Walker, Chapter 5

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  • Walker, Chapter 5

    1. 1. Police in America Chapter Five Police Officers I: Entering Police Work
    2. 2. The Changing American Police Officer <ul><li>More female, African American, and Hispanic officers compared to 40 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>Many college educated or hold masters’ degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Openly gay and lesbian officers </li></ul>
    3. 3. Aspects of the Personnel Process <ul><li>A Career Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many departments have personnel problems because: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Don’t train recruits properly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Don’t supervise officer adequately </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Poor evaluation systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Failure to discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Failure to provide career opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6. Don’t promote the best officers </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Beyond Stereotypes of Cops <ul><li>Stereotypes can be either positive or negative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive: Heroic saints, risking their lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative: Uneducated, untrained, prejudiced, brutal or corrupt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These stereotypes can discourage women from becoming police officers </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Personnel Process: A Shared Responsibility <ul><li>Shared with other governmental agencies (civil service system) </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting a pool of applicants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum qualifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The recruitment effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicant’s motivations to apply </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Recruitment <ul><li>Minimum Qualifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most departments - 21 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Height and Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>63% high school diploma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>37.1% require some college </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.8% require four-year degree </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational incentive pay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Criminal record </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No felony—Drug offenses major problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misdemeanor? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Residency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 25% of departments require living within the city limits </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Choosing Law Enforcement as a Career <ul><li>Applicants motivations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Help people - Job security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Fight crime - Excitement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Prestige </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Barriers to recruitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative image of officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally male occupations </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Selecting Officers from the Recruit Pool <ul><li>Selection tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written and medical exams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Background Investigations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous employment, possible criminal record, interviews with neighbors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational background, financial status, home visit </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Screening Methods Used by Local Police Depts. (2003) <ul><li>Method % Dept Using </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interview 98 </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal record check 99 </li></ul><ul><li>Background investigation 98 </li></ul><ul><li>Driving record check 96 </li></ul><ul><li>Medical exam 85 </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological screen 67 </li></ul><ul><li>Drug test 73 </li></ul><ul><li>Written aptitude test 43 </li></ul><ul><li>Physical agility test 50 </li></ul><ul><li>Polygraph exam 25 </li></ul>
    10. 10. Predicting Police Officer Performance <ul><li>The difficulty of predicting good police performance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring Police Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screening Efforts vs. Actual Job Performance </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Equal Employment Opportunity <ul><li>Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Race, color, religion, sex, or national origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1972 Equal Employment Opportunity Act </li></ul><ul><li>1990 Americans With Disabilities Act </li></ul><ul><li>Bona Fide Occupational Qualification </li></ul>
    12. 12. “ Not Your Father’s Police Department”: Diversity in Policing <ul><li>Employment of Racial and Ethnic Minorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect the composition of the community it serves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hispanic and Latino officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fastest growing population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish-speaking officers recruited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More seriously underrepresented than racial or ethnic minorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrated in lower ranks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gay and Lesbian officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasingly open over the last 20 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>African American Officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Previously underrepresented in the police force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment discrimination litigation has helped to increase number of African American officers in the police force </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Achieving Diversity in Police Employment <ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court held that diversity is a “compelling state of interest” </li></ul><ul><li>Three basic goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure employer is not discriminating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve police service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve image of police department </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Employment Discrimination Suits </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy over affirmative action </li></ul><ul><li>The question of quotas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse discrimination </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. The Police Academy <ul><li>Provides formal training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservice training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process for weeding out unqualified recruits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rite of passage that socializes recruits </li></ul><ul><li>State training and certification </li></ul>
    15. 15. Training <ul><li>Police Academy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big departments have own academy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small departments use state-run academies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Field training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FTO program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2/3 of departments use this process </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. State Training and Certification <ul><li>Every state has some form of mandated pre-service training for certification </li></ul><ul><li>State-required content of training </li></ul><ul><li>Decertification </li></ul><ul><li>Shortcomings of current police training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t cover important subjects like discretion and ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservice training not adequate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom training alone is not adequate </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. The Probationary Period <ul><li>Can range to six months to two years after being sworn in as an officer </li></ul><ul><li>Officer can be dismissed without cause during this period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules for this process determined by local civil service regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Average of 7 percent of all recruits dismissed during this period </li></ul>

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