired in later decades
      • - Old street cop culture vs. new bureaucratic style
    • Organizational Effects
      • - The informal culture of a police organization affects officer attitudes toward certain important subjects
      • - Ex: Community Policing
  • 16. The Relationship Between Attitudes and Behavior
    • Several factors mediate the effect of attitudes on behavior:
      • 1. Police officers are constrained by police bureaucracy and the criminal justice system
      • 2. Possibility of citizen complaint or lawsuit
      • 3. Supervisors advice against prejudicial statements that are contrary to the values of the department
  • 17. Styles of Police Work
    • Active officers
      • Initiate more contacts with citizens
      • Back up officers on other calls
      • Assert control of situations
      • Make more arrests
    • Passive officers
      • Initiate few contacts with citizens
      • Respond only to calls to which they are dispatched
      • Make few traffic stops/ field interrogations / arrests
  • 18. Moving Through Police Careers
    • Salaries and Benefits
      • Fringe benefits
      • Job security
      • Salary increase through promotion
      • 68% of all municipal depts. offer incentive pay for college education
    • In-Service Training
      • Preservice academy training
      • Field training program
      • Regular in-service training
  • 19. Career Development
    • Promotion
      • Severely limited
      • Irregular intervals
      • Formal testing
    • Salaries and benefits
      • Attractive
      • Good benefits
    • Assignments to special units
      • Discretion of chief and seniority constraints
    • Lateral entry
      • The opportunity to move to other police departments is very limited.
    • Coveted assignments
      • More challenging
      • May lead to promotion
    • Outside Employment
      • Supplement incomes
  • 20. Performance Evaluations
    • Definitions not clear
    • Halo effect
    • Rating of all officers tend to cluster around one numerical level
    • Tendency to rate everyone highly
  • 21. Job Satisfaction and Job Stress
    • Job Satisfaction in policing falls into 5 Categories
      • Nature of police work
      • Organizational factors such as perceived support from leaders, relations with fellow officers, and opportunities for career advancement
      • Relations with the community
      • Relations with the media and the political establishment
      • Personal or family factors that influence a person’s job
    • Sources of Job Stress
      • Threat of danger
      • Citizen disrespect and challenge to police authority
      • Police department itself
      • For female officers, sexual harassment and sexism
      • Coping with Job Stress : many departments have programs to help officers cope with stress and other personal problems
  • 22. The Rights of Police Officers
    • Same constitutional and civil rights as other citizens
    • Protected by first amendment to belong to unpopular religious or political groups
    • Police Officer’s Bill of Rights
      • Protects officers under investigation for alleged misconduct
    • Turnover: attrition: leaving police work

×