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  • 1. Police in America Chapter Four Police Organizations
  • 2. Quasi-Military Style of Police Organizations
    • Officers wear uniforms
    • Military-style rank designations
    • Hierarchical command structure
    • Authoritarian organizational style
    • Legal authority to use deadly force and carry weapons
    • Criticisms:
      • Cultivates an “us versus them” attitude
      • Encourages the idea of a “war on crime”
      • Authoritarian style contrary to democratic principles and produces low morale
      • Rigid structure leaves room for job dissatisfaction
  • 3. Police Departments as Organizations
    • Dominant style is as a complex bureaucracy
    • Characterized by:
      • 1. Complex organizations
      • 2. Tasks assigned to “bureaus”
      • 3. Hierarchy and clear division of labor
      • 4. Responsibility for specific tasks delegated to lower-ranking employees
      • 5. Clear chain of command
      • 6. Clear unity of command
      • 7. Written rules and regulations
      • 8. Flow of info according to chain of command
      • 9. Clear career paths
  • 4. Pros and Cons of Bureaucracy in Policing
    • Rigid, inflexible, and unable to adapt to
    • external changes
    • Communication within the organization often breaks down
    • Tend to be inward looking, self-serving, and isolated from the people they serve
    • Are accused of not using the talents of their employees and even stifling creativity
    The Problems The Positives
    • Capacity to coordinate many activities at once through specialization of departments
    • Control of police discretion
    • Reduction of misconduct
    • Administrative rule making
    • Informal Aspects
      • Horizontal and vertical cliques
  • 5. Bureaucracy and Police Professionalism
    • Professionalism challenged by the bureaucratic nature of policing
    • Professional departments adopted a “by the book” approach to policing
    • The bureaucracy imposes formal controls over the behavior of police officers
  • 6. Changing Police Organizations
    • Community Policing
      • Decentralizes decision making (territorial and administrative)
    • Task Forces
      • Officers from different ranks based on talents
    • Creating Learning organizations
      • Think about needs, plan and implement change, and learn from achievements and failures
  • 7. Community Policing
    • Community policing attempts to modify the police organization through de-bureaucratization.
      • 1. decentralize
      • 2. deformalize
      • 3. despecialize
      • 4. delayerize
  • 8. COMPSTAT: Computer Comparison Statistics
    • Clarifies the department’s mission, goals, and values
    • Holds managers accountable
    • Organizational power and authority transferred to commanders who are responsible for geographic areas
    • Resources are transferred to commanders.
    • Data used to identify problems and to evaluate success and failure.
    • Middle managers expected to use innovative problem-solving tactics
  • 9. Civil Service
    • Formal and legally binding procedures governing personnel decisions
    • Nearly universal
    • Purpose: to ensure personnel make decisions objectively
    • Reinforces the hierarchy of police depts.
      • Rewards hierarchy - Status hierarchy
      • Seniority hierarchy - Rank hierarchy
  • 10. Police Unions
    • Majority of police officers represented by unions
    • Three major police unions:
      • 1. Fraternal Order of Police
      • 2. International Union of Police Associations
      • 3. Teamsters Law Enforcement League
  • 11. Police Unions Continued
    • Collective Bargaining
      • “The method of determining conditions of employment through bilateral negotiations”
    • Grievance Procedures
      • Provides due process to employees
    • Unions and Shared Governance
    • Impasse Settlement and Strikes
    • Impact of Police Unions
      • Improvements in salaries and benefits
  • 12. Police Organizations and Their Environment
    • Contingency Theory
      • Organizations are structured to achieve specific goals (crime control)
    • Institutional Theory
      • Organizations operate in relation to their external social and political environment
    • Resource Dependency Theory
      • Organizations must obtain resources to survive