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Walker, Chapter 5

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    • 1. Police in America Chapter Five Police Officers I: Entering Police Work
    • 2. The Changing American Police Officer
      • More female, African American, and Hispanic officers compared to 40 years ago
      • Many college educated or hold masters’ degrees
      • Openly gay and lesbian officers
    • 3. Aspects of the Personnel Process
      • A Career Perspective
        • Many departments have personnel problems because:
          • 1. Don’t train recruits properly
          • 2. Don’t supervise officer adequately
          • 3. Poor evaluation systems
          • 4. Failure to discipline
          • 5. Failure to provide career opportunities
          • 6. Don’t promote the best officers
    • 4. Beyond Stereotypes of Cops
      • Stereotypes can be either positive or negative
        • Positive: Heroic saints, risking their lives
        • Negative: Uneducated, untrained, prejudiced, brutal or corrupt
      • These stereotypes can discourage women from becoming police officers
    • 5. The Personnel Process: A Shared Responsibility
      • Shared with other governmental agencies (civil service system)
      • Attracting a pool of applicants:
        • Minimum qualifications
        • The recruitment effort
        • Applicant’s motivations to apply
    • 6. Recruitment
      • Minimum Qualifications
        • Most departments - 21 years of age
        • Height and Weight
        • Education
          • 63% high school diploma
          • 37.1% require some college
          • 4.8% require four-year degree
          • Educational incentive pay
      • Criminal record
        • No felony—Drug offenses major problem
        • Misdemeanor?
      • Residency
        • About 25% of departments require living within the city limits
    • 7. Choosing Law Enforcement as a Career
      • Applicants motivations
        • - Help people - Job security
        • - Fight crime - Excitement
        • - Prestige
      • Barriers to recruitment
        • Negative image of officers
        • Traditionally male occupations
    • 8. Selecting Officers from the Recruit Pool
      • Selection tests
        • Oral interviews
        • Written and medical exams
      • Background Investigations
        • Previous employment, possible criminal record, interviews with neighbors
        • Educational background, financial status, home visit
    • 9. Screening Methods Used by Local Police Depts. (2003)
      • Method % Dept Using
      • Personal interview 98
      • Criminal record check 99
      • Background investigation 98
      • Driving record check 96
      • Medical exam 85
      • Psychological screen 67
      • Drug test 73
      • Written aptitude test 43
      • Physical agility test 50
      • Polygraph exam 25
    • 10. Predicting Police Officer Performance
      • The difficulty of predicting good police performance:
        • Screening Methods
        • Measuring Police Performance
        • Screening Efforts vs. Actual Job Performance
    • 11. Equal Employment Opportunity
      • Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act
        • Race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
        • Protected class
      • 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Act
      • 1990 Americans With Disabilities Act
      • Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
    • 12. “ Not Your Father’s Police Department”: Diversity in Policing
      • Employment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities
        • Reflect the composition of the community it serves
      • Hispanic and Latino officers
        • Fastest growing population
        • Spanish-speaking officers recruited
      • Women
        • More seriously underrepresented than racial or ethnic minorities
        • Concentrated in lower ranks
      • Gay and Lesbian officers
        • Increasingly open over the last 20 years
      • African American Officers
        • Previously underrepresented in the police force
        • Employment discrimination litigation has helped to increase number of African American officers in the police force
    • 13. Achieving Diversity in Police Employment
      • U.S. Supreme Court held that diversity is a “compelling state of interest”
      • Three basic goals
        • Ensure employer is not discriminating
        • Improve police service
        • Improve image of police department
      • Employment Discrimination Suits
      • Controversy over affirmative action
      • The question of quotas
        • Reverse discrimination
    • 14. The Police Academy
      • Provides formal training
        • Preservice training
      • Process for weeding out unqualified recruits
        • Field training
      • Rite of passage that socializes recruits
      • State training and certification
    • 15. Training
      • Police Academy
        • Big departments have own academy
        • Small departments use state-run academies
      • Field training
        • FTO program
        • 2/3 of departments use this process
    • 16. State Training and Certification
      • Every state has some form of mandated pre-service training for certification
      • State-required content of training
      • Decertification
      • Shortcomings of current police training:
        • Don’t cover important subjects like discretion and ethics
        • Preservice training not adequate
        • Classroom training alone is not adequate
    • 17. The Probationary Period
      • Can range to six months to two years after being sworn in as an officer
      • Officer can be dismissed without cause during this period
        • Rules for this process determined by local civil service regulations
      • Average of 7 percent of all recruits dismissed during this period

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